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Full text of "Literature"

/I 



-L 




Edited by 







m 



Published by 

5" he aimrt 



VOL. II. 



JANUARY 8 TO JULY 2, 1898. 



■qi 



LONDON: 
PRINTED AND PUBLISHED BY GEORGE EDWARD WRIGHT. 
AT THE TIMES OFFICE, PRINTING HOUSE SQUARE. 

1806. 



Edited by 




Published by 



No. 12. SATUBDAV. JANLAUV s, ISftS. 



CONTENTS. 



heading Article Tin' AU-PcrviKlinprCclt 

"'Among my Books," l>y "John Oliver Hobbes" .... 
Vleviews - 

Iiulustriiil Deinocnvcy , 

Fi'oin Tonkin to Iiiilia 

Till- (^"onstitution of th«> United Stntos 

I^cturos anil Ucniiiins of Richard Lewis Nettleship..., 

White Man's Africa 

Our C'hurrlu's and Why We Belong to Them 

Lltepapy - 

A Dictioi\ary of Enp;liNh Authors 

A Handbooli of HnKlish Literature 

Victoi-ian Literature 

Selected Poems of Manpin ....„ 

'Life and Writings of Mangan 

«tyle 

Englisli Mas(|U08 

Biography— 

Mr. (iladstone's Life from Piinrh 

.lohn Arthur Roebuck 

Kirkcaldy of Grange 

Mllltapy 

The Benin Massacre 

The War of Greek Independence 

Gennan Hooks on the (ircco-Turkish War 

Fiotlon— 

His Grace of Osmonde 

The Pomp of the I^jivilettes 

A Unndful iif Silver -Tlio Hnppjr Rxilo— Skotchm from Old 

Viriiiniu-('iipiil'>< (ianlon— The Iron Cross 18, 

At the Bookstall 

Old Books in 1897 

American Book Sales of 1897 

.American Letter 

Foreign Letters —France 

Coppeapondonoe— Tennyson's Last I'ocm (Mr. Edmund Oowct 
t'lmrk'H I.j>inb and Kent.-i (Canon Ainncr)- American Hlslorloii 
(Mr. H. II. Stiirnipr)— Kenan and Mark I^ttlson (Mr. Lionel 
Ti>lli'inaclic)-Hio)rn\phj- 23, 

Obituary— Sir Eklward Augxistus Bond 

Notes a, 28, 27, 28, 20, »). 

List of Nevr Books and Reprints 



AOK 

1 
W 

•A 
4 



7 
.S 

S) 

)l 
il 

10 
10 

11 
11 

12 
12 
13 

It 
11 
15 

17 
17 

m 

10 
20 
20 
21 
22 



24 
24 
31 
32 



till- 



iM'\ ali'it'c 



iWl< >l IM'I 



I.lMllOU, 



.-.,„ 



THE ALL-PERVADING CELT. 



A few weeks afjo, we noted, n.s amons; the mi.«chievou!5 

Mise(|uences of that extravatjance of lanilation which passes 

lowadays for critici.sm, that it had hecome extremely diffi- 

ult for the serious critic to deal fairly with many authors of 

.oal merit. When every word even of well-earned praise 

must necessarily go to swell a chorus of exaggerated eulogy. 

which is far too loud already, the temptation to stint the 

nerprai.^ed writer of his due becomes very strong. This 

inbarrassment, moreover, is sometimes gravely complicated 

A'oL. II. Xo. 1. 



foolish, and even more fantastic — that, namely, of tracing 
literary genius to racial origin, and constructing elnbonit* 
jiseudo-Rcientific theories as to the general inflnenco of 
such origin on the national literature at large. When the 
fa.shion is at its height to bestow legitimate praise u|N)n a 
meritorious writer is to lend a helping hand, not only to 
the organizers of a " boom," but to the fanaticn of a 
" craze." The history of the so-called Celtic Itenaissance 
supplies a case in point. Within the last few years the 
attention of the critical has been arrested by several new 
writers of Celtic origin, who have found their chief 
material in Celtic poetry and legend. These they liave 
handled with a force and beauty which has been generally 
recogniziKl by all c.ipable critics, and nothing wag really 
wanting to their just and ample appnn-iation except tiiat 
the fanatical race-theorist shoidd leave them — and us — 
alone. But this, of course, is exactly what the fan.itical 
race-theorist declines tn do. He has seized u{x>n their 
productions as so many triumphantly significant sprouts 
from his ahsunl genealogical tree ; and it is now becoming 
difficult to do justice to the high imaginative power and 
true i>oetic gift of writers like Miss Fiona Macleod or Mr. 
W. B. Yeats without indirectly encourage lem 

of the preposterous doctrine that all, orni— ._ _ ...L i.* 

best in English literature has been due to an unsuspected 
infusion of Celtic blood. It is not. indeed, d<' 'ous 

reputed Saxons have left b«'hind them a c ' of 

more or less memorable literary work ; but an examination 
of their ju'digree will always, we are assured, rc^ 
presence of a Celtic strain. And it was the C^'lt ii 
that did it — the Celt whose peculiar cliaracteristic it thiu 
seems to be to prodtice immortal jKietry and ]> ' by 

himself, but exclusively by Saxon jiroxy. Oc v, it 

is true, we are summoned with much flourishing of trumpet« 
to admire the original work of some f ' fe<l 

Celt. These remarks, in fact. ha\i i by 

an occftsion of this kind — the publication, within a short 
inter%al of each other, of a " Life " and of a v^' 
" Selectetl Poems " of Clarence .Mangan. Tht - 
we review, to-day in another column. But of the con- 
tents of the latter, let it suffice to say C '. " 
not without scattered traces of jioetic jwwer. 
no sort of justification for the rhap«iodies of the baid's 
admirers. 

A well-known author once wrote a newspaper letter 
to prove that all men were equal. The thesis wa« not 
exactly new, but the rea.«!oning that supjwrted it was of a 
dewy and priujal originality. " It may be said " (so argued 
in effect the writer of the letter) " that it is impossible 



LITERATURE. 



[.Tnminry 8, 1898. 



that It would be the o\' tn pn 

equn' ' ' " * "^ " •• . . h.pi a -iioplu-nl. ;■... 

]fl II- How luts tli«' slH'iilifrd 

tniitied his (lay 'f He i 1y «iiiui<-iv(l over tlic hills, 

n^rrtl ' ■' — ' ' •••i" "i the inumitAins delighted 
vitl, ' in it« shi'iter, ninnxed at the high 

mgeantry of the rioudf:. looking nil the dny nt theiMfwige 
t.f till* 'W\, j>icni-:'v • • '•••u' hi» liiml K from time to timei 
,.„j,,viii:: t;.. :i .; nml youthful mirth. In the 

eveniug he Itss »eeu the early utare chining, he han lift«l 
npbi» heart to God in gratitude for His niercies and for 
the splendid tqieetm-le of the I'nivi-nse. Wliat more ha« 
WofxiMiorth ' Itorex]" .■ aaks our author ; 

 ' • M< h<- <!<•. ' ■" - ■■• lias not done ? A 

'u; an in< ^ that cannot weigh in 

till- ji; ii:ii • lit. He has ouiy written an C)de on the Inti- 

iii:in.i,~ .■: 1 '•■'ity l)ccause he hapiK»ns to jwasefs 

til.- III. itlv u.. it giftof exjirejijiion." 

Sun»ly at the Invention of the Celtic Itenaissance 
there was a i." '' when so )ikill<Hi a pleader 

as this was • , ' the imaginary tilM'pherd 

of the newgpai>er letter is a perfect tjrjie of the feigned 
r  thing wi " ' !!ig in English 

i . .  . assume, - iirf and dream 

dmuns, and both suffer from the same trifling disadvan- 
tage ..-..!-. .1 jjyj^ ^j- poijpjp^ if we 

a^iv - l>een outlined ahove, 

the .Saxon should yield the prize to the Celt on the ground 
f ' '  ' !•; not actually said anything, yot he has 
t' le, and is s^o much the l)etter man. 

Eren tliat would be more rational than the astounding 



J I .... ,. .. 1 jjjjj Qjjjy dreamed every 

t ..; too. For, what are 

the plain facts of the question ? First, and chiefly, it is 
n"  ' . •' • V man of pure Celtic Mood has 

1- .'ce of the highest order in 

English litemture ; whatever the Celt may have done he 
haa II ^ '' ' ••'''■ < 'anterhury Tale.s" 

«Hn^ . I {neon's " Kssays," 

Bo»veirs " Johnson," " tiullivers Travels," " Tristram 
Shandy." "T ' - " "Pickwick." "Vanity Fair" 
WCTw all invei,: "ncil by Englishmen, by Saxon 

•nd Xonnan. and liaiie, it may be, but not by Gael nor 

|. '• "■ '- Mwl SpcT 1 B<.n .Tonson. 

I' .ind V 1, Keat.-i and 

Tmnyi>on, «'ol<Tidge the king of •• glamour " (sometimes 

>i ' ' •' -' -' - -  '■ ■'■■ • --.n). and hosts 

>■■ .it lia|ilm/nr(l, 

bat it shows coi how small a debt we owe to 

Ir  -  • " - " ' . nr to W:des. And if 

V .to whom somctiiiies 

we give love tlian to the highest Immortals, 

the nindt »iM i . j.retty much the same. I^et the liillmen 
jmt t'(«*ir HTri'k on the board. How many of the 
I !t»; where is the Erse Pejtyg? 

Aim »iim i» wfiiiiij riuii.i.y figure Tom Moore apjiears 
when one compares him with ISums ! Ixml Lytton 
by no mean* of celestial race, but have the 



- or the bogs pnnluced anything so fine as " The 

: launtcrs and the Hatinted," or anything at all aiiproadi- 
 iig tin* excflleuce of that little mn.^terpiece ? Indeeil, tlic 
Isle of Man has lately given us fiction, but one hliould 
8|n-ak nothing hut gooti of the living. The pure Celt Ii'i.< 
done nothing of the best in English literature, and 
extremely little of the second best. In the highest place 
of all his name is never uttered ; two or three of tiie 
fiiinily take a low jdace at the second table. If every 
syllable written by men of undoubted and undiluted Celtic 
blixxl were to vanish to-morrow from our literature, tin'- 
achievement of Engln".' u.."!.! remain splendid and 
illustrious as ever. 

If, then, the pure Celt is never found among the 
Immortals and rarely among the Heroes, what bd-omcs 
of the theory which allows merit to " Hamlet," " Kulila 
Khan," and " The Scarlet I^etter," and then debits the 
merit to an imaginary strain of Celtic blood in tlio 
authors ? The pure stream has lK*en proved insipid ; how^ 
then, should it gain flavour by dilution ? Even an Irish- 
man would not try to strengthen weak whisky by adding 
water to it. It would l)e much more jilausible to contend 
that such small merit as may be discovered in Celtic w ork is 
due to a faint trace of non-Celtic ancestry. This, of course,. 
is not to maintain that an admixture of Celtic blo<id 
absolutely bars the way to all literary achievement. In 
the most sacred canon only English names are written,, 
bnt one might jierliaps compile a respectable list of men 
of mixed race who have done well amongst the second best. 
Foe's ancestor emigrated from Ireland, and it is possible 
that the family had intermarried with tlie true Irish — it i.s 
possible that a Celtic strain may stand for something in 
the account of the occasionally admirable, if often unciiiial, 
work that I'oe accomplished. It is absurd to ])rctend that 
the Celt is everything, hut we would not contend that he- 
has done absolutely nothing. The original Arthurian legend 
was feeble enough certainly when it i.ssued from Wales, 
for it lai-ked CJuinevere and I.rfincelot, and the San Graal, 
and yet this rude story of a Hritish chieftain and hi.>i 
Saxon wars became in the hands of Englishmen and 
Northmen the supreme and Koyal book of the Morte 
d'Artiiur. Arthur came to us in a coarse homespun rolM>, 
and we have clothed him in w hite samite, mystic, won- 
derful ; the rough terminal stone has become the ]\Iarble; 
Faun. 

It is to be iniderstood, of course, that we have only 
diflcuMied the Celt as he api)ears in English literature. 
Hidden away in his native 1 • there may lie epies 

better than the Odyssey, r more enchanted than 

Don Quixote, high comedies that surpass Pantagrucl. Kut 
Homer nn<l Cervantes and Haln-lais have Ix'en translated, 
while the Celt, reiiiembering, j)eriiaps, the tale of O.ssian, 
baa conc(>ale<l his masterpieces. We have not yet seen that 
" velvet suit" concerning which Dr. .Johnson once 8j)oke a 
parablt>. And it may be that the Turanian races, the 
peoples that were akin to Ilabylon, that great city, the 
nations that the Celts sulnluefl, were in truth the in- 
ventors of Celtic "glamour"; from their secret hoards, 
Iierhaps, the fiiiry gold was stolen by the Conqueror. But 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



liowcver that may chance to be, our KngliHli Imriiortalti 
liold tlii'ir session on white thrones for ever, iinvnnquifihed, 

rliMiiiiltv iMdvvned, 



IRcvicvvs, 



Industrial Democracjr. Ity Sidney iiml Beatrice 
Webb. 2 Vols. ().^5j{in., xxix. lUiS) |i|). I/oiulun, Ni-w York, 
.Mini lioinhiiy, 1807. Long^nans. 26;'- n. 

The two volumes of " Industrial Democracy " complete 
the laborious examination of trade unions, which Mr. and 
jVIrs. Sidney Webb have carried on for some half-<lozen 
years. There is no <iuestion as to the excellence of tiie 
new work, in which an attempt is made to describe the 
inner life of trade unions, to trace their develo|)ment, and 
to predict their future. "Industrial Demoi-racy '' and 
*' Tlie History of Tnule Unionism " are examples of an 
order of literature in which Sociology is jxwr; facts 
collected with as much care as a naturalist would show in 
exploriiifjf the flora and fauna of a new rejjion; statements 
of importance maile at first hand ; chapter and verse as a 
rule given for the authors' assertions ; and from time to 
time admissions making against their conclusions. 

Tlicy complain that little encouragement and aid are 
given by wealthy men or the community to systematic 
iiuiuiries into the many unsolved social problems of 
interest to our time. " At present in London, the wealth- 
iest city in the world, and the bestof all fields forsociological 
investigation, the sum total of the endowanents for this 
purpose does not reach £100 a year." It is suggested that 
definite inquiries by competent investigators, supplied 
with tlie re(juisite funds, should be set on foot. We have 
oiu- doubts about the value of such a suggestion. .\ 
I.ie Play, or, we may add, a Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Webli, 
are not to be procured by providing out-of-jxxiket expenses. 
15ut such investigators could take no better model than 
some of the cha] iters of" Industrial Democnicv," and would 
do well to meditate on the jtractical hints given at jiiiges 
X. and xi. of the preface. 

The authors have much to tell about trade unionism 
that is new. They show how, from a state of "primi- 
tive dcTnocracy," like that of the citizens of Uri or 
Apponzoll, every member taking part on a footing 
of e<|uality in the government of the union, has been 
evolved an organization more complete and better suited 
to the functions of unionism. The mass meeting is 
replaced by the meeting of delegates witli sjK'cial 
and limited authority. The referendum is adopted — 
there is a direct apjieal to the whole body of memliers. 
I'ut the rt'/erendutii, in its turn, fails, owing to "the 
inability of the ordinary man to estimate what will be the 
I'lTect of a particular jiroposal. What demo<'racy requires 
is assent to results ; what the re/ereiulum gives is assent 
to projects." A weak, unskilled committee is replaced by 
.1 highly-trained general secretary. Representative in- 
stitutions begin to appear, and unionism promises to have 
its highly-trained civil service. The autiiors' description 
of the movement towards the conception of " the .solidarity 
of each trade as a whole." the limitation of local powers, 
the forming of a strong central executive, and of a common 
purse is instructive, and, no doubt, in the main, accurate 
— the more accurate that exceptions to these tendencies 
are noted. For example, while the English and Scotch 
members of the same trade find no difficulty in " pooling" 
their interests, the Irish, for some reason, hold aloof. 



Tlte authom' "coinbinnl plan of attuiyiDir 

ftii" • ••  


documrntji 


\i< n". 


Till' chnptcnt on " 1 

"Arbitration," " Tli ._ 




Standanl I{jit«'," "The Nunnnl Dav," • 


•n and 


Safety," though written mt: ' • ■" 
and witii manv irritating i 

of 

11. 



a fair statement of tiie argumentH on l)otii 

controversies wiiich tlie Jntrodu< ti..i. 

maclunery has arouseti might study t 

Machinery and Processes." TI;' <ii> iim ovi ii.iii- 

the vahi<» of tlmir narrative wlii-i v : — 

Th -  ■■.'■■■  

tuneoii 'I 

by (ho ti.Alitioi;;> >>; ii- 

casting thiiir ponntitir n«, 

present nn > 
which the ^ 

lulniinistratu t- fiii>ii'i:ry hum |.»>|'iijar " ■'in.r'i. 

So long as Mr. and Mrs. Webb are narrators of fnHv 
which they have collected they' dong wi; 
The limitations of the book, it . . is as a - 
analysis of trade unionism are revealed when t 
cuss, as they do at ^'- ■' ' -•' " •; >■ 

underlying all the {■ 
had mastennl. 

" Industrial Democracy " hero and e)«fwhere i^ the 
theme; why should tliat be e^juivalent t 
in any of the many forms here invi. :.^... . . ... 

indigenous to Germany, it is still there a plant vith a 

doubtful future ; the (lerman Socialist workman find* the 

methods describefi in these vnlumed too slow and 

circuitous. .\i 

industry, whya- 

observed here ? The history ol the " K our " ia 

in many ways strikingly unlike that  "vion. 

That the industry of the future will 1 itic 

principles is a ■! ' ' ' ion. 1: 

defect in these h. with 

prevents them taking a place in : 

ture. The authors are at one wii 

in the hopelessness and injustice of the < 

older school of unionists that •' • '  " 

in their trades, and could ar. of 

apprentices or 

protect a pri\ 

doctrine of vested interests to lie out ot jii 

passion for j)rogress, demanding the i; , 

adaptation of social structure to social needs, has effec- 
toally undermined the as.sumpti " ' any iierson can 
have a vestivl intpre.<!t in an <> i." 

A 
projei I . 

any firm scientitic basis. We hear much of a •• 
mtmmwnt," which "will prevent anyii"'"^''-' ''■■'■' 
on under conditions detrimental to 
or, to quote :; ' 
conditions, liel 
even his n 
places in 
obscures the 

fairly and squa I. ,. «.;,. 

of collective bargaining, nol\i . is 

pi 1 inferior for ' 

h ., inent " — in y' 

meut, imposing the will of the majority of voters oa tite 

1-2 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



II. "The method of Ifpnl . it i», in fact, 

eoooomitmlly the mott ~ wny uf enforcini; nil 

i>Mrti!nii 111- iinx<al III) till' - ' li\iii" wajje." "The 

i: o with tion will, in 

I. ' '■•ul to iL< 

f .n — that 

eiliation and Arbitjation Act, of which the ilon. .Mr. 
p.-.v... .. ii,.. ^«trpnt. Now, to come down to ]»jirticulftrs, 

li of " Industrial Democracy " projwse that. 

haviUj4 uxeu U])on a * il minim . stvietv shnll 

fine each worknmTi '•e« to ti ? .\iidifa 

vorkman doei^ ' . ix lif to ^uto jirison? Is 

Uie national ti> l*<^ a "pioiis opinion," or 

an enactment the is ]iuni!<hahle in the 

same manner a* m. ...i<..v. ....... r the l.,arceny Act? 

Towards the close of the hook is a |)a:>.sai;o. not very 
li.   •■.■•■ iml_ 

!■ i in- 

dividual i 111 n (|Uei<tion, we arc told, of defi- 

i.itioii. .. , -i is about the opposite of the 

ing. .Statues of Liberty ui«ed to be put over 

ns ; those who doubted their 

V .'it it was all a question of the 

j • '^ure WHS looked at — from 

"'■ 1 > nose who do not choose to 

(all in with the union°:« programme as " parasitic coini)eti- 
tors " is to revive an old nickname ; it does not help us 
much in considerinR whether such a limitation of freedom 
is justifiable. 

These are not the only qne«tions slurred over. It is 
not enoui;h to nj^'prtniii wli.i' i'lns are re<|uisite for 

).<^.iUliy toil, and what is : st remuneration with 

it is |toiii>ible to lead a rational life. There remains 
:'•>-< ion. Wlint is practicable ? Under the present 
 i. i! -\ -t'-:!i. faulty though it is, wajes have risen, 
ii I branche.s of 

Ji. has not ex- 

tended, 'i'his lias been iiecause wt>aith has 



iii..r«»fl4#s!. The renih 
r proof I 



i. 



-i 



ial Democracy " will 



: \en that the boons which the 
1^ to receive will be iK)ssihle if 



t 1 of the nmchiiiery of production. 

' ilwur," it is said, 
I is conclusive, if 
true. But the aKsertion is unveriried. We are not 
shown that it is true. The theory of the wages fund, as 
in prwod not for the firht time in these volumes, was 
nnxraeoas. Bat a more mischievous d ' i- the notion 

tliat there can be a irrent increase  t all round 

witiiout any incre,- i> of the 

i-\i-?inr' inoti\eH t iiawn or 

in all ty under the system here 

*' •■ .1 ... ..-,.■■: ffj, pxceptional 

V. I'd ; thev wnuld 

». 
1. 



|)erp«>tually 

-. ..;■. Hut they 

tlian Mr, Sidney Webb that such 

' old motives to labour were 

not confinwl <<» " Industrial 

;id, may 

.'•re iier- 

' s<>e that it was well 

i...»i .... ».i... made wiser and more 

from evil (wssions ; the whole 



would l>e right if the j»arts were sound. It is a 
c! 'icof much modem sociological lit<>rature to 

tjii iiiwsite course, and to assunif that the manipu- 

lation or arrangement of the units is all imiwirUvnt — 
that given certain modes of " collective bargaining," or 
more " legal enactments," all else will be added. We 
own to a i>ri'rerence for the older view. It is a weakness 
in this book that nowhere is there a word, clear, direct, and 
adequate, to the individual workers lus to their duties in 
the " Industrial Democracy" of the future. Its authors 
have a way of speaking of the wage earners which reminds 
one of the language used under the ..4 ncien Rfgime to- 
wards the noblesse. 

The jurist will profit by these volumes. Hut he will 
have some slight causes of coinj)laint. Much is said us to 
" collective bargaining." The phrase covers several forms 
of agreements. It is a pity Mr. and Mrs. Webb did not 
attempt to catalogue accurately all such forms. There 
are also references, vague for the most part, to a I..abour 
Code. The i)hrase has a precise meaning, and we should 
have been glad to know the authors' opinions on many of 
the questions discussed by Professor .Menger with refer- 
ence to the articles, in the new German Code affecting 
labour, A word of praise is due to the admirable biblio- 
graphy appended to the second volume. 

Prom Tonkin to India, by the Sources of tlit- Irawndi. 
.laniiarv, ia>.V.Ianuar}-, l.siw. Hv Prince Henri d'0rl6ans. 
TninsliiUKl liy Haiiiley IJenI, M.A. Illu.sd'atc.l 1)V (i. Viiilli.i'. 
With a Map and (ieo^niiiliical Apix'udix liy kiiiili- |{<mx. 
En.sci^^iu- (Ic V.'iissi'nii, and over (J() Illii>itrati(nis, and an Index, 
lOi ^ Tiin., WTi jip. London, l.SOS. Methueu. 26/, 

The narrative of Prince Henri's remarkable journey 
from the Kwl Kiver to the Brahinaimtra, by way of 
Manliao, Suin.ao, Tali, Tseku, and the country of the 
Kamti Shans, is now presente«i to the world in an 
attractive book, which, to students of that part of Asia, 
will prove of considerable interest and no little value. 

The journey consisted of six natural stages, to each 
of which a chapter is devoted. The first gives a chatty 
description of the conditions of travel in .Southern China, 
The second stage, from Manhao to .Sumac, was through 
little known country, and this chapter contains some 
valuable observations on the people of the district, 
Ik-sides some interesting remarks on the I.,ollos, who are 
known to all readers of travel from Collwume Palier's 
charming writings, the author gives particulars of a 
number of the hill tribes among whom he passed. The 
more civilized of the^e ix,'Oi)le are generally relateil to the 
I>ao or Shan tribes of the old ."^ibsawng Punna .*>tates and 
to tlie Tai races, which are found all over Indo-China, 
Although difi'ering somewhat in dress and langti<ige, they 
all have the general Tai or .Shan characteristics. Among 
them, on the higher and less accessible hill ranges, are 
found the less civilized tribes, known generally to the 
Tai races as Ka, or slaves — a title api)lied indiscriminately 
to all the wilder semi-Chinese and aboriginal tribes whom 
they consider less civilizwl than themselves. While the 
Tai have mostly adopted Buddhism in a more or less 
atlulteratitl form, the Kas are more impre,«8efl with the 
necessities of the present than with the possibilities of 
the future ; thus their chief care is to a]>pease any 
is>ssibly ill-inU'utioned evil spirits, and for the rest 
they do not worry themselves greatly. As may be 
sup))osed, among these jn'oples, divided from one 
another .is they are by deep gorges and high 
mountain iiasse?, there is a great variety of local 
manners and customs, and probably no f)ortion of the 
earth is more worthy of the study of those interested in 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



anthropological resenrch. Prince IlonriV obsen-ationii 

were n(H»>sHurily hurried, for the fxigcncicH of fnivcl diil 
not )KTinit of loiij^ ImltH. He also laboured under ^n-at 
ditticultics in the most iiniM)rtnnt particular of iiiter))rcta- 
<ion, and, fons('(|ucntly, the nio.st valuable j>art of this 
chapter lies in his de.scription of what hiw own eyes enabled 
him to note for himself. The dewcription of the march up 
the Me Kawng valley to Tali contjiins a capital deHcrij)tion 
in Prince Henri's best styh' of the evening entertainments 
among the Shans inhabiting the river l)ank, as well as 
observations on this jiart of .Sle Kawng's course, which are 
very valuable. It is needless to say that the river is even 
less navigable here than below the 22nd i«irallel, and the 
population is as poor and as s]>arse. 

After a dcscrijition of Tali Fu, tlie author gives an 
account of the joiirney from Tali to Tseku, during which 
his jiarty had to contend with the greatest dillicidties, and 
completed the most valuable portion of their geographical 
work on the Me Kawng. On reaching the Me Kawng, or 
Lan-Tsan-Kiang, after leaving Tali, they crossed it in 
about }M. 25 53', and then marched over to the Salwin, 
or Lu Kiang. which is at this point described as dirtv 
gray in colour and l.GOO feet below the level of the Me 
Kawng. The impression dcri\ed by the party was 
" of a large river coming from far." There are some 
interesting notes on the Lissus, and it is curious 
to find mention of the bamboo Jew's-harp which 
is [)layed by the .Muhsos six degrees further south. 
The jiarty reached Tsoku two months after leaving Tali, 
having often had to make their roads as they marched. 
They had now reached the borders of Tibet, and had 
aocomplisbed the exploration of the Me Kawng for which 
they had set out. North of this point the river is more 
or less known, thanks to Cooper's journey and the 
laliours of the Kroncli .Missionaries. 

With characteristic daring Prince Henri on the return 
journey chose the least known route across the head 
waters of the Irawadi westward to Assam. The two 
chajiters describing the return are less vahiable geo- 
graphically than the earlier ones. Owing to the 
excessive difficulties of transport and conunissariat 
the party had to travel at great speed, and the severe 
weather addeil greatly to their hardships. The mules 
they had been fortunate enough to bring beyond the 
Salwin had to be sent back, and the loads had to be 
carried entirely by pack men in the manner adojitcd in 
difficult country throughout Indo-China, in which there 
are after all many advantages. The author gives such 
information as he was well able to acquire about the Lutses 
and other Kas of the hills, but passes over the Salwin 
with very few words. No particulars are given of the 
depth, width, or sjjeed of the stream at this jwint. A 
fortnight later the party crossed another large torrent, the 
Kiu Kiang, one of the headstreams, jiresumably, of the 
I\Ie Ka or eastern tribut^iry of the Irawadi. Tlie author 
describes it as 50 yards broad with traces of a rise of 40 
feet in flood, and says that the valley which they threaded 
for many days " gave an impression of greater size " than 
that of the .Me Kawng. A few days later another river 
which " rolled a strong head of water tumultuously over 
shingle bars " was crossed, and later on another described bv 
the author as "one of the princi{)al feeders of the In-iwadi." 
" Like the Kiu Kiang," says the Prince, " it did not come 
from far, but it brought a considerable body of water." The 
observations on these streams, and the others crossed 
before entering the plain of Kamti,are meagre, and do not 
add materially to our knowledge of the origin of the 
Salwin or of the eastern head waters of the Irawadi. 



Tliey confirm in a general manner the map pi 

with Ma< ' : in Ihh' 

lioyol <i. . in Ih 

the ](■ II HI ufif amun^ the ka Nungn and 

Ka Ki • Iw. 

The laitt chapter u naturally taken ap witli the ftory 
of the difficultieg encounti-red. 'I' ' ' ' ' 

Kamti have In^-n much more . 
\V, 

seem to have ac(juired some new and 
in the last ten years. They treattil i 
and di8playe<! extreme avarice, in to 

Colonel Woodi! " i. i;ui 

one of the uu' meter; 

extortion is dear to the 
opjMirtunity ociurs. Like ot , 

China, the Prince is a little inclined to overdo the Koyaity 
of the Sawbwa or Itaja of the little St* '^' ' ro'r 
estimates its ]>opulation at little over 1 he 

styles him " King," "Monarch," an<l the 
unnecessary freijuency. The ►tory of t . 
privations of the march into As.«am is given in a manly 
and cheerful vein, and what the chapter lackx in ge<H 
graphical value is amply made up in human interest. 
From some remarks on the subject, tf 1' loea 

not seem to be aware that ever since M.-^ f|w 

vations on the country, ten ith 

may have existed of a pra^ to 

China fiVf Kamti have been quite given up in ti i-y. 

The explorers were very fortunate in tl.. .. . ,.4ve 
Tibetan followers, and but for them would gcareely have 
got through. The tone of "' lative is i' ' .ut 

unusually modest and straig' T)i»> P: .* 

family is so well-known in > Mtme 

extent his well-known anti-: _ True, 

the " British leopard " has an " enonnous api>ctite " : " the 
rule of Britain spreads like a drop of oil bj a sort of 
inexorable law of nature." But he is frank enough to 
recognize to the full the vn' ' n- 

fidence we rejwse in our rcj al 

" the admirable methods of Kuglish  to 

draw from them obvious lessons for th .is 

countrymen. An intelligent traveller indeed c ly 

have avoided .«omesuch reflections. Prince H< 'le 

obsenation of an e.xjilorer, and has used his i II. 

A little more care in revision might have el a 

few mistakes in the .spellinc ^f names, whi' .;h 

imimportant in themselves, are sufficient to detract from 
the value of a work of the kind. 

Unquestionably the finest work of the expeflition wa« 
that done by M. Emile Koux, the ; ' " ' n- 

panied the Prince, and who. thro .« 

of privation and liar i i- 

ticent iiortinacitv. T -il 

m the api)endix, together with some \. 'U the 

flora and fauna of the countries jia.-.. .. _... t>ur 

admiration for M. Kous's work comjtels us to say that we 
think his name should have appeared on the title {Age. 



This Country of Ours. Tlio < n .inil Athnini- 

stratioii .if tl • 1  :■ 1 ^- .... ,,f Alii. 1 1. ... Hv Benjamin 
Harrison. i'ji. 

Now ^ - ^ : ers ; Ixmdon, l-^T, Nutt. 2,9 

In 1890 and 1807 nn EngH«h w»>«»k1y jonTnal 
published '• • ir 

as '* a mode- , ^ fie 

machinerj' of National Government in motion, and some 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



instruction as to the relations and u.«^8 of it« M^veml 
jwrts." T" ' ' :• • •' ion ill the 

form of tli:it the 

• llrml of tliat 

;..  , I'l*. la these days 

!i» the ir - of a ruler hiive 

' M i M which they would 

ions. But we venture 

:i theex|H'riences of an 

~ will not K' without 

!i, -r intt :• -t even for the puhlic of to-day. Our author 

Ix'^iiiA Will. In the first sentences of his work we read — 

God hu noror endowed anjr statosman or pliilosophor, nor 
any body o( tiieni, with wiadom enotigh to fraino a sj-stem of 
go x mment that ovecylxMly could po off and loavo. ... A 
tnw allafcianoe niut have ite r ' ' ^ hare 

eaaaed to be the State, and ( upon 

mien, loyalty has a better o1uuh». Instilutiuiui Imvu uu moods. 

These are cryptic utterances" ; hut further light is thrown 
upon them by the interestinc ]>ages which describe the 

."  ' '^ ' ' !' 'at of the unchnnpng 

lu the mutter of cliuoBtng the President, says our 
author, 

We have practically adopted a now, and, to the framors 

of the Constitution, an unthooght-of metho<l. . . . Wo 

are in the habit of speaking of tho Presidential election as 

taking place on the first Tuesday after tho first Monday of 

November in every fourth yoar, but in fact no vote is given 

tor President and Vice- 1' - at that time nt all. . . . 

It was determined (by : is of tho CunstitotioiiJ that 

electors should be chosen in each Statu, and that they should 

meet and elect tho President anil N'icu-l'rosidont. . . . 

Each State was to appoint, in such manner as the Logislatiiro 

t)u.r,...i niay direct, a number of electors equal to tho whole 

; Senators and Itcpresentativos to which tho State may 

I in Congress. Indiana has thirteen I^ejirosontiitives 

<a and two Senators, and choosos tlioroforo fifteen 

I'Kt . '" ' " ..  ".'   ' nt. 

II' object in view was to 

secure the best intellects ift each State, as chosen by the 

,..t..r. •... 1 ♦-I allow tiiese " electors " to meet, alone and 

. by external considerations, and choose the 

1 '   '  ' ivihing 

^fsted. 

how followed is certainly •• new," and as 

..uthought of." I>et us see wiiat hapjjens. 

The method most used has been to choose the electors by a 

popalar roto of the whole State, each rotor voting for tho whole 

number of electors to which the State is entitled. The geiioral 

il i>arlioe is to a//" -sional 

.11 ol<vtor, wh" i» iistrict 

bluvt-jr, and in a .>'  nuto Uie two uloctcrs 

prrn f"r thf^ ^ i clortor.s-at-largo or 

. . . Candidates for the post of I'rosi- 

••xl in national party conventions, and the 

electors «)f tho party aro rcganle<l as honorably bound to vote 

lor the nominee, vluitnrr may br tltrir imiiridaal ojiiniim an to 

hi»/Hnrt* fi/r the ujgii-r. An ulector who failed to vote for the 

nominee of his parly would lie tho object of execration, and in 

times of any high excitement might bo Uio subject of a lynching. 

iljint iKjintswhiclieinplia.size 

thi- . i . in which it will be set-n that, 

can vote for a President in Novemlier, 

'om who are to choow him in tlie .lanuary 

liter of fact, that election \* never for a 

iiujijji-;jL in >; .;» .lO' r ' " been 

ca*t. Wenf'l ii.iriilv p. which 

the temjioniry excitement of partisanship and iKditical 



wire-pulling must always have over a process originally 
intended (and rightly so) to be elevated above all such 
distarbiag iKissihilities. 

We are not surprised to read that — 
Some of our lending and most tliDnghtful public mon have 
ohallonged the wisdom of tho four-year term, and Imvo advocated 
six years (for tho President to remain in ollicoj, usually nucom- 
paniod with a prohibition of a second term. And unless somu 
method can Iw dovisod by which a loss conaidorablo part of tho 
four-voar t<jrm must b*,' given to hearing a])|ilicaiitH for ollico and 
to making appointniuiits, it would be wise to give tho President, 
by exteiiiling the term, a better chance to show what ho can do 
for tho country. 

Nothing can ex])lain this better than the e.xperience 
which ex-President Harrison records of his own term 
of office. 

The CiWl Service Law has removed a large numlxjr [84,000] 
of minor ollices, in tho departments at Washington, and in the 
postal and other services, from tho scramble of politics, ond 
has given tho President tho Cabinet oflicors and tho members ot 
Congress great relief ; but it still remains true that in tho power 
of ap|)ointmont to olBco tho I'resiilent finds the most exacting, 
unrolonting, and distracting of his duties. In tho nature of 
things he bogins to make enemies from tho start, and has no 
way of escape. 

lie has, in fact, to appoint not only ten Cabinet 
officers, but to see that some eighty thousand subordinates 
are also jirojierly appointed. The account here given 
of the resulting worry is jwsitively jmthetic. Standing 
near the broad, flat desk in the White House, which was 
the gift of our (iueen to a former President, the Chief of 
the Kxecutive of the Cnited States receives every morning 
in his first months (except on Mondays) a long and per- 
sistent line of visitors. The futility of it all could not be 
better expressed than by the book now under consideration. 
In each case the President listens, and 

Concludes the brief interview by saying, " Please fill your 
papers in the proj^icr department, and I will consider tho 
matter." . . . The feeling that something is, or may bo, 
gained by a personal intorviow prevails, and /or tltejimt year and 
a half of an Adtninistralion the President upends from four to six 
Iwurs each day talkinr/ about things ho will not hare to act 
upon for months, while the things tliat ought to be done pre- 
sently are hurtfuUy po8ti>onod. ... If a bond in tho sum 
of fifty dollars for tho appearance of a person charged with some 
petty otfenco against tho United Statas is forfeited, only the 
President's signature can roliovo the proiHjrty of the surety from 
tho lion. . . . Again, the " Great Father " may Ixj called 
ujion to opprovo an order allowing a tribo [of Indians] to 
market some down timlier on the reservation, or to consider tho 
advisability of allowing certain of his rod children to travel 
with a show. . . . The day would not be a typical one with- 
out a call from one or two newspaper men. For routine business 
items and for social news the rej^orters deal with tho ]>rivato 
secretary, but when there are rumours of important jmblic 
transactions, some of tho more prominent of tho newsimiHjr men 
expect to have a few moments with tho President. ... In 
tho first throe weeks of an Administration tho President shakes 
hands with from forty to sixty thousand {lorsons. The i>hy8ical 
drain of this is very groat, and if the Prusideiit is not an in- 
structed hand-shaker a lame arm and a swollen hand soon result. 
This may lx> largely or entirely avoided by using President 
Hayes's method -take tho hand extended to you and grip it 
before your hand is gripped. It is tho passivo liaiul that gets 
hart. . . . Tho grounds of the P'xecntivo Mansion aro now 
practically a public park. . . Until screens were pla<:od in 

the windows of the private dining-room it was not an unusual 
incident for a carriage to stop in front of thorn while tho oceu- 
{lants tiKik a gratified view of tliu President and his family at 
their breakfast or lunch. . , . There is not a square foot of 



January ti, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



Srouiul. not a bonch nor a »ha<Io In-o that tlio I'rnaident or his | jiifI|{mout«. iiMil* bim at 

family tan use in privacy. Tim l-t..., live Maniion u op«-i; • -• ' " r mon'« itloaii. 

visitors fmm 10 a.m. to 2 [..in. ^„yjj |,^^„ 

Willi tliis (ii'])ri'ssiiif; |iicUin' of onicitil lir<- at tl>f '•■"•■n n(;iiiiiat tho " ».  

M'liitc House wt" iriiist close oiir review of ex-l'reHideiit I'ot »o mu.-h in any 



one* » bi 



Jlarrinon'« book. 



<ailflr simI ft poor 

•om* at 

omic' of 

, lit* rwMon Ujr, 

WMlwr parta uf 



piiysica aa iu htm owii conatitutional uiifitnMa (or 



Philosophical Lectures and Remains of Richard 

Lewis Nettleship. Kdlti'ii, wilh n. Ilin^'iviiililial Ski-tili, liy 

A. O. Bradley luul G. R. Benson, .i vols. ,s ."■.in., hi. , 
.■fl»l pp., vi. i ;«ti pj). I.<>iul()ii, I.SV7. Macmillan. 17/- n. 

Tho work before u.s was for noma time oafjorly ex- 
pneted by lovers of t)xford and of I'hilosophy, nnd wo vuntiiro to 
aay it has not disai){)r>intLMl tlioir anticipations. Hi),'h as tho lato 
K. L. Nettloship's reputation for philosophioal <lo]ith and 
originality stood at the time of hi.s early death, it will probably 
bo lui.sod oven iiigher by tho publication of thcso thoughtful nnd 
scholarly '" Remains." To contomporarios who know something 
of tho nuin and his work, tho most interesting parts of tho Wik 
will necessarily Ihj tho extracts from letters and tho exipiisito 
" Biographical Sketch " contributed to tho first volume by I'ro- 
fes.sor A. C. Bradley. Of tho latter it woidd be almost impos- 
.siblo to speak too hijjhly. With unlailing good taste and literary 
«harm I'rofossor Bradley has sot before us, in tho narrow compa.ss 
of some 50 pages, a portrait of his friend which all who had any 
knowledge, either of tho man or his influence as o teacher, must 
feel to bo as faithful as it is frnnk and tender. Itidood, by its 
vivid presentment of a singidnrly winning i)ersonality and by 
tho skill with which it dejiicts a life of quiot and uneventful 
4tevotion to a lofty ideal, this brief memoir reminds us— and 
this is perhaps tho most fitting tribute we can pay to its merits - 
of Nottloship's own eloquent Life of his friend and teacher, 
T. H. Greou. Only Professor Hrailley has the great advantage 
of not being compelled, as Xottleship was, to turn aside from tho 
course ot his narrative in order to expound a novel philosophical 
system. 

Tho extracts from Xettluship's private letters, in spite of 
many suggestive thoughts and some admirable descriptions of 
natural sconerj-, leave on the whole a melancholy impression on 
the mind. It is not only that here, more than in any other part 
of the book, we are conscious that tho author has not fidly 
thought oat many of his most promising ideas ; wo aro also a 
little saddened by the spectacle of a sensitive and meditative 
nature bu.sying itself too fre<]U0ntly with reliections on themes 
of failure and mortality. This is not to say that Nettleship any- 
where betrays anything like fear or apprehension of the changes 
incidental to human life ; but there are natures, and his apiwars 
to have been one of them, in which tho tendency to brootl over 
mortality survives the fear of it. i'ot there aro in these letters 
many passages of brighter and healthier tone, and there is hardly 
All extract but contains some original reflection or observation. 
It is easy to discern, in countless passages, how deoivseated 
was Nettleship's conviction that no philosophy is worth much 
«nlt>ss it is an honest and faithful expression of a genuine 
.oxiiorionce. 

I can't help thinkine [he says] that it would be mdch bettor 
for many metaphysically-minded people, if thoy would think 
about the things which thoy hap]X!n to feel and have real 
experience of, instead of taking their subjects and linos of 
thought from other people's thinking. 

An utterance of this kind goes a long way towards explaining 
why so gifted a philosopher ns Nettleship was content to pro- 
duce so little published work. It was natural that a man who 
caret] very much about the interpretation of concrete exiwrienco 
and very little about the technicalities and subtleties of 
controversy should jirefor the work of teaching young men 
to understand tho guiding ideas of the great philosophers 
to the more pretentious task of empty systom-making. 
Nettleship's genius was, in fact, essentially symi>athotic and 
interi)retativo rather than critical. The same desire to 
see what is best in every one and everything which led 
him to be, as many thought, over-tolerant in his moral 



'I'ho natural bont of his mind wa« atninKly ■bown ia 
his lifi»-long devotion to Plato, tho oxt«nt of which is indl- 
oatflil by the fact that the whole Htmind volume of thtm 
" ttomaiiia " is fdlud by oxtracU from ' ,,u t>>* 

" Rapubtio," while a brilliant caaay on *' 1' c«ption 

of the Goml " Ul • ■, loM than a • I. Tho 

source* of this j .)ii with the , irr nf»t 

hard to discover, l.iku .Nottledhip, rii\tf> held . ;at 

philoso|>hy, to ho worth an>tliiii-, inimt Ik> o '• li.e 

record of cx|iorienc;eH through whiili wo have i ...I, and 

by the light i>f which wo may (ihai<o onr ■•.» ^.nr 

fate. What to most of us apiiears as a ct 

si>oculatioiui woro for men like Uioae soi.i> ..f 

a faith by which it is right to live, anfl i „, 

it may be good to die. It was — if wo may lKTru« a wird irora 
tlio vocabulary- of evangelical piety -largely by its " expori- 
mentttl " character that th< y of Plato appaalad to bia 

moit ro"t'trating Oxfonl •• Ho iw>m» to me," 

Nettleship writes, in ' la truo aa it to 

have more of the eteriKi nature in him t «e 

except Sliakespeuro." Once more, Nettleship clom-: ..« 

Plato in his dislike for nee<Ileas technical detail, ai. „ „..t.ii- 

exprussed conviction that tho really great and vital iiuestion* in 
philosophy aro just those simplest and most elementary onca 
whioh the professional philosopher is prone to despise^ or to 
overlook. Porhaja, in virtue of this temloncy tow : li- 

city, ho was more at home with tho Greeks than in f ry 

philosophy, much of which, wo are tohl. ' r 

him. Tho general trend of philosophical ;« 

to-day, is notoriou.sly towards ever-increasing i| 

detail, and away from the primitiveness ^^ p 

admired. It was the simpler and wider i- 

stituted for Nettleship the main interest ot , „,.... . .. .jt 

he wanted was, as he says, to be " brought face to fac* 
with elemental things " : to details, which, whatever their 
value, are far from " elemental." ho was on the whole ir.- 
ditTerent. In a word, his is a si " ' ' ' it 

" synoptic " ty|)G of character which I .1 

to the truo philo.sopher. An un> it 

suggest that this ipiality of mind was » 

weaknes.s as well aa of his strength. Ihj t it 

least clear that Nettleship's peculiar turn  n 

almost ideal interpreter of Plato. It < 

on tho " Kc'public " and his other coi.. . : ... , f 

Plato we find little enough of those technical discnwions on 
I>oints of anticpiarian interest which bulk so largo in the arerai^o 
b<K>k on the history of Greek ]ibilosophy. iiut tho reader wboae 
desire is to know what tlio most fertile and original thinker of 
tho ancient world had learned from his experience of men and 
things, and what ho had to teach as to the cond'ict  il 

I'.nJ every Jiage of these lectures full of pp'fi nnd n: v 

suggestions. 



The "WTilte Man's Africa. 
8vo. I^ondon, IS»7. 



Poultney Bigelow. 
Harpers. 16- 



" White Man's Africa " is the son.' leading title of a 

st.>riei of pajxirs which, jutlging by inti;; , ;icc, were pab- 

lishod, or intended to be published, on the subject of South 
.\frica by Mr. Bigclow, an American, who pai^I a Ay ^ - » '■• 
the Transvaal, tho Orange Free State, Natal, ami 
shortly after tho Jameson Raid. With the chara.*-  - 
noas of his nation. Mr. Bigelow acknowledge!! in ,   '■ •' 

•• he knows nothing on f t " on which ho writes, and 

then j)rv>ceeds to oxpre-^.s rong views of his own with 

reference to a rarioty of m^ttocA on which it ia difficult to form 



8 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



M arfalMi vttbo^ • prolei^ alwly of th* oowlitioM of South 

▲MCM. 

Wo oaBBOi howMtly my that ' \laii'« Afrion " ven-e* 

uiywiy Miftd |imh>u — Mat' •> to thi> lii(tor>- of 

Sootll AfHe* or ol tbii raUtioaa batwevn Uraat Brit«ii) and her 
Suatk Afriwn ooloW— . At the Mine time Mr. MiroIow Km con- 
Xti\9A tn gire a number <tf interesting ikutchc* of South African 
celol'T"'— ii.««~.-.~...i ->•>! pertonal anecdote*, whicii, if thoy 
are : tic, are all of the btn trorato ortlor. 

We xiBiii tiimi ^r. oij^fiow ia a not nnfarourtlile •(leciroen of 
theAjnancaaiiitarriMrer. Ouronlr complaint ia that he docs not 
eootno hiaoMlf lo ii'° ' ut giros ua a iiumt>cr of crudu 

nAactioaa on Boatli ..s and ii]M>n tliu dcfocta <>f 

Bkiliah ooloaial ximinUfaaUou. His o^trnin); cbaptor on thu 
JuaMMi Raid eooaiata mainly of i-xtrnrt< fr< n .1 iMnry kept, or 
•nppoMd to bo kopt, by an English 1 ^lloaL■com- 

pautiedtho Krogeradorp expedition, but ... .. .Mr.Uigelow 

doaa DOt feel authorice^l to disclose. As Mr. Bigelow'a in- 
formant QoDoludea thia statement by sayine, " Wo were nothing 
i t pirata* and richly daaerved hanging, every one of us," we arc 
■Hit ineliaod to attaeh great raluo to his <r ' Xur i-an 

— ■■JgB Bodb mora weight to an anon nd of Mr. 

UigakMr, a Boar gootloman, who 
Dr. Bendabwfg and who. w<> arr gi 
and I 
of inforas . . 

ean aa l d o m make out who is the responsible authority 
lor any of the many ramarkablu sUtc-munta cuntoinod in " White 
Man's .\frica." 

To Eiv'?-'" '-- 'Iptb the most interesting of Mr. Bigelow's 
aketcbes v. ly be the article containing the narrative of 



' d under the a/i'as of 

rmcd, "could repeat 

liour." Mr. Bigelow's 

lold and so mvsterinus 



his interview wuii 1' 
American and thci. 1 
app(«n to hare ri > n 
aotliorities, aiHl if hi 
an amount of i'.t! ' n< 
which he is not i': ',':.•■ I 
Mr. Bigel.ir  i ', 
ti». among other tiun,;? 
■• <Tjii'rienc«d religion. 



i.■.^t K: 



1, 



: iii;cr. The fact of his being an 

uably unfriendly to England 

)iim to the favour of the Boer 

- correct tlio rri-si<Ient showed 

' oiiverxation with Mr. Bigelow 

11 It i .ii-]ila_ving to ordinary visitors. 

IS opportunities to advantage. He tells 

, how (»om Paul, in Methodist phrase, 

" One time ho (Kruger) had a strticglo 

'•:d became troub1c<l in spirit. Of a night lie gave his 

•.era to read in the Bible, and then went suddenly 

i"< days, never com . . ." A rescue party 

■ut to sock for the i isband anil discovered his 

^ ; hymns in the bush. " They 

iier and thirst, and brought 
Ever since then he showed a more special 
"  awl religion— he was a change<l man alto- 

g^thar. He iired lor religion, telling that the lK)rd had opened 
hia eye* and shown him eventthing. " It is a noteworthy coinci- 
<leoee. in Mr. Bigelow's opinion, " that Paul Kmger became a 
raal Chriatiaii at the aame age aa was the present German 
Emperor whan he first developed hia great energies in this ilirec- 
tion." Aooording to Mr. bigelow'a Inforn i t 

waa nntil an adranoed age a man < : 
BtTMigtli. Ho allot big game when sovt-n, killed his first 
litw wbMi aUvm, and fuoght hi* first Uttle when thirteen. 
H* enald ootmn any wild beast or Kaffir, and ride a 
l«r*-faeeke(l horse standing on his head with his feet in 
tba air, aiMi suqaaswl Hill Cody's cowUys in hia feat* of 
bocaemanship. To pain he waa repf^rte<l to be indifferent, if not 
inaansible, an<I «hcn suffering from toothache cut the toots of 
th0 deeayed tooth oot of his gums with a pcn-knifu. Similar 
l^ganda need to he told a>MKit Abralur.i Lincoln ; and wo Imvo no 
doobt that amidat all the obvious  1, of tliene storiea 

there is a oartain aiaall sabatratni . ; ruth. 

Oxir OhurcbM and Why We Belong: to Them. By 
Varlotu Authors. 7|x6iln.. *1 pp. l/..i.Ion. imc. 

Service and Paton. 0/- 

The chief nae of thi* .vdleotion of papers is, in our opinion, 
the ofiiortanity it will afTord to Churchman to learn a few 



elamentary facts about Nonconformists. Churchmen are fnr mora 
ignorant about thu Dissenting Inxlies than thu latter are about 
the doctrines and pracUoos of the Church. The valuable lecturer 
of the late Canon Curteis, delivered many years ago, did a good 
deal to instruct thoughtful Churchmen on the subject, but theru 
undoubtenlly remains a vast mass of ignorance, and oven of in- 
difference, among the members of the Anglican communion, us to 
tlie beliefs and sentiments of their " Nonconforming brethren." 

The chapters on the Free Churches are far better done 
than the two devoted to the Establiahod Church. Canon Knox 
Little, who has been selected to speak for " The Church of Eng- 
land (High)," is neither vory trustworthy 'n his historical 
review, nor, wo iuiagine, by any means repre^ontotivo of thoee 
for whom ho .undertakes to speak in his reoommendation of 
certain " etlifying ceremonies " and " truly Catholic practices." 
Those ceremonies and practices are, of course, specifically con- 
demned by Prebendary Webb I'eploe, who is the spokesman of. 
another body descrilwd as ''The Church of England (Evangelical)." 
But his paper, candid as he is in recognizing the great 
benefit to the Church, and not least to the Evangelical liarty, of 
the Tractorian movement, sounds too much thu note of protest 
and complaint. The pathetic apjieal he thinks it necessary to 
make on behalf of the Evuncelists that they should not bo con- 
sidered trespassers on Church ground is hardly suggustive of the 
" comfortable assurance " and " patient submission " which he 
thinks are among the distinguishing marks of Evungelical 
Churchmen, This stands in marked contrast to the tone of con- 
fidence which runs through the papers written by loading mem- 
bers of bodiea outside the Church. These, of course, do not in- 
clude thu Roman Catholics or tho Unitarians. The floman 
Catholics would not recognize any common ground with the 
" Churches " of this book ; nor would tho latter with the 
Unitarians. The best pai>er8 are, perhaps, Dr. Hotlgkin's on the 
Quakers — though he does not mention the recent conccssion.'i 
made by tho Friends towards u critical study of tho Bible -Mr. 
Glover's on thu Baptists, and Dr. Horton's able exposition of the 
Congregationalist position. Mr. Telford, who represents the 
Metho<list body, has a confidence which partake* a little too 
much of self-satisfaction. V.'e may commend to him Mr. 
Horton's remark that " statistics mean nothing " and the 
warning of Professor Horklcss, who speaks fur the Established 
Church of Scotland, that when tho defender of a Church empha- 
sizes its excellence " tho instinct of religion teaches him that he 
is exalting that which should bo abased in tho sight of the Most 
High." 

It is satisfactory to note throughout these papers an absence 
of political feeling— at any rate so far as England and even 
Wales are cor.comeil. Wo hear much more of it, of course, when 
we come to Scotland. It was a political instinct which made a 
prominent member of the Free Church say that his communion 
" ha<l a veBte<l interest in the defects of the National Church." 
Dean Stanley maintained that the Unite<I Presbyterian Church 
was tho " most political of Christian Churches " — a sweeping 
assertion, but ono which receives some j'istification from the 
paper of Mr. Mac Ewen who is hero its spokesman. Tlie readable 
and succinct articles on the three Presbyterian communions of 
Scotland have, like other papers in this book, their value as 
part of an instructive hamUxiok. Probably on no subject of 
political controversy are Englishmen at present so unfitted to- 
form an opinion as on Scotch diaestablishmunt. And Kounion — & 
question as to which eve.ry writer in this book has natiirallysome- 
thing to soy -that, too, is in Scotland mainly a |>olitical (|uesti<in. 
Tho throe Churchos are founded on tho same basis an<l work in 
the same spirit. They havo all, whether explicitly <ir not. 
abanilone<l their original Calvinism, and have shown a liberal spirit 
towards Scriptural criticism. What keeps them apart is a political 
fact oidy. This is not so, or not mainly so, in England, where- 
Reunion is far less practicable, and has a far less definite 
meaning. To tho Welsh Nonconformist it means, first. 
Reunion of the Free Churches in Wales. To the Methmlist 
it chiefly mean* Reunion of tho various Metbo<list iMHiies, 
which has been aocompliahed in Ireland and in Canada, but 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 







still presentn formidable diffloultios, chiefly of » financial 
kind, in Knglnnd. Tho liopoi which Canon Knox l.ittin 
oxproRBOH for any gonoral l{4jiini<>n rocoivo littlo oniroiirago- 
mont in thin book. Tho NonconformiHtit Npnnk ordy of aonio 
purely Kpiritii.il rajyprm-hfment, whilo tho Canon impotoa con- 
ditions such as tliat tho ininistore of othor btHlioi " shall seek 
for ordination from apostolic hands." The l>ook will, howeror, 
holp a consideration of tho question by teaching ditforent 
religious bodies a gocMl deal that they ought to know about 
each othor. 



LITERARY. 



HANDBOOKS OP ENGLISH LITERATURE. 

A Dictionary of English Authors. Hy R. Farquhar- 
Bon Sharp, of ihf liiitisli .Mu.scuni. S • .">j"iii., vi. i.Tl(jj)p. 
London, isftl Red'way. 7,6 n. 

A Handbook of English Literature. OriKinnllv coni- 
nih'd by Austin Dobson. New Kdition. l{cvi.s<'d, with New 
rhiiptfis, 1111(1 Kxtt'iidod to the I'n'.sciit Tiiiic, by W. Hall 
Griffin, H.A., &c. 7i xoiin., xvi. +:»t pp. l»iiib>n. I.sin. 

Crosby Lockwood. 7 6 

Victorian Literature : Sixty Years of Books aii<l Book- 
men. Uy Clement Shor1>er. 7x.")iii., iv. i 22S pp. I»ndon. 
1807. Bowden. 2,6 

Both tlio " Dictionary "and tlio " IfandUiok "ore designed, 
in Mr. l)obsuu'.s words, " to givo a concise and. as a rule, 
chronological record of tho jirincipul English authors." 
Unfortunately tho execution of these two books soums to 
vary so greatly in merit that one can hartl ly rocommond them 
together. Mr. Dobson's book, in tho form which I'rofessor 
Gritlin has given it, is an altogether admirable and scholarly 
piece of work. ]SIr. Sharp's book is, one regrets to say, defaced 
by a host of errors and omissions that scarcely justify tho name 
of tho licadipiartors of literary research on its title-page. To 
take tho last Crst, we can commend Mr. Sharp's idea ; a con- 
cise dictionary of authors intorloavcd here and there for 
additions, as is this volume, would bo very useful if it w^ero 
trustworthy, fie says : — 

In tho Ciiso of each author the (>ssenti.%l fnctn in his career are stated 
as briefly us is practicable, foUono I by as complete as possible a list 
(it the first O'litioiis of his works, arranged clironologicnlly. . . . The 
earliest collected edition of an author's works is mentioned, and in most 
eases the latest or most complete : a list of works traiLslatcd or o<Iiteil 
by him is «pi)ended : and reference is made to the standard biography 
of each author, where such exists. 

A book efliciontly compiled on thoso lines is bound to be '>f 
great assistance to tho student of litoratiiro, and of 8ervi(^o to all 
who havo in any way to deal with letters. But there is one 
indispensable condition of tho usefulness of a concise 
dictionary which is to servo as an authority, and that 
is that it shall be, within the limits of human fallibility* 
reasonably at-curate. Mr. Sharp's book does not seem to us to 
fulfil that oiidition, though tho expenditure of some more 
labour on revision may niako it do so. We havo not, of course, 
examined every article, but wo have garnered so large a crop of 
slips from the few that we havo read as to suspect tho rest. 
Some of these, no doubt, are merely misprints, like the state- 
ment tliat A(idison'3 daughter was born " ;J3 Jan., 1718, " tho 
mention of Mr. Meredith's " Case of General Ople and Mrs. 
Camper," the assertion that Rowo went to school in lt>38, the 
asoriptiim of Scott's " Tales of a Grandfather " to 1827, or of 
Kossetti's " Sir Hugh tho Horon " to 1843. But one l)ogins to 
mistrust a lexicographer who tells us as an undoubted fact that 
Addison received a pension of tSOO a year in 161t7, that Scott's 
" Essays on Chivalry, Romance, and the Drama " were first 
published in 1888, or that Buckle's " History of Civilization in 
Franco and Knpland, Spain and Scotland " (18()6) is a different 
work from his " History of Civilizati(m in England " (18o7-(>l). 
Theso are trilling slips, it may bo said, but they shako one's 
faith in the general accuracy of tho work. Mr. Sharp's omis- 
sions aro even more serious ; the worst is in tho notice of Shake- 
speare, where he fails to record the separate publication of 



" PariclM," •• (Hhollo, ' and " Tho PMridtwU P(l(r 
dooa not tell us that Mr. Archer tranalatcH th* " I.. 
Nanson," that lilavkntone wrote pocitry, th*t Oarr>> L > 
author of •• High Life Holow Stair*," that Mr. 
editing » mnnumontal HUng Dictionary, or that V,. i ' .^ . 
edited " A Book of Iriah Vorao " ; and theao arv all as nn- 
p.....» .. .1,,. «...., ,r|,i,.h 1,0 fivoa in what profaaa to )•• com- 
! "n did not aottlo in Samoa in IWO, a* Mr. 

* "' ; t'l f Htevcnaon'a Dates 

I IIS ia unf s Mid of sach |->at- 

huuious works as " l-'aUlin, ' " In liio .South S««a," &«. Nor 
i\nf\ nop iindenitand on what theory .Mr Sharp can eiiooae tlio 
' n of an author's work* whan b* omit* any rWeranu* 

t s Chaucer, tho Cambridga 8liaka«pean>. Masson'a 

Mihoii, hllis and Yeata'a Blake, tic, Mr. Sharp tv 

rclie<l rather on caitaloguos than on a knowlodgo of ,.; 

or he would not tell ua that " Lyridas " appeared 
" in " " Justa Edoiurdo King N'anfrago " ; that  ' ' " 
K«ading for Schools " and " Isaiah of Jerusalem 
merely edited but written by Arnold, or tiiat " 
I'roplibey of Israel's iU<storation " was a dilTorant w<<: 
latter; that Mr. Henley wrote, not edited, " I.yin II . . 

or that Percy wrote the " Heliipies." It is ;i;'f : • i| 

.it one c-  t 

:h a thon.M 

Of -Me- ■< 1 1 : lonand Grillin's " M . ' on tho otlxir 

hand, we !....l: tn .-sjicak in terms of lu. , ..I pm-"" '• ■- 

impossible to desiro that the work should have bo<": 

If it seems that excessire space has been dev<.t< ! 

century— two-fifths of the book— no doubt that i  

exigency of the examination-hall. T° 

writers as Bacon, Tope, Thackeray, and " 

done, and provide tho necessary leaven U>t a 

goatible mass of facts and dates. Subject t 

limitations of its kind, this may be pronoun i excellent 

history of our literature. 

Tlio critic, according to Victor Hugo, has no right to inquir* 
whether it is desirable that a book which is submitt«<l to his 
judgment should hare boon written at all ; his business is merely 
to say whether tho book as it stands is good or bad. Thus we 
may spare ourselves the pain of asking whether, bocauso the 
I ' • passed t! • t 

«\ry that . 1 

lod. ill. .>h' 
iesirable ; wli- 
must obviously depend upon the nature >ok. Two 

ways occur to the mind in which an ii; ■••■l even 

useful book might have been written, within . .ss as 

Mr. Shorter has allotto<lto himself, upon En • •':o 

last sixty j-ears. Ono plan would have l)cen t i 

critical essay, involving a surv ' literary t.-ndeni h s ni.ii ttx 

estimate of tho main achievei it period. Theothenlan 

would have followed the exai. . Dobson and ' > 

and given ii« a handlxiok of for which mnr, 4 

wouM '■ have lx<i  o succvos- 

ful ( .'f the first that of tho 

socontl. as we have already p<' .iccuracy. Mr. 

Shorter (b'os not here ahow a~ we shoald have 

hoped from him. 

A few passages are worth extracting, as they display ti.e 
writer's attitude towards literature. " sonthcy's ' Cowpor." " 
it seems, "is a much better biography than his 'Xelson,' but 
in Cowper tho world has almost ceased to bo intereated." Sir. 
Matthew Arnold's "p..  II of him t' 

Swinburne's " Kve At' ' " takp- 



and - .11 forth 

" fivr 11 every 

not include •• Barry Lyndon." It is :• to bo assured 

that Mr. Lecky's works are "justly , , though that is 

not quite the epithet one would choose for Air. Lccky. Profeeaor 

■i 



10 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



Max IMlbr •' taay alnost b* wid to h«T» ereatod " tha aeienoa 
of oomparatiTa philology ; mneli rirtaa in " almoat " ! Buekia 
u ** atill wiilelv roail in Roaaia" ; ba u a writar of aqual import- 
anoa with " John Aildinftoo Sjrmoods, wboaa ' Ranaissanoe in 
Italy ' ia a work of great litarary merit " ; Mr. Shorter has a 

ai^pilar art of -- '' - .-- ■' i.:- i,^^ goniu» in a ooncatena- 

mliii^ . *, indeed, aaom to be aolely 

I OB tha putUistitu: a lod^jur &111I the lista of books in demand 
at tba fraa Ubcmriaa. To hara " a large aharo of public 
attantion " ia tha highaat pcaiaa ba oan frive a great writer. 
Kvaa Biai Cook haa " elaima to oonaideration," becanse her 
•« Joomal "waa " ona of tha moat prominent publications nf the 
daj." Diokaaa aajr ba daeriad by " literary " people, whom 
Mr. Shorter alwaya mantiom with suspicion, but his audience 
inolndaa " tha oowiUaM thouaands whom the School Doard haa 
givan to tha reading world. " therefore be is a groat novelist, 
" PopoUr " and " sreat " are evidently sj-nonyms in Mr. 
Sbottar'a mind, which aaems to be curiously ty]>ica1 of the 
" ooontlaaa thooaanda " aforeaaid. 

Iliat ba bopea to be himaalf popular ia shown by his 
laqwaat for " corrections for the next edition " : and as one 
ia ahraya glad to favour a laudable ambition, one may offer 
a faw oorreetiona at random. Lord Tennyson did not " ac- 
oapi a peerage in 18M." Tennyson did not dedicate some 
of hia booka to Browning. " Lady Geraldino's Courtship " 
ia Bua<ia0t«d on p. 13. •• The Earthly Paradise " is not '• told 
by t aa nty -fonr travellers." The refrain of R. S. Hawker's 
''Song of tha Waatam Hen" is old, and was chanted among 
tha paaaaota at the timo of the Seven Hishops, exactly as 
Maoaalay aayt. Hawker's deception was of quite another sort. 
" Bomola " was not written three years before " Felix Holt." 
To aajr that " in 1880 Miss Mary Ann Evans became Mrs. 
Walter Cross," ami to omit all mention of Lowes, is to convoy 
a curiously wrong impression of her life. One would like to 
know Mr. Shorter'a authority for saying that Carlyle is intro- 
dneed in " Alton Locke " in the pers<^>n of an old Scotch book- 
aallar, or that Mrs. Gaakell's " Life of Charlotte Bronte " has 
had a laigar aale than any other biography in our literature. 
Than waa onoa a man called Boawoll— but that in another 
oaatvy. Soott and Staranaon ware not " destined for Writcr- 
Mf» to tha Bignat " ; both ware callc<l to the Bar. T» describe 

»l Warrea aa " a doctor " shows entire ignorance of his 
To say that the " men of eminence " of 1876 
inelodad "Lord Tennyaon and George Eliot " is worthy 
of a writer who talks of a " biu noire," describes 
Qaocga Borrow as tha only Victorian traveller " whoso 
books make literature," and says that a scientific work " has the 
traaaeaodant marit of giving ' t as well as instruction 

•Tan to tha reade rs of thi' novels." It is useful to 

kn<tw that " in 185i Cliarlottu Uronte became Mrs. A. B. 
Xicbolls and the wife of her father's curate," but it sounds 
lika biguay. Gibbon would not have " ruvollod in an apparent 
aodorasment "—be waa a scholar. It will be news to Mr. Brj-ce 
that his easay on the " Holy Roman Empire " " created q»iito a 
(nrora " at Oxford, and, in its enlarge<l shape, is a " sketch of 
Oarman history." And it is not very kind to say that in Mr. 
BaaUn'a fantona shop " nothing but the best tea was sold at a 
lair pciaa." Perhaps the explanation of this is that Mr. Shorter 
poaaaaaaa a atyla, as he aays of Stavenson, " not alwaya rigidly 
gramnatiaal." 

James Ol&rence KanKon, hlB Selected Poems, with 
a Study. Louise Imogen Oulney. 7 i -.'lin.,:*!! pp. it<>»uiii, 
M.-uw.. nnd I>inil<>ii. IHii. lAmsoD Wolffe. Johii Liane. 5,- 

Life and Writings of James Clarence Mangan. 
Br D. J. ODonOKhue. H>, . .',iin . ir/i |.|.. I-:,linliiiri.'li. Dublin. 
ChicaKo, and Peabudy. 18U7. Oeddes. "7/6 

It is qnita poaaibla both t<> • •■< nndorrato the 

nariU of Janaa Maagan ; bat no • -, would contend 

*fcs» ha wa* a grast poat tor of the first- 

— a d rolitmo and tha t, ,| to it, has not 

oandtorapobUafa mora than a aeUction of bis works, and in that 



soloction, OS well as in Mr. O'Donoghuo's, there are pieces which 
nothing but the warmth of Irish patriotism or the artiour of 
personal admiration can keep alive. Mangan, in fact, waa a 
very uno<|ual writer, sometimes rising to considorablu heights, 
and sometimes falling heavily and perversely to the ground. 
He wrote at least 800 poems, of which |>erhH|>s 200 are original. 
Taking his work as a whole, it can only bo said of it, as of the 
curate's doubtful egg, that '']>artaof it are excellent." Selec- 
tion and rejection l>eing necessary in such a case as this, Miss 
Guinoy has done her part with taste and judgment ; and if her 
"Study " or memoir, like that of Mr. O'Donoghuo, oxtonuatcs 
too much, it must be remembered that in writing of Mangan a 
groat deal might have Ixtoii set down in malire. He had, indeed, 
his f.iults, but against them must bo placed his poetic nature, or 
at least the unbalanced, imaginative, feckless nature with which 
l>oota aro often credite<l. There can hardly be a sadder story 
tluin his in tlie whole history of literory men, though Savage, 
Chatterton.and I'oul Verloino aroomong them. To l)o at once a 
genius, o drudge, apau|ier, and an opium eater, to live in poverty 
and to (lie in a ho.spital, is as melancholy a lot as can bo 
imagined. Nor would he deserve loss pity if wodenied his genius, 
and read alcohol for opium and cholera for starvation. His 
faults, whatever they may have l>fon, injured liimsoU alone ; 
but genius, of a kind, he certainly had. It was a genius of a 
desultory, unpractical sort, and all the circumstances of his 
life forbade its development. That is abundantly clear from 
both these books. 

He wa-s born in Dublin in 1803, and died in the Meath 
Hospital, whether from cholera or exhaustion matters not, in 
1819. There is an atmosphere of uncertainty about him. The 
cause of his death is doubtful. Mr. O'Donoghuo says that it 
was cholera; Miss Guiney hold.s that it was starvation. His 
second name was assumed. His i>ortrait in Mr. O'Donoghiie's 
book is described as " perhaps remote from the truth." So much 
is vague that whole chapters of his life are blank. Miss Guiney 
is sometimes reduced to inference, and says with tnith that 
he is no subject for biography. Mr. O'Donoghue says that his 
intimate friends often lost sight of him for months. As a lK>y 
he earned his living, such as it was, as an attorney's copying 
clerk. Later, he supi>orted himself, or attempted to do so, by 
jourralism and verse writing. Opium, and ofterwanls alcohol, 
used jxrhaps as an escape from opium, led to the inevitable end. 
John Mitchel said of him : — " There were two Mangans, one well 
known to the Muses, the other to the i>olico; one soared through 
the empyrean and sought the stars, the other lay too often 
in the guttlers of Peter-street and Bride-street." The Mangan 
whom the Muses know was an extraordinarily picturesque man 
with refino<l features, who was alwaj-s writing and always selling 
his versos fur next to nothing. Ho knew no Erso, but wrote 
spirited ballads and songs by the help of translotions. He 
knew no Oriental language, but wrote many pieces purport- 
ing to he translations of Turkish or Persian poems. Ho tlid, 
in fact, translate from the German, and, above all, he wrote 
much that was frankly original. In his translations of Irish 
ballads he did good service to literature, but not to Young 
Ireland politics. Miss Guinoy gives reasons for thinking that 
" Young Ireland must have found him a most useless person." 
Ho was rather o poet than a politician, and few of his poems 
have the insurrectionary flavour of such verses as Scott wrote for 
Wavorley. But, judged simply as literature, " My dork Uora- 
lecn," the Irish original of which was written in the time of 
Elisabeth, is a fine performance, and one of the host of its kind. 
Many of tho others, and this is true of Mangan generally, aro 
disfigured by an insobriety of rhyme and metro which spoils 
their music. Tho shackles of metre, the rostriction.s of rhyme, 
were unknown to Mangan. He rhymes as ho likes and sings 
any tune that cornea into his head, often with groat effect, but 
sometimes with none at all. But it must bo owned that he know 
a good many tunes and sang with great variety. He wrote a few 
sonnets that at least como near to formal precision, and somn 
charming lyrics that have the true lyrical ring about them. As 
nothing can be leas satisfactory than a cold description of a 



Jaimary 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



writer's fM>lti and merita, wo mny quote a few veraM — xl 

tn liiH book— which ■iirely contain l>oth pathoa ami poetry. Ilu 

bills tho book 

Tell how his boyhoo<l was ono ilroar iiij;ht-hnnr, 
How shonx for him, throiinh his p-iof and I'loom. 
No star of alt lieavon sends to light our 
Path to tho tomb. 



Anil toil how now, iimid wrork and sorrow, 
Anil want, and sicknimH, and liouxoloss nights, 
Ho bidus in calnnutsH tho silunt morrow 
That no ray lights. 

And lives ho still, thon ? Vt>s I old and hoary 
At thirty-nino, from ilospair and woo, 
Ho livos, onduring what futiiro story 
Will novor know. 

Him grant a ernvo to, ye pitying noblo, 
Duop in your bosoms ; there lot him dwell ! 
He, too, had tears for all souls in trouble 
Here, and in !;i'II. 



Style. I ?v Walter Raleigh. 8xr>}in.. 12i)pp. I/ind<.n. 
1807. Arnold. 6/- 

Stylo is so largely un individual matter, is, in fact, so 
much tho expression of certain tom|>orameMtR and natures in 
literature, that ho who got.i out to lay dowti any kind of theory 
•on such a subject must bo aware that ho is writing within 
•tlofiiiitn limits. It is part of Professor Ilaleigli's success in the 
present book that ho recognizes the t>oundaries beyond which ho 
may not pass, and confines himself to certain great )>rinciples 
which are world-wide. Hut tho book is much more than this ; 
it abounds in felicitous phrase which is at times apt to become 
fantastic. Brilliant it invariably is, and, in the main, sufficing. 
" Other costures shift and change and flit, this is the ultiipate 
and enduring revelation of personality." Wo welcome this 
sentence which describes ■' stj'lo," and particularly tho words 
•" revelation of personality." Far more easily than by inquiring 
into Milton's political or theological opinions shall we gain 
some idea of his personality by merely pondering the lines — 
Not that fair field 

Of Knnn, where Proserpine gathering flowers, 

Herself a fairtT flower, by ploomy Ois 

VTu gathered : which cost Ceres all that pain 

To seek her through the world. 

It is really in such passages of subtle charm that we dis- 
cover that great natiu-o which is called Milton. And again even 
by such a single line as — 

riiick from the memory a rooted sorrow 
wo gain a real glimpse of Shakespeare's sago and faithful mind. 
Especially excellent is tho aiithor when ho comes to compare 
tho art of writing with other arts ; and points out how far 
greater are its difficulties, but how far greater aro its triumphs. 
Salutary too, aro his remarks on tho actor's calling in an ago 
■which seeks distinction above past ages in imagining the 
dramatic to bo tho equal of other arts. Speaking of the actor, he 
says — " Devotion to his profession has beggared him of his 
personality '': and he makes his reader recognize tho imi)08.si- 
bility of detachment in the actor's trailo. If this book did 
nothing more than place the actor'.s calling on its projior and 
inferior level, it would bo welcome at the present time. The 
importance, too, of tho senses in literature is here forcibly 
broiight out. Professor Baleigh says :^ 

The mind of man is peopled, like some silent city, with a sleeping 
company of reminisoencex, a!<,soriations, imprei^iona, attituiles, emotions, 
to be awakened into fierce aetivity at tho touch of wonls. 

This is ono of those pregnant sentences which at times the 
author can indito. It explain.', indeed, all that magic of memory 
that wo find in Milton, especially where without effort he stirs 
the sleeping city of tho mind, not with any new image, but by 
reawakening dormant associations. But more than anything else 
in tho book is tho importance given to the power of denial in 
literature. By this power, if by nothing else, the art of writing 



lit raiFo I abova all othar mrta. Sot ooald a b*4tor 

uutMUM u( tliia be- cbo»> "iidici iioM of Vkfgil :— 

lUnt uUeur. i«-r onkraas, 

r«r<|u>i dofDoa Ihtu t»e<M* ri iaaala ragaa. 
whiob in their sublime napition arc more lmi<f«Mir» Uun ■» 
•ffirmation. 

In an age given o»er to a- ••■ 
Mnt to find a word said for t 

that tho author is unaware of itsiiaiig' „ 

serenity of tho classic ideal tha aeranit'. • 

With his remarks on " tli- •■, 

which to quarrel. However : ,, 

is like a star and ilwolls apart, tainlv 

compulsory, must Im- paid ff,r . . « aoil 

encrusted nianm-risms. i oi this in our own day af« 

Mr. Browning and Mr. >\ But though thora iji much to 

l« said on thia side of the question, are not tha danger* at 
perpetual publicity even greater ? Hero Prnfiiaaoi lUlaigh baa 
given a now sense to the celebratad Khakoipaarian aonaat, vbaca 
the poet confesaoa that ho hoa com 'tginM 

that iShakeapeare here was not w> tnida 

aa an aotor as for the cheap t  ,, 

by writing for the vulgar I 

wo fancy, tho real ex- ;v an 

ojiology on thia score wa- . ^,,rt,, 

think that we have liadit withusall this time 
inilowl, in his relation to his audience i« tT. 

frankness. It is his audience thon, tho pi. y 

false and conventional that they aro U^-iiukm ir'>iii Mnino moir 
masks by the real " face " of tho p»et. Thoaeh the arcnfa 
man calls himself haman, it ia human n.-^' 
last ever to understand. Ho is confrontml 

and immediately betakos himself to tli- r:- umv auoouut 

for a fact so really obvious. The author . ■■,■,. ■.i.\ I'lnphaaisiiic 
the fact that stylo can never be tnnglit, that it ia rsthar probibi- 
tive than persuasive. Tliis is a saying by no means new, bat it 
waa necessary to say it. If, then, we do not feel that thia book 
ha« revealwl altogether that mystery of myateriea, style— a 
claim which tho author would Iw the last to make— it i«, novar- 
tholesa, lucid, brilliant, and stimulating. If any faolt can ba 
found, it is [lerhaps that at times tho author is a little " aapr- 
rior," and that hio diction ia occaaionally somewhat orer- 
elaborato. 

English Masques, with an Introduction by Herbert 
Arthur Evans. (The Wanvick Library.) 71 « Wn.. 2<£ pp 

BlMkfe. 8.6 

In Lord Teimyson's life of hLs father is r«»c<irdcd the lata 
Poet Laureate's remark about Ben Jonaon that he always aaemad 
to 1)0 " moving in a sea of glue." The [>braae will bo rocognisad 
by all who have read, or attempted to r«ad Jonaon, aa a highly 
expressive one. You seldom feel carried away by a (u!l free 
current of action or emotion. Somot' ' ' • s yoo in almoatarery 
sentence : if yon press on boldly ron' i.'et woraa and wone, 

and you get more and more 1 ' avary Una 

you read. He had, indeed, ao "in? nnd<>r 

which his dramatic muse movt-^l i>ut lieuviiv . i i 

show how far he was from Iwing a ixslant ov< i i 

unne<»!ssary lore. He was, in fact, a man of oomman 
lei-t— who assimilated what he learnt, and could not ci... , ■• 
but create. As Dryden said of him, " He invadea anthors like 
a monarch, and what would lie theft in other poets is only 
victory in him." Nowhere docs the greatness of .Tonson bacoBM 
more evident than in the h ' - f the English Masque, of 
nhich tlio first careful study : npr>esr« in the preasai 

volume of the Warwick Library. nt in 

tho fashionable Wiirld which attai' -r tKo 

early Stuarts, tho MasqTio mij 
song, dance, and revel. As i' 
all the diversions to which E: 
devoted their idler hours noii.' 
with literature than " the masque. This was doe to Joaaoo, 

i—i 



12 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



t 

» ■■!. : 

AV,.;; 

1,.. ; 



putljr htaanw b* ftrat r«rMl«d th* litanry p««iibniti«« of the 
mmrngm, sad pwtljr baoMiM •▼•n in •« fr«tivf fiti<l aptiotAcuUr • 
parfonsMwc h* wovld iMw adti 
vritar mi Um aUft* e*rp*nt«r. > t 

t>f hi* colUlH>rat4>r I ) 

tlut by tlic Utt«r"» iiiflui .--. -- 
eud«d M aa " Inrantor " of iu»*<)um. 

Th» first c<>mplut« inquiry into the natiiro of the English 
■uaque WM ni«d» by « Gvrmsn, Dr. 8ot>rgol, in 1882, and tliu 
linoa be Ui>l down h*ve been followed by " .us. In thv 

Warwick Librmiy the •ditor hu shown < o Bkill in 

wieoting (ur qwa«lstady by-ways of Engliiilt liui^iturc, " the 
dvrsIopoiMtts of aooM spscud litenry furtu." There is no othvr 
Miiss which •zaoUy oorsrs ths field here chosen, and g>>mo of the 
Tnlnmns srs of oonsidsrabU Talus to ths studont <>f Riiglisih 
writing. But in the sadsaroar to rsach a new point of viow, to 
,!...^^.t <tin further the body of Kngliah literature, tltere is a 
y. This was not wholly avoided, for instance, in 
k I.ilir.-irT voltinin on " Enclish Litorar>" Critioisra," 
t!i.' -;. ;!:i. ;i- ;:ivi n inoliided an artistic critivism of 
r.it.t ~. :\!i 1 H'tlniic of Matthsw Arnold's. We are not 
>: ^!:. K.v.t.s 'i:u"< out scathslsss in his study of the 
. M >-'iue. ilis rt<aders will be disapptiinted to find that 
!.o mention of Milton's " Arcades," ond that ho dis- 
mi--. - iM I !T;.f n'te any o' :i of the " Comus." This 

M. ;r- ,1 httlo too much ' .n analysis. Dr. Soergel 

ir.'i< r-. ^^^•s to show how Jonson would hare treated, in a true 
nustjUf, the snbjeet of the Comiu ; and Mr. Evans, founding 
himself on Dr. Soergel, says that Comna is not a masque 
beeaosa " there is no Ixxly of masquers, and therefore no 
fitrmal dances, while the musical element throuj|;hout is entirely 
■ribordinate," and that " th* Msential and invariable fc&turo 
of a maaqne is the pease nee of a group of dancers callu<l 
Maaqoers." Wo might press the question, like the cricketer 
who was aske<l why a certain kind of ball was called 
a " Yorker," if Comas is not a masque — what else can 
you call it ? It was. just like the masques of Jonson, one of 
those diversions of tho rich and groat, so unlike any other con- 
temp"""'*- -^rformances, in which song, dance, and speoc-h 
wer>< i, in which male and female actors appeared, and 

in whic-n tiic lonls and ladies of the Court themselves took part. 
It was devised and acted just at the moment when nia8>|uos 
were the " rage " ; it was called a masque at tho timo ; 
Lawaa, the eminent musician, who wrote tho music for the 
maaqww - '■ before the Court, co-operat«>d with Milton 

in its tr ThMw cmsidomtionR mar lea<l some to 

think that 31r. I in nis distinctions. 

But no one ran do ;r ho has devoted to a 

" ' '. has r^ ■• ' :i : the skill with 

- triu-<"l ' niasqtiu and of 

tm- iiiiti-iiiBwiue ii: '■ I. .a iii'_v wore really of 

natlTe not of fori- > sliio of bringing togothor 

explanations of the 



of fori- 
ia one rolumr- 
Mithors — Jonn 
and often be.i 
pastime of " Hociety 
befofw " the TuriUn 



with it things eril and good 



and 
lit, and othors— these curious 
. which formed tho fashionable 
'' in tho first half of tho 17th century, 
wave swept over tho land, carrying away 



BIOORAPHT. 



The Political Li 
■tone, lllii-ir.ti,'] \« 
:< Vol-, lit - >'ii".. XVI. 
dnn. ISDT. 



- • r.:. • -!■ n. w. E. Glad- 

■M fruni I'll iicli. 

■•ri'. -^ \'\'-' A. t 'f72 jip. Lon- 

Bradbury, Agnew. 20/- n. each. 

Dorna stngs io one of hi" 

O wed Mac j lmc us 

To sea oorssl*  lUasrs see as. 
Mr. Pnndi is that power so far as our leading statesmen are 
eoooemed. Without malioo, and yet with happy ingenuity, the 
-it- ....1 _.•;... ■'■>'-iiaIlo<l under his banner have given us 
of all tho groat men who have trod the 
poiiucai atago ior more than lialf a century past. Tho satire, 



though always telling, has never been intentionally malevolent ; 
and the chief of our caricature journals has doinoiiKtratetl that it 
is possible to be both witty and wise without tho savagery and 
ferocity which somotiinos disfigure the prints of thu satirical Con- 
tinent. Tho general tendency of I'uurh since its foundation 
has perhaps been Liberal, but it has not shnink from holding up 
to view tho failings or shortcomings of men of all parties, while 
in times of national crises it has nobly and manfully given sliapo 
and form to popular approval or pojxilar indignation. 

Of all tlie political gladiators who moxle tho first 40 years of 
Queen Victoria's reign illustrious only ono noble Roman 
remains. And it deepens our surprise and admiration at Mr. 
Gladstone's marvellous physiijue, whon wo reflect that his public 
career began almost ten years before that of Mr. rmich 
himself. There is probobly not an Englishman who does not feel 
proud that his coiintiy can prothice such men, when ho is re- 
garded in the multifarious aspects of his character apart from 
political considerations. It was a happy thought, however, on 
tlie part of t'le directors of /'unrA to collect in ono monumental 
work of this kind those inimitable sketches and cartoons which 
practically cover Mr. GImlstoiie's career since 1841. If on one- 
page his admirers feel bound to admire him more than over, they 
have only to turn over the cartoons a little to discover that 
Punch is no believer in political infallibility. Hut whether tho 
cartoons delight Mr. Gladstone's political friends or opponents 
the most, they are at liberty to find out for themselves. 
Our part in the matter is to say that Punch " nothing extenuates 
nor sets down aught in malice," and to bear our cheerful t«<sti- 
mony to tho fact that this work, whether as regards its letter- 
press or its illustrations, is on tho whole judiciously and ably 
executed, while the manner of its production reflects decided 
credit upon its publishers. 

The lato Mr. E. J. Millikcn was responsible for the literary 
nan;ptivo, and he had practically acconipli8ho<l his task when ho 
was stricken down by tho hand of death. There are some men- 
so unobtrusive and conscientious in tlioir work that they poss' 
away without duo appreciation of their abilities, while noisier 
men with shallow heads run sway with tho prizes. To the- 
former class Mr. Milliken belonged, and his colleague, Mr. Lucy,, 
pays a just tribute to his memory, while he at the same time 
contributes a closing chapter to tho work, rounding it off and 
completing it. 

Where all the cartoons are so goo<l and striking it is almost 
invidious to distinguish l»etween tho work of a Leech and that of 
a Tenniel. But wo must bear testimony to tho inimitable skill dis- 
played in those in the first volume ontitled " Master Bull and the 
Dentist," " God Defend the Uight," " Derbyo hys Strait© 
Fytto," " Rival Stars," " Ajax Defying the Lightning," " Tho 
Awaking of Achilles," and " Augurs at Fault." In Vol. II. th» 
following aro extremely striking and exactly hit off the political 
situation of the time :— " Humpty Dumpty," " Tho Choice of 
Hercnlos," " Peace with Honour," " The Irish Inferno," 
" Cleopatra before Cesar," " Derby and Joan," " Hani Hit," 
and " An Exit Speech." In Vol. III. those aro especially 
noteworthy :— " Tho McGladstono," " Given Away with a 
Pound of Tea," " Baby Hung," " Separatists," " Younger 
than Ever," and " Tho Old Cnisadors." 

These handsome volumes provide a fund of amusement 
and instniction for tho winter months. Thoy may bo roa<l con- 
secutively or by dotachineiits, but tho ond is all tho same ; 
every reader will fall a victim to their blandishmciit.i, and con- 
fess that he has rarely been so iiiterosto<l as in this absorbing 
picture of his own times and tho great men who have played 
such prominent parts therein. 



Ufe and Letters of John Arthtu- Roebuck, P.C , Q.C., 
M.P. With Cliiipl.-ts of Autnbiogr;ipl,y. Kdilcd by Robert 
Badon Leader. >i - .'•I'ln., viil. t .'{S)2 pp. I.,<in<l(in nnd i\<'\v 
York, 1HU7. Arnold. 16/- 

John Arthur Roebuck was the Ishmaol of tho House of 
Commons in his timo. Other men have playo<l this part for a 
season to force attention to thoir claimc, but he carried his 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITKKATUKE. 



iKhiimnlitiNm all through hi* eariHir. Ho fulfilled exuctly Lent 
l)url>y's (lotiriition of an in(l(i))onilont politician namvly, " ono 
whose voto could not ho dopondvd uixm." Itoobiu-lc had grunt 
mid maiiifost abilitiua, i'(>iiihini<d with a acathin^ power of invoo- 
tivo ; but, owiiit! to an unfortunate twist or warp of th" mind, 
he never did the State that uorvice which might ! 
pocted frou) him, nor took that riink a« a cotiHtruct 
to wliirh he minht otherwiso linvo asjiirod. That one who )io;;an 
as an ardent I'liilosophioal lUdioal and ii fierce defender of the 
most advanced political doctrines prevalent in hii youth should 
end his life in embittered relations with his former friends antl 
the working classes at large, certainly affords material for refloo- 
tion. Ki>t notwithstanding all hi.t faults. idiosyncrosiM, and 
•contradictions, there remiiiiis enough in this sturdy Rnglishnian 
'to uomnuind the adniimtion of men of all ]iarties. Ho had ever 
the courage of his convii'tions, and only excited amazement when 
ho boldly declared that those convictions had never changed. 
If indei>ondenco with him became a feti.sh. it is well to reniend>er 
'that such iiidopendeiico is Homotimes the salt that prevents the 
bi>dy politic from sinking into corrujition anil doc-ay. 

The son of an Indian civil servant, and related on his 
mother's side to Addison's friend Tickell, the j-.oot, Roebuck 
•was born at Madras in 181)2. Brought to England verv early, he 
was a diligent wtudent of Engli.sh and classical literature while 
yet a boy. and in this ho wai ancouragod by that diitinguishod 
inon of letters. Thomas Love Peacock. In 1815 the lloebiicks 
vniigrated to America, but John Arthur R-wbuck. on choosing 
the legal profession, returned to Kngland, was called to the lior 
of the Inner Toinplo in 18.S2, and took silk in 181,3. .John Stuart 
Mill was ono of the early friends who most strongly impressed 
Iiim. Roebuck was lirst returned to I'arlianiont for Hath in ISiVJ, 
Bud groat things were expected from him as one of the most 
<>rilliant exponents of the now Radical principles. It was at Hath 
that Roebuck met with his future wife ond real helpmeet. Miss 
Valconer. In Parliament ho seems to have gained the ear of the 
House from the first, and he was ono of the very few whose 
eiieeches never palled upon bis fellow-members. He stromdy 
opposed Irish coercion, and advocated the adoption of the ballot 
and the abolition of sinecures. What is remarkable in a mun of 
•such advanced views is that he could fall in with the 
foolish custom of duelling, and take up the absurd position of 
refusing to arrange a quarrel until ho had stood up to be shot at. 
Jjatcr challenges, it is true, he declined to accept, and brought 
them under the notice of the House. Roebuck made himself the 
spokesman of the Canadians when they agitated their grievances 
in IXV). Rejected at Bath in 183", he devoted himself to legal 
and literary work, but in 1841 was again elected for his old 
«.-onstituoncy. Finally rejected by Both in 1847, two years 
Liter he was returned for Shellield. Ho supported the Crimo.in 
war as a necessity, but it was his demand for the Sobastopol 
Inquiry Committee which secured bis greatest party triumph, 
mid caused the ignominious collapse of the .-Miertleon (iovern- 
wcnt. After a tomporarj- loss of his seat for ShefUeld, he was 
again elected for the borough in 1874, and sat for that place 
suntil his death in 187!>. Some little time l)ofore his career 
ended he was made a Privy Councillor on the recommendation 
of Mr. Disraoli. 

After his famous boast that he was an honest watch-<log, 
sloeplessly alert to guard tlie fortunes of his country, the epithet 
of " Tear'em " was applied to him, and it was one that ho 
always retained. The Whigs wore delighted when the watch-<log 
haniod the Tory sheep, but, unfortunately, ho had a habit of 
turning and rending his own Hock too. The acerbity and bitter- 
ness in particular which be displayed towanls Mr. 01adst<ine 
were remarkable. But upon other ]>oliticaI leaders also he would 
sometimes pour the vials of his wrath. The principal reasons i 
which led to Roebuck's final estrangement from his old Liberal I 
friends were his pro-Austrion sympathies during the Italian war j 
of liberation : his prominent advixiacy of the cause of the South I 
in the American Civil AVar ; his liiRowarmness, if not actual 
hostility, to Parliamentary reform ; his want of sympathy for the . 
Boles ; his Irish views ; his deliberately-expressed opinion that | 



tho aooner the Maori* of New ZealAnd mn< 

hift «tln  
trade u 



'It 



'r 



rt,., t.r., 



■«•« 

•>l 

»- 

rtl 

m 
.1, 

one must a<lmil ti :,j 

Mr. (•ladstono («i. .^ 

invective*) when he said tb .' ri( 

to iMt bjr principles of int<<i<.i>.. ..i. . . . , 
light tribute. Certniidy, Parliament was t 
hi* vigorous . ' . his hop' 

in tho prewM ' : homo t: 

and oven, in a way, I 
For many of his  i 
contemptuous exproH.siouii :-- 

We hs<l Aoc fun with rarl\Ii' 
utt«r nniiiwnte without mil. Hi> i 
not go unnratb^l. Hi* pri-«Tjrni>ri' n. 
oorobiDed with bin ' 

Again, " Mr. I  

walk, the small leader of a email set wtu) ailmire and praif* 
him." M. Louis Blanc was 

A thoroughly poor rrralurr, il'alinf In rhraw*. uid faseyiaf bimrlf 
a diKorerrr bersuw he has ravirml ilictriiM* Itwl hava b«ra ezpivUed 
a quarter of a ceotiiry •inco. 

Lord John Russell he held to be " weak, 
obstinate, and vindictive." It would bo refre^ 
have the opinions of his contemporaries upon 
set-off to tho al)Ove. 

It is matter for regret titat Roe) • 
his autobiography down to the year 1 
complete it we sbrulil doubtlcs-i hn\ 
sometimes prejudicoil work. How.'ver, 
to continue the biography since that date in a fairly niocinet, 
judicious, and readable narrative. The world will be glad to 
have this account of a man of unique personality and one who 
occupied a large space in English public life for half a century. 



tittU 



winded, 
conld 

Ko^tuek, •• » 

■'» 
to 

if 

- .:le 



Kirkcaldy of Orange. Bv Louis A t* 

Scot-s Scrii's.) i)  5in., I.'>i pp. Ixiidon a: 

OUphunt. 2 

Kirkcaldy of Grange is one of the purest names of the 
Scottish Reformation. He was a munlerer, a paid spy, and, in 
politics, changed sides freely, like his comrade*. But he was a 
gallint soldier and, allowing for the peceadilloea of the peri<Ml, 
an estimable man. Grange's father. Sir Jr< some- 

time Treasurer of .Titm"i V., wos an pst ' whn 

always offered by f;- '-at. and .t ', 

to maintain what i Hi^ s ihS 

maintains with much plausibility, van pr ihably bom before 
I l.")30,the date usuallyassumed. Thus be^^.^^ i;i,.r<. than seventeen 
! (as Mr. Fronde thinks) when ho kept t gate to prevent 

I the victim's escape at the murder of t'.,i. .,,..>. i. •• •• V-i- ;^ 

fanaticism was not so much Kirkcaldy's motive i 
diency.for, much Inter, wo find him rcgn- ' ' • ii inrman 

of Protestantism. Grange was one of t  -;. Amlruws 

Castle after the miir " urt to 

procure aid. This . 'vtreme 

youth. After StrozKi t>' »onc«l 

in Mont St. Michel. > i con- 

science, he was forbidden to escape b;. ot blood ; he 

overcame tho ilitliculties in a rt)mantic i^ (1519) escaped 

to England. He returned to Franc, and French inrrir*. as a 
paid spy of tho English Court, and, while ai't" • • •'''' '-«•" 
capacity, distinguished himself by his valour ai 
complishments. His excuse for sjiying was \:i^ ^mi-i 
French schemes of ambition in Scotland. Those of En 
were more dangerous to hi* country'* indepen' 
Kirkcaldy's real motive was, no doubt, his poro^ 
attainted exile. Taking double pay, FVencli and English, be 



14 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



i«tarB*d to BcotUad (I5S7) »ft«r hU father's death, ami acted 
M • diplomatut on the ]V>rder. That his conduct was " con- 
•ktMit " in thM« ne^tiatioix is the opinii^it of Mr. liarlxS ; 
bat w* )«*n to the leas favourable fieir of Mr. Tytler. In the 
atraaa of chareb daatruction ho ne^otiatctl with (.'ceil, but 
(writM Cralta)- 

Raa M« 7«t diMorerMl hioMlf pUinlr to be <if tb<- rrotrtUnt 
paf^, DOT does bo ooaie lo the Qucvn Kegrat (Mary of Uuisc), but 
MfBS bltislt iiek. . . . The man it poor. . . . 
IVMMttiy be cboM Um Reforming side. He was greatly dia- 
^t-g"****-^ at tb« Skg* of lioitli, and later in Mary's attack on 
Hvntly. Baniabed with Moray, aft«r the Kunat)out Kaid, 
Onnge waa priry to, but not active in, the niunler of Hiccio. 
H« was aoon received into favotu- (what people poor Mary ha<l 
to receive into favour I ), but, after Damley's taking off, it is 
Kirkcaldy who tells Cecil that the Queen will follow llothwcll 
"in a white |)etticoat." After Carberry he protostiHl again.st 
the breach of faith to Mary, bat was partly silencetl by the pro- 
duction of a letter, real or forge<l. from Mary to Uothwell. 
Kirkcaldy tried to capture Botliwell on the seas, but only suc- 
ceeded in taking some of his accomplices. At Langside his 
gMMTAlsbip oauaed the Queen's defeat, and ho obtained the 
Ooremonhip . " T" " ' ;rgh Castle. Finding that Moray was 
•boat to try Li i'>r Darnley's murder, ho accused Mor- 

ton, and offered triul by combat. He then carric<I off Muitland 
to the CMtle, which be defended, in the Queen's interest, till it 
w«t » be«p of looee stones. Surren<Icring to Drury, ho was 
banged, to aooompliah a prophecy of John Knox's death bed 
— " the worst action of his had life," as Macaulay would say. To 
Knox Kirkcaldy had written : — 

Ood, I desire, from the bottom of my heart to pour out bis ren- 
geaaae suddenly npon him or me, which of us two bath been most de- 
afraas ef innocent blood. 

So lived and died one who, in another age, might have been 
stainless aa well as fearleaa. Mr. BarUS's little sketch is im- 
partial and interesting, and is illustrat«<l by original letters in 
the Record Office. We do not know his authority for attri- 
buting to Sir David Lindsay the well-known lines on the Car- 
(tioal'a murder : — 

A'*llti"t'' the loon be wsll away 
The deed was foully done. 



MILITARY. 



The Benin Ma mm ere. By Captain Alan Boisragon, 

M-vivors, Coniniiiiulant of the NiKcr Coast 

With Portrait and Sketch M.-ip. Mx5Jin., 

VJj iHi. UiiidKiii, I'in. Methuen. 3 6 

Rather more than half of Captain Boisragon's book is taken 
ap with the Btory of the ill-fated expedition which, in the early 
daya of laat year, set out for Benin city, an<l with the narrative 
of the miraculous escape of the only two Euroiwans who came 
oat of the ambash alive. By way of preface, some fifty odd 
page* are dernted to a rapid sketch of the history of Benin und 
of it* geo^- position, and byway of 8Up|>lemciit there 

ia * eobii iiapter on the punitive ex]>edition which 

rwnl ted in the captwe of licnin city, the flight of the King and 
bi* jaja men, and the establishment of a British protectorate 
orar the Itenin country. Captain Boisragon makes no preten- 
sions to literary style, and if his summary of Benin history is 
aootewhat bald and jejune, that <loos not detract from the 
interest of the pages devoted to the story of the escape of Mr. 
Lodw and biraeelf after the maaaacre. Captain Boisragon is a 
soldier, and it ia to his credit Uiat ho has chosen to toll the 
siorjr of their adventures witliout any attempt at picturesque 
or graphic writing. Mr. Kndyanl Kipling would no doubt have 
told the atory in annthor n-.iy. But Captain Boisragon has had 
tba good MOM to  consciously or unconsciously, that 

be ia not a BadyarU ., „-, and if there are momenta when 

bia alipebod and nerveless English suggests the thought that 
tka narrator bas scarcely riaen to the height of the occasion, 



the general impression is tliat of a piece of work well and 
conscientiously done. The facts of the massocro are stiil fresh 
in the public memory, and Caiitiiin Boisragon odds little to 
what was previously known of the main outline of tlio stoiy. 
But it is for the slight |>orRonal toiiehos, the individual interest 
of the narrative, that the book will be road and will deserve tit 
bo read. Captain Boisra^jon makes it i>erfeotly clear that luv 
suspicion of tre<ichery was in the minds of the white nicnibors 
of the expedition when the attack took place. A few day* 
before, ho and ono or two other members of the party hod grave 
doubts if tliey would bo allowed to visit Benin city ; but th» 
friendly conduct of the natives liad disarmed suspicion and 
removed all their doubts. They were marching in their shirt 
sleeves, with their revolvers locked up in boxes, which were in 
the charge of servants some distjinco in the rear. There is a 
touch of the grote8<juoly pathetic in the picture of Major 
Copland Crawford attempting to stop the hring " by going 
through the form of the ISenin salutation," but when it becamet 
evident that the attack was dclil)crat<>ly planned and not th» 
result of a mistake, the little band of Englishmen had to niako 
use of their sticks, and Captain Boisragon says that, " oltlioiigh 
the Benin men from all accounts fought really pluckily against 
the punitive expedition a few weeks later, hero they l)eliavod 
like veritable curs, and ran away every time wo charged them 
with our sticks." When only Captain lioisragon and Mr. 
Locke were left alive they made a bolt into tlio Imsli, and, 
woundetl as they both were, it is little short of miraculotia 
that they ever esoajjcd to tell the tale of their terrible suffer- 
ings. Fortunately, both were quite fit and well to begin with, 
otherwise one or Ixith must have perished. At ono time they 
were actually surrounded by some Benin men who kept sentry- 
go around the bush in which they had taken refuge, but for 
some reason which Captain Boisragon has never been able to 
explain, they wont away and allowed the fugitives to escape. 
Their good luck followed them to the last, and when they 
walked into the village on (iwatto Creek, the Benin soldiers 
who had been stationed there to intercept stragglers had just 
gone '* to got yams for their breakfast." The friendly Jakris 
took prompt a<lvantago of this fortunate circumstance to 
aasiRt the two white men to escajH?, and how successful thoy woro 
is a matter of history. The story of the massacre and the escajje 
was worth tolling, and Captain lioisragon has told it modestly 
and simply, as a soldier sliould. 



The 'War of Greek Independence, 1821 to 1833. By 
Phillips, M.A. Willi -Map. .S • .-)Un., vii. t 121 pp. 

Smitli, Elder. 7e 



■W. Alison 
Ijondon, Itan. 



Mr. Phillips's book " makes no pretence to bo the result of 
original research, nor does it aspire to compete with more elal>o- 
rate works " ; it aims merely at making " more generally accex- 
sible a chapter of modern historj- which recent events have 
invested with a new interest " ; though the author also hopea. 
that it may enable his readers to form a clearer judgment upon 
the Greek (juestion. Thus limited, Mr. Phillips's object, we- 
think, may be said to have been fairly attained. As a brief 
account of the War of Independence iind the diplomatic arrange- 
ments which ended in the creation of the kingdom of Greece, his. 
book may be commende<l. It is clear, interesting, and iiMpartial, 
but weik incriticims. One gathers at the end that his sympathies- 
are with the Greeks, and that he regrets the original limitation 
of the new kingdom to an area incommensurate with Hellenic 
aspirations and inade<)uate as a counterweight to Russian 
influence in south-east Europe. But he keeps his secret very 
well, and whilst reading his indignant narrative of massacre after 
massacre perjiotratod by the Greeks ui>on the Turks in the early 
days of the revolution, at Galatz, Yassy, Monemvasia, Vruchori, 
Navarino, Tripolit/Ji, and Athens, ono certainly does not detect 
any violent Philhellenic tendency. " Tho War of Greek Inde- 
jiendencc," he says, " was, in fact, from tho first a people's wor, 
a revolt of j^asants and Klephts against an intolorablo sub- 
jection " — intolerable because of " the capricious and nnccrtairt 
character of the Ottoman Government, rather than any conscioua 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITEllATURE. 



1 



opprewion," tor " tho ttntut of the poarantry nndnr Ottoitun 
rule W118 in tho oightoonth ooiitiiry far iiinru tolt^rablo tliuii in 
most luxrtH of Euro|>o." 

It micpi't'dml only becaime of thia irrosiatibin popular impulM, 
nnd ill apiUi of the goncnl corruption ftn<l incApaeitjr of iU ao- 
callail leudera. It iM'Kan, c'liar«ot<'rintirHlly •iiouRh, with iaoUtad 
uota of viulrnre, wblcti ooulil linnlly lie iliatiii^uinlwii from IriKaad- 
nge. [Thcii| everywhere, *a though nt a preroiiccrted «ii:niil, ttie 
peaaantry roat! ami miiaaocred all the Turk«— moil, wonicii, 'r.ii- 

nn whmn they could liiy lunula. . . . The Mii»»ulfimii |" f tlie 

Moroa had been reokniioil at twenty-flve tbouaaiid aoula. ■. ii.ji.i Uirce 
wueka of tho outbreak of the revolt not n Moalcni waa left, a4ivc tlioao 
who hud KUL'eu(»lud in eacapiii); into the towiia. 

Kvoiitiiully t)i08u uIho wore glstightorcd in detail, as town 
after town foil boforo tho iinivorsnl wavo of insuiroction, in 
violation of solemn plotlgoH of safe coiuliict. 

Everywhrro, indeed, tho eoiiilact of the inaurrection nra* ehnrae- 
terized by the same treachery and niibiiunilc<l cruelty. It inay, jirrhapa, 
lie perraiaaiblo to make allowancea for tho cxceaaea of a wild jienple, 
whoae paasionute hatred, auppreaaeil for ccnturiea, had at laat found 
vent. But nothini? can excuse tho calloua treachery which too often 
preceded deeda of blood ; ami aincn Europe pnaaoil a heavy judgment on 
the cruel repriaola of tho Turk, hiatorical juatico doea not allow ua to 
hide tho crimca by which they wore inatigated. 

TIioso reprisals wore inilood as horrible as anything that the 
Greeks did ; tho wholesale nia.ssucro8 at Chios and I'sara and 
Ibrahim I'a.sha's barbarities inthoMoroa justifie<l to tho full tho 
abhorrence of Kiiropo. 'J'hore was, however, one curious dilFor- 
enoe between tho rival competitors in brutality ; — 

I find only one instance |»aya Mr. I'billipa] during the war 
of tho Turks having violated a capitulation — that of tho aurrciidcr of the 
monaatery of Seko by I'liamiakidi, when the promino given by tlio 
Ottoman ofrcera was held to bo overruled by tho apecial onlcts of the 
Sultan which arrived subseiiuently. The Greeks, of course, did so 
fro^uontly. 

One has only to compare tho two capitulations of Navarino to 
verify this statement ; even Ibrahim was a man of his word. 

Mr. Phillips hardly makes snfHciont allowance, wo think, for 
tho antocodonts and training of tho leaders of the revolution. 
Of course, with very few oxcejitions, thoy were incompetent, 
corrupt, greedy of gold, envious of each other, preferring personal 
ambition and wealth to the good of their country, and ready to 
sacrifice Orooco and honour for a aufliciont bribe. I?ut what olso 
could be expected of a group of Klophts and Armatoli - tr.iinod 
in tho savage service of Ali of Janina- robber chiefs, and Hydriot 
pirates ? Against such men, of fierce and energetic character, 
tho moderate counsels of mildor leaders, such as Alexander 
Mavrocordatos, wore of littlo avail. It was not ditUcult for Mr. 
Phillips to draw a comic picture of this polito spectacled civilian 
posing as a soldier, or of Konduriottis's absurd assumption of 
barbaric stjtte, when, hold on his charger by a groom on either 
side, lie led his one " campaign " against Ibrahim, and after a 
circuitous procession, as though in Sanger's circus, returned to 
tho place whence ho set out. Tho w<.nilor is, rather, that with 
such leaders tho insurrection succeeded at all. When wo consider 
tho ineptitude of tho Greeks, whothor in war or council, in sup- 
porting their armies or organizing tho co untry which they had 
practically freed in the first two years of the war, we can only 
marvel at tho permanence of a movement so ill begun. It was 
the noble example of a few men like Admiral Miaoulis and the 
heroism of tho common poa.'<ant and ti.sherman, as seen in the 
glorious defence of Missolonglii, that enlisted tho sympathy of 
Europe. Something must bo said, too, for the influence of John 
Capodistrias, to whoso character justice is done in this volume, 
though his statesmanship is condemned. 

Mr. Phillips naturally founds his work upon tho well-known 
histories of Mendelssohn, Finlay, Gordon, Prokesch-Oston, 
Pouqueville, Homo, Biedermann, and Jtu-ion »le la Gravii-re ; 
but he uses them without much critical discrimination. 
His account of the diplomatic transactions of the period 
is generally clear and accurate, though ho is not correct 
in saying that Canning " ordered tho British representative to 
withdraw " from tho Petersburg conforoncos of 1824. Tho 
British representative never joined them at all, because Canning 



f ormo* oskM Um Po««i pladgtd 

re* in th»ir raadiatiou. Nor eaa 

'ioM toaatar 

hia mmmcin 

•^•if Ua«m [Mavroeor- 

raaarvw aa my i 



daclinad to t-" - ' ■-- 

theinaelvoa •; 

it bo said tliut .'- 

into relation* wit 

ho oxprtMtaly atntiis Ui.. 

datoa antl /ographoa] i 

obaractor and duu reaix'ct tor a fncndly Powur jTurkajr] !•• 

poaed." Mr. Phillips is •rarcitv fail t<j ^'ir Illrhanl iliurck. 

When the plan of camjiaign wan ril, 

18*/?, Church strongly »U|iport< ' li to 

occupy the {lasooa, and it waa u'a 

JOjpuUivo and di> ' ■' - ' !v,r,. 

|)Oaitions lief ore i 

of r  m of >l. ^luiilion 

Oil the blameil for r. 

had no biiKpicion that tho Greek '.rent i 

out then nn<\ there. During the l.i 

*' in a  ubt at the Chuich of • 

Pyrgi " ^ to his own |iaiior« (piii 

Historical Herieio for 1800)— not, aa Mr. 1 

yaoht." General Church's error lay, n^d ... , 

or want of military judgment, but in placing 

upon tlio Greek ofUcers.whom ho had learaed tu iruai an<i oiimire, 

poriups overmuch, during his years of aenrioaasa ftomiiMiiMUr tt 

Grc ' ' >'iits in the Ionian islandx, "-' ^ nxira, too, 

mi: uon said on the iii)|>ortancc o; campaign io 

Webturii Greece, on which ITinlay, no lenient critic, wrota to 

him :— 

I well recollect the landing at Dragoroettre, whirb at tha lima, I 
thought a deaptrate and even h.^|>eleaa attempt, with ti>e (mall forca yoa 
had. I have long seen, however, that it waa to that dasfiarala ttap that 
Greece owes the extenaioD of her fmntirr. Tba BOO nMn iBtlorcd BaaDali 
tn take anna, and prevented i >• making tha Moiaa Oiacaa. 

You gave him Komeli in spite 

In a future edition wo ho|>u .Sir lUchard Church's unselfish 
devotion to tho cause of Greece will l)o more clearly and fairly 
recorded. Save Bjrron himsolf, in apito of mistake.^ an<l mia- 
fortunes, English PhilhoUenes can point to no brighter exanpla. 



' k « wbati ha 
"oo 

waa 
-ho Tria 

Uu 



The echoes ot the war which Oreaoa waa mffared to deelara 
against Turkey in the late spring of laat year have long ainca 

died away. Not even the signing of the peace at Cnnstantinopla 
succeeded in reawakening a spark of public interest. It is mad) 
to bo <|uestioned, therefore, whether a market oiind for 

three littlo books, two from (Jermany and one -frlarjd, 

which have recently been published on tli' ty, 

for, despite their liclatod appearance, tho > • .<>na 

to the subject arc both valuable in their way. Uno is in pen 
and the other in |>encil. The former, by Lieutenant Kloer. of 
the 2nd Thuringian Infantry liegimcnt, gives a clear account of 
the progress of the war fn^m the soldier's and tactician's point 
of view. It is illustrate<l with five lithographed maps, and only 
extends to 90 pages. Mittler and Hon, of " tha 

publishers. It is interesting to learn from i «r 

that as early as April '25, ■. ' •• . „, 

Pasha declared, without di- 

Ho could not uu''  ' ' ' r, 

why tho Greeks >y 

wante<l to fight, .;;. . . _;.ow 

why they ran away. It is \ 

Theixlor RochoU's oi : . Voait 

Krikosschaitlatz, SoMMKB, I . is 

ono of tho Iwst of its kind. Bii "1 

to render tho rcpro<luctions fr "k 

well worth preserving. His ">r •ha 

Secretary of tho Ott'' * .ti. ii, Killiom a 

broad -headed, sciuart- 1 warrior: *''•.■ ; aa 

of Pliarsalus : and soi ' ind 

Turks, all lightly ami • - tha 

subject is Rorr A. ! " " 

(EKiyNKRINliEN EIX ! ^. !■•::: ' ** 

written in a bright, j' ' 'h* 

author's 8ymi«thies ar • nt 

through the greater p.Tf . •■od 

humour, and gires some graphic deacriptioos ui acvuaa wiueb bare 
l>ecome familiar. 



16 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



Hnioiuj in\! JSoohs. 



BYSSUE: A DIALOGUE. 

• 1 like Hamlet." confwwed Bysshe. "Goethe and 
Victor Huco |jav»> triwl evervtliinff, but Slmkespeare has 

u- , _. _..: - : . limi- 

Hates the lie from the fact, whereoji Nature is always 
a.'! well. There's a " " il in 

. ijrinal Sin. Again, in i-nth 

century, that spleeny Luther had not yet jaundiced all the 
jioetry of the world. My i -felt 

the malady apitroaching a _ • nnd 

drowned the book of inspiration in time. Prospero's 
abjuration in 7' " for you !) — is 

but a sad (:i ' that wisdom 

\» liioh Socrates {tossessed till the end, and called a dream, 
wiiioli we would fain possess, and call Komance I In our 
iii .^ )Mitliusia8m is regarded as the virtue of dupes, and 
i(^ished modem vrriters at home and abroad have 
. "• except that essential one. You may 

< name, if you like — piety." 

At this point Adolphus Simnel, who had met Flaubert 
and was not insensible to that distinction, asked : — 

*' W ' 1 iety to do with literary art ?" 
" Ti.. . - , aed Bysshe. " It is imix>ssible for an 
impiotis — and therefore selfish — mind to possess that genial 
humour which is inse[iarable from a sound judgment, or to 
understand Irony, which, a.s you will admit, makes the 
strength of tragedy, the gaiety of comedy, the pathos of 
life, and the whole business of metaphysics." 

" (tood I»rd r ejaculated Adolphus Simnel. 

" You could not call on a better Critic !" returned 
the elderly amateur Bysshe. " But to resume. Had your 
; • ' ' ' '  .1 friend, the late M. Flaubert, 

. if ty, he would have been as great a 

hnrooriiit a« Cer\ii NIadame IJovary, poor creature, 

is Don Quixote all <n<i ri;.:iin — with a diflFerence." 

" This," said Simnel, " is enormous I Yet it hxs 
something in it to interest the imagination. Pray go 
on." 

'• 1 itiii ■•■' "'inued Bysshe.  ', .an 

nothing more nor :rd i»erson, yet when- 

ever I read a book 1 n t the question, ' How ought 

r •  rite of human .- ...;,- / In an idealistic way or in 

way ?' All men arc engagt-d either on this side 

or that, I tl I believe I have the world with me 

berr- that »'^«- ...;/. right. I will explain why. Before 

nil.' run • V :/■ life one must have trium]ihe<l over it. 

is the master of his material, whereas the 

-» r-ver Ix- its slave. Don Quixote is the man 

, i •■■ause 111- luoks above the baseness of a\f 

M.i'l nil'' r. .:■ - neither man nor woman, 

•■::.(i I'gwuiu, [M'linliing horridly of disapi>oint> 

;-e the world cannot give that intoxication 

which — tu do it justice — it has never promi.<)ed. In one 



case we see the strength of ideals, in the other, 
the weakness of lies. Compare the work of these two men of 
genius. You will see liow much they have in common, 
yet how differently they Iwar the trials of existence. The 
Man has taught us symiwithy and courage ; the Temjiera- 
ment has tried to teacii us hatred and despair. All sauo 
young i»eople read Cenantes with pleasure, while they 
recoil from Flaubert in dismay." 

" Dear soul," said Simnel, " Flaubert felt, with an 
exquisite anguish, the fatuity, the ignorance, the odious- 
ness, the iiiiVwcility, the stale imnionility, the degradation 
of the self-satisliixl intolerable middle-classes. He was a 
great artist. He wrote for ten or twelve persons only." 

•• When I think," said Bysshe, " that Almighty God 
was willing to come down from Heaven, and sit onywhere, 
in order to tell a lot of vulgar people the most perfect 
little stories in all creation — I refer to the Parables — I 
own that I cannot tolerate the gifted lieings who can only 
bring themselves to address a little circle who are not, 
by-the-bye, especially anxious to be addressed." 

" Flaubert," said Adolphus Simnel, " had a great 
admiration for the Evangelists, for Cervantes, and, indeed, 
for most of those old Masters. But, as he remarked so 
well, they \mte very badly. I am getting to like them, 
but it is im])0S8ible to take their work, as the bourgeois 
do, prodigiously au airieux. What do you think, Mrs. 
Carillon ?" 

" Well, dear Madame Sand was quite, quite 
different," replied Mrs. Carillon. " She wrote because it 
was her profession to write. There are ten thousand ways 
of being impresssive. She had but one ; and meditation, to 
such a sensibility, was useless. She was a great child, 
without logic and without training, with an incomparable 
gift of language and a Iroimdless human cliarity. She 
could love marionettes and poets, she could stir up 
revolutions and study botany. She could teach her 
grandchildren the alphaliet and inform Flaubert, with her 
own simplicity, that, after all his jiains, she wa.s still his 
8Ui)erior in literary style." 

" She was, no doubt," said Bysshe, " a woman more 
to be remembered than most, and, lieyond question, the 
finest babbler that the republic of letters has so far pro- 
duced. But, dear lady, she babbled consummate non- 
sense, dangerous nonsense, and sometimes the sort of 
nonsense called inconvenahle" 

" True," said Mrs. Carillon, " yet she was so extra- 
ordinarily kind. She had many passions, but not a single 
nee. Now I have read every line of Flaubert, not once, 
but often. The more 1 read him the less I agree with 
him, yet I can never leave him without crying. He does 
not seem a soul in bliss, but a soul in — the other state 
... or almost. . . . The tears I have shed over 
♦Bouvard and Pdcuchet' — the tears!" 

She moved, as she sjwke, to the piano, and, sitting 
before it, played the first hars of " Tristan und Isolde." 

Said Bysshe, " Nevertheless, I like Hamlet ! " 

JOHN OLIVER HOBBES. 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



FICTION, 

 

His Grace of Osmonde. Ity Frances Hodgson Burnett. 
74-.">in., IHi pp. lydiiilnii, isi>7. Wame. 6;- 

If it woro not for tho I'roachor's waniinx ngaingt tlio )>oliuf 
thiit thoro is nnytliiiif; now under tho nun, wo slioulil bo tciiipt«(l 
to sny tliut ^frs. Hodgiion liiirnott has struck out ii real novolty in 
tho litoraturo of fiction. Soquols havo boon common enough moro 
common indood than suocoBBfui ; hut " His (Jnuo nf ONmondo " 
supplies the first instance within our kni>wIocl),'o in wliii-h a story 
has been iloliliunitoly tol(( a second timo from a ditrorimt |)oint 
of view by its author without hisini- any, or, at most, any moro 
than a littlo, of its iiriniiil interest and charm. That this in no 
inconsidorablo achiovement will appear from tho titlo-pago itself, 
on which tho now novel is doscrittotl as " being that portion 
of tho history " of its hero's life " omitta<l in tho relation of Ids 
lady's story prosontod to tho World of Fashion under tho title 
of ' A Lady of Quality.' " In its predecessor, thorofore, it hna 
a formidable competitor ; for " A Lady of Quality," as will be 
remomlxirod, was a romance remarkable for a daringly original 
plot worked out with singular i)ower anil skill. It would, 
indeed, havo boon hard to boat on its merits : and Mrs. 
Burnett ha,s not beaten it ; it is sudiciontly to her credit that she 
has not fallen far .short of her own standard. Indec;!, if .she falls 
short at all lu r defection is in jjart to be UECribcd to tho cause 
which, operating much more potently in tho work of Richardson, 
renders ' "Sir Charles Grandison" a far inferiorromanco to "Clarissa 
Harlowo." The horoof Sirs. Hurnett's second novel is consider- 
ably less interesting than the heroine of her first. And, truth to 
toll, there is a littlo too much reeomblonce between his Grace of 
Osmondi! and the impeccable Sir Charles. He is so handsome, so 
bravo, so courtly, BO chivalrous, his moral elevation and his intel- 
Kiutual superiority are so conspicuous and so j orseveringly in- 
sisted on, that, if ho does not provoke us as desperately as 
Richardson's "faultless monster,"' wo are certainly now and 
then consoio\i3 of a certain oppression under the weight of his 
eminent qualities. It is not till we get to tho stirring scone of 
his duel with Sir John Oxon— whoro ho fences as well as Sir 
Charlos Grandison and is as much the master of his adversary as 
that "Christian hero" was of Sir Hargroavo PoUoxfen — that he 
puts the desired distance between himself and tlie bloodless prig 
to whom in certain particulars we havo boon constrained to 
■compare him. 

Sir John <)>;on himself, the villain of tho piece, as of " Tho 
Lady of Quality," is a little stagey ; and tho machinations 
which lead him to his death at the han<l of Clorinda Wildaii-s 
will perhaps bo hardly intelligible to those who havo not re«<l 
the earlier volume. This, indeed, is one of the inherent incon. 
veniences of Mrs. Burnett's new invention of the " twice, 
told tale." Another makes itself sensibly felt in the character 
of Clorinda herself, who, when viewo<l through the eyes of tho 
Duke of Osmonde, necessarily loses something of that wayward 
And masterful individuality which distinguished her in tho 
former novel, ond which, indeed, is neces.«ary to mako her 
strange history with its climax in crime — if that word can bo 
applied to a case of " homicide bj' misadventure " — by any means 
credible. This granted, however, there is no denying the 
tragic force and intensity with which the story is brought to its 
conclusion. The tleiioiievunl, though for the disclosure of 
C'lorinda's secret to her husband -Mrs. Burnett is forcetl to resort 
to tho somewhat threadbare device of an overheanl conversotion, 
is managed with admirable tact, and with a restraint which is 
all the more praiseworthy that tho situation abounds in tempta- 
tions to overdo tho pathos. It is a story extremely and obviously 
difficult to wind up with discretion and, at the same time, with 
completeness— to give the reader all necessary information as to 
the extent of the hero's knowledge of his wife's '• crime " 
without allowing that knowledge to be either too intimate or too 
crudely impartLHl : and Mrs. Burnett has surmounted tho diffi- 
culty in a njannor wliich does tho highest credit to her art. Tho 
accessories of her story — its subordinate characters, its delinea- 



tiona n( mannnm, Hm dcaeri : 

in : 
II< 

her  

except hero and there where it t 
coiniiorison with the ma«tcr-«' 
"Eamond," tho profoundly inlc  
traitor, warrior and miavr, hoio ..i. 
[lassionately-dovotod husband, is set 
convincing manner. 



tiei<Unta n 



17 



% of ooorM, 

lri(t«t. and, 

't* 

nt 
l.d 
.d 

y 



Tho Pomp of the LavUettes. liy Oilbert Parker. 
72x5iii.. 2:3) pp. I.<>ndi>n, 1><«7. Methuen. 8.0 

Mr. Gilbert Parker, aa wo mentioned rocentljr. propose* to 

abandon the hunting grouni! . ' ' ' ' '  i« 

own, and in his next novel t" is 

last pid>lication, " Tlio I'omp Kt : la 

old quartem, in tho Canaila of t urn 

quarry ho is after, and which ho : .o 

Canadian typo. It is not, as i . _ njj 

titio of the bi>ok might aeom to imply, tlie FVonch Canadian 
aristocrat with whom he is chiefly coiicome<l. Tho (■.,in.i.,in 
scenery and village life with its simplicity and ita prr d 

its delightful names so full, comparc<l with our < 
Saxon patronymics, uf distinction and romance— all 
give colour t<> tho story, but they are only Uie framuwork lor t!»o 
picture of tho Honourable Tom Ferrol. Tho hero «ho is 
to disturb the hapnineas of more than one Canailian 
maiden, and like many another raacal of ficti< n to meet 
his death in voluntary self-sacrifice for the life of another, 
is imported into the little French hamlet, on tho l>ox 
seat of a stage coach, from Ireland. Ho was tho penniloM aon 
of an impovorishe*! Irish peer, who sailed for Now Vork with 
his sister, and then, leaving her at a secluded town, went on to 
Quebec and Montreal, where he " live<l by hia wits " in all the 
fulness of moaning which distinguishes that pltraso from 
" supported himself by his brains." 

'Ilie abilitirs of thf Honourable Tom Frrrol lay in a splendid 
plitasibility, k ~ < bUmejr. H« could no more help l><-inf 

nprniltlirift of I;  • aD<l bi< iiinraU tbin of bia mooejr, aod niaajr 

a time he bail uuliud that bis money was aa loezhaiutiUe a* hit 
emotions. 

It is a familiar typo both in realit - it has 

seldom boon subjected to so closo an ^ . to ao 

original a treatment, as it is in tliis book. I ntil wo got 
thoroughly tu know and be interested in the Honourable Tom 
tho story rathor hangs fire. Save that ho is the victim of a lung 
disease from tho effects of which he waa only aaved by tho 
bullets of British soldiers, he might havo played a brave part in 
one of Charles Lover's novels. But with all the shifty Irish- 
man's good nature and rudimentary sense of honour he d<H>a not 
attract us. Mr. Gilbert Parknr has had th< T 

his charm, to make him unlovable. It i- -i 

naked soul in the eyes of a woman, in the l<«< > 

hoiTor and shame, which meant to him r. 
haphazard love-making, that wo t He 

had kissed a married woman, and ; tb.At 

waa all. But 

All in n flnsb he saw it, rejiliiril " '-•- i ' 
that US lone »• he livril, an bo ir or 

bimvK ; never coulJ forgire 1.1 ..»''r. ; _, 

ha<l injured. Many a time 1 j, aad had beta 

iinaunojiMi by conseii'nre. I nre bad Bcglectad 

him before, it ftroimd bi> nea and be saw himself 

as he waa. Come of a f^t i new ha waa no i;enlla' 

man. Having leamet] the foriuA ^Uti . .•, having infused 

his whole career with a spirit of gay ' x that in tmtb 

hf was a swaggerer ; that bail taste, luiamous luul taste, bad mailcad 
almoct everything he bad done io his life. 

And for the first tiir, w%» a man be made 

a direct statement " Ti. ot a self-repro«chfuI, 

dying man. . . . ' It was the worst wickedness I erer did.' " 



18 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



Thia U Um b*«t amne Msong many others which, short u 
the story is, r«Te«l to atlrantage Hr. Parker's peculiar talent. 
Here is a good bit o( tleacriptii>n :— 

Ha rod* • torvl hone — • crrat, wirr raw-hone, with a longc like 
a aoeae aad lags Uaik stnick the erutii ' - n of a piaton- 

ro4. As aooA as his eoaa was tunn ■•• he rmclt 

the wiad of baow in his DoatriU : '- ...,„.,, ;rii tho 

bit ittai«ht between his taeth ; an a frrU ;h 

the booe whkk his master pr»t<i. . . ... m him, be ^ . »n 

to his werfc, aad the mod, tbr uew-fallrn snow, ami the >luib flew like 
<lirt]r a|)arha, and eorered mao and borae. 

This graphic faculty, whether in description, dialogue, or 
axuiyma of character and emotion, is what holds tho rvador. 
TbM« is little attempt to play on the feelings, patlietio as tho 
•tory ia. It is only tho accurate record of thoughts and thuir 
•zpressioa thst moves us in the scene quoted above. £lso- 
whers we can enjoy tho writer's literary okill, but our 
emotions are seldom disturbed. The plot, too, would hare stood 
a fuller development, and s<niio of tho characters a more vivid 
touch of colour. But wo ought not to complain, after all, of a 
oapable novelist with agi^Hxl story because ho reveals a classical 
feeling rarely found, and still more rarely understood, among 
writen of present day fiction ; and no one who can appreciate 
fiction as an art will fail to enjoy the carefid and vivid study of 
chankcter given in the picture of the " Honourable Tom 
Kerrol."' 

A Handful of Sliver. By Mrs. L. T. Meade. With 
Illu-sti-ntions bv hbi Lovi-ring. Tjixuiin., SKI p|i. Kiliiibmyh 
and Luuduu, liiTi. Oliphant. 3,6 

Mrs. L. T. Meade has written some capital stories for young 
people. " Scamp and 1 " is a notable example, bright, healthy, 
and genuine, and it is therefore rogrettablo to find her re- 
sponsible for so silly and unwholesome a production as " A 
Handful of Silver." The book, intende<l fur immature minds 
and professedly dealing with real life, represents the doings of 
an incredibly foolish and wrongheado<l set of persons in such a 
manner as to convey, in our judgnit-nt, impressions and ideas 
that are totally inconsistnut with ttie facts of life and whole.some 
morality. There ia a young girl, Dorothy by name, one of the 
heroines of the story, who is iiitendetl by the authoress to 
cmlKxly strength of mind and common sense, refusing to marry 
a wealthy young man whom she l.'ves and by whom she is 
beloved, because her father ilietl leaving a debt which she resolves 
to pay. This is the strain in which she talks to her lover : — 

I Ioo( htjoad words to be happy ami to be your wife ; I rould 
aay " Yra " now, an>l you could givr nie the money and I could pay it 
away as if it were injr own, and that wron^; would at leant lie righted ; 
bat I should not be the wife that I would wii>h to be. If I did thia 
tUaf I dioald be chaD)(«d — my whole character would be lowered. I 
aboold Dot be the Dorothy whom you reitUy love. There would be a 
laaniase tie between n», but the be^t part of me would bo dead. 

After more morbid and unni>tural nonsense in a similar 
strain the lover goes off and a little later proposes inarringe 
to a certain Audrey, a beautiful cousin of Dorothy, who 
hsppens to be staying in his house. There is no conceiv.tble 
rssson for this eccentricity ; be is young, wealthy, and hand- 
some, ho does not love the young lady, to whom he remarks, 
" It is necessary for many reasons that I should marry, I want 
toe<" ' ; and he is i  d as still deeply in love 

witii I)< rolhy, wl. n after her unnecessary 

and : saviour, ia made tliu iiuire^s of tho latly to whom 

tho I Itimntrlr the oriiinal ha-ers meet, an<l then 

of the inconvenient Audrey, 

"<) as heartless and frivolous, is 

tiic remotest resemblance to a 

rid failings. The knot is cut by 

:iil then reiK living not only U> hand over 

 t ala>>, uith the notions of false self- 

 ' ' • class of fiction, to mairy 

ns no affection, and for 

' ' ' ko and contempt. 

<e to a book of 

t '■ name of Mrs. 

.\!' 'T reputation, 

alivu ... . , >vU from her pea. 



TbP Wn „py Exile. E<lited by H. D. Iiowry. With Six 
Etch Thilip Pimlott. t r. 8vo., ail pp. I^oiuloii iind 

Ntw 1 s. Lane. 6- 

This is a book to read, and to read again ; a volume not to 
bo got fur a couple of days and skimmed through, but to be kept 
by your side and dip|ied into at odd moments. The dip will 
seldom fail to refrotsh. It is ono of the Arcady iseries, and it 
takes tho reader into u veritable Arcadia in tho lund of tho 
West. Mr. Lowry hiis written well of Cornwall before, but not 
often with the siimc liroe/.y enjoyment and fnink pleasure in life. 
He is getting away now from the hopelessness and the tendency 
to look upon tho world darkly that characterized his earlier 
work. Here we havo him in an open-hearted mood of content- 
ment with things pleasant and of good report. The sketches — 
idyllic and realistic — which make up the book seem to have been 
written en pkin air within sound of tho waves and close to tho 
" warm-scented beach." The moods of Nuturo nro interpreted 
with many a pretty touch and in the light of close and constant 
observation. Nor are the men and women loss happily drawn — 
real and ideal both, for in tho latter category wo must sadly 
place Marguerite and Jessica and Phyllis and the rest of Mr. 
Lowry's charming young women — "dainty rogues in porcelain," 
— fashioned, like the little girls of the nursery rhyme, " of sugar 
and spice and all that is nice. " Of the faithfulness as well as 
tho charm of the portraits of old and young Coniish folk there 
can bo no dispute. We should like to quote from " A Woyside 
Evangelist " the pious old former's argument against tobacco- 
smoking, but no ono passage can bo detached without injury to 
the whole, and tho sketch is too good to be spoilt. Its sincerity 
and gentle humour make up a picture that takes hold of tho 
memory. The book altogether is a notable piece of work and 
has a genuine claim to take rank as literature. 



Sketches flrom Old "VlrgiQia. Hy A. O. Bradley. 
8x5in., '£>l pp. London and NV-w York, ISIT. Macmillan. 6 - 

Mr. l!ratlley has earne<l our gratitude by republishing in 
book form these charming studies of life in Old Virginia. They 
relate to the period immediately following tho Civil War, and 
their interest lies i)artly in the very fact that they depict 
personalities, traditions, and methods of thought surviving, 
practically unchanged for half a generation, the destruction of 
the system from which they sprang. In an admii-ablo introduc- 
tion, well worthy of the attention of the moat hasty reader, Mr. 
Bradley traces tho history of the colony and explains the causes 
of its decay. Among these, doubtless, were tho haphazard 
agricultural methods applied by the easygoing planters to soils 
in many places naturally poor. Still, even on the poorest lands 
it was possible, with slave labour, to grow tobacco to the last. 
With the war and the abolition of slovery, indeed, came utter 
desolation. " But, as a matter of fact, ^'irginia had been nono 
too prosperous for the last generation of the slave era ;" and it 
was not abolition, but competition, which changed the farm land 
of Eastern Virginia into a wilderness of weeds. Tho contrast 
between this scene of desolation, with its tottering manor-houses 
and briar-grown estates, and the careless life of the Old Virginia 
gentry, living happily if not lucrntivcli', among their coloureil 
folk, is described by Mr. Bra<1Iey with deep and tender i)athoH. 
His " crusted characters " who linger on amid tho wreck— tho 
fox-hunting doctor, Jim Parkin, the Ka<ldler and fisherman, 
Mar'so Dab, tho primitive farmer and ex-cavalry officer- those 
and many more are |Mirtrayed with excellent grace and quiet 
delightful humour. Throughout the sketches breathes a spirit 
of lovingkindness, of affection for the happier past, of sympathy 
with nature in all her forms. Xo lover of sport and scenery and 
old 'fashioned ways will read this book without peculiar pleasure. 



Cupid's Oarden. Bv Ellen Thomeycroft Fowler. 

8x5Jin., axi PI), liondon, l^tT. Casaell. 6,- 

Iho difficulty of telling short stories is not yet fully recog- 
nized by the writing public. For such things to produce their 
proper effect a much higher degree of perfection either of con- 
struction or style is requisite than in tho case of a novel of some 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



19 



length. Immatarity in tnethml can only bo redeomwl by gnwt- 
noRS of idoa. Ming Fowler's literary work liaw <|ualitiu> which, 
carefully improved, might make a reiulublo novel. The writer 
of Huch a book can lianlly avoid a certain amount of miHtainMl 
effort ; the thiiiiiOR.s of cliaructers iii)iK<rfe<tly • tlio 

want of cohoHioii in a haiitiiy Hkotchod plot, foi . on 

his uttoiition, and the proceNx, though |iuiii(ul, lias a high 
etiucutioiial value. The HtorieH in this vulumo, though all of 
thtan deal with love, or nt leaut with nmrriugo, aro very far from 
Ixiing Htudies of passion. Tho writer hosolieyed a sound instinct 
in avoiding psychology and dwelling chictly on tho narrative 
interest. It is (jitito ]>ossiblo to toll a good story and toll it well, 
without venturing on tho moro porilous tafk of depicting 
character. 

Unfortunately, theso storios are noithor goo<l nor well 
told. Tho object in almost every ca.so noems to be to sur- 
prise tho roa<lor with an unexpected rovolatinn in tho last 
sentence, and such an attempt is, of course, fatal to anything 
like probability or true dramatic interest. The <lialoguo is 
naturally oven cruder than tho narrotivo, and if, in spite of a 
multitude of faults, tho book can bo read with a certain pleasure 
it is bocaiiso of a high natural vivacity which keeps the reader 
in a good humour even among tho most melancholy misrepresen- 
tations of his kind. This is, even from a literary point of view, 
tho most hopeful characteristic of the style, for it seems to in- 
dicate that if tho author would bo content to study life and to 
abandon epigrams and surprises she might yet produce work of 
some {Hjrmanent value. 



Mr. R. H. Sherard'a romance of The Iron Cross (C. 
Arthur Pearson, %.Cd. ) is curiously un-English in tone. Tho hero, 
a young Oxford man, settles down in an obscure village in the 
Lan<les to write a novel, but becomos engrossed in tho search 
for a treasure, stolen and buried in tho time of the Peninsular 
War by a rascally ancestor of his who deserted tho English forces. 
Tho treasure is always eluding his grasp, and is mysteriously 
mixed up with a beautiful Spanish lady, who spends her days in 
smoking cigarettes, drinking champagne, and rootling improper 
French novels. This charmer, whom ho meets at a bull-fight, so 
demoralizes Walter Pugh that he is obliged, from time to time, 
to console himself with absinthe. A moment comes when tho 
unhappy " Anglos " has to decide between good and evil, and 
great is tho struggle. Tho plot of " Tho Iron Cross " is im- 
probable and tho characters aro not altogether human, yet the 
book is not without merit. Tho " old soldier of tho Young 
Guanl " is a striking figure and sketched with power, and Mr. 
Sherard's fooling for animals and trees is deep and finds fitting 
expression. Tho story of tho bull-fight is terrible and true, and 
tho vision of tho " tortured trees " is full of pathos. 



Ht tbc BoohstalL 



Of the many exhibitions hold during tho year 1897, not the 
least interesting, though last in the order of time, was that of 
women's work as bookbinders. Tho success which has 
attended this exhibition hns been greater than was at first 
anticipated: it will therefore remain open at 61, Oharing-cross- 
road, for some time longer. Tho exhibits, which come from 
most of the woll-known schools, include examples of hand- 
painted vellum, embroidered silk and sotin, ombos8C<l leather, 
and tho moro ordinary tooled calf and morocco. 5Iany of tho 
bindings are very charming, both in tho matter of design and 
execution, and, as an indication of whot women may successfully 
attempt, tho work is in a high degree praiseworthy. Tho 
binding of books offers many opportunities for tho employment 
of feminine hands, but by far tho most noteworthy work in the 
exhibition is that done in embossed leather. Like many of its 
sister arts, bookbinding is considerably restricted by precedent, 
and therefore it is particularly interesting to note in this 
exhibition how at least ono successful attempt has been made to 



a too* 
Inno villi A vtMT 

.'iMMliia^ 
MtdiUliaO* 

it can be ni«tl> •>■ 



.!>- 



■trlk* out in a nmr direotion. Ttksn ■• a whttto, ttm votk 
done is very creditable, though tlie K*Mr«l affsot ia 
marrotl by n characteristic «' ' 
work »hnt( liri>ui'bt toj,'iit!i' 
•up. 
a (<. 

to ktUiK 
effort. 

modulation, and in c >u ud* 

of high iileals, but it I 
with book* aa if they v 
is always well to romenii'. -. 
shelf, not the showcase. 
The part that woni' 
sur]>riiingly small, ami . 
meeting a single record of t; 
far as printing is concej-ncd , _ • 
any note ; both wore the wives of |irint«rn, ami 
earlier half of the 10th centurj*. 'The widow of 
was a very successful business woman, and she 
man's business as a printer, especially of Hon 



it doacomls to rtaallnf 

■0 of modam books it 

ral hoBM iath* library 

ha makii^ of books la 

.' ho trarersed withoot 

■ootion. Bo 

ft rocoids til 

'<• 
wr 
I- 

nearly 30 
years after her husband's death. Her later work d"«s not maifl- 

' <•, bat 
. wbilo 

sra to 

.ndtha 

ri somo 

isstiad in 

,Tt1i. ♦hr< ? o 



ty 

■rt 



tain the high standard previously set up by tho K 
most of her IJooks of Ifoiirs nm vnlunblo H' 
many of them aro extr 
first husl>and was the 
have token stiriously to tho 

excellence of tho work tuniK r ,; : ^ 

way judgeil by her edition of the works of (Jregory, 
two volumes, which wore so correctly print«<l '''■'* 
faults are said to have boon foimd in them. 

Tho jMDsition hold by those two u • i  : 

exceptional, fur, 8{)eaking generally, u-  • 

women on tho making of books has at the i- l ! • • :'. 
direct one, though their liberal iiatronage .iuA . • 
have at times boon of considerable v.nli:  1- 
daughtors of tho Medici, or even earli'-r, avA  > 

our own times, the roll of women as book collectors is an im- 
posing ono. It was, however, in Prance in the 16th and 17th 
centuries that their influence as collectors reached its highest 
]x>int, and tho steady aim of iromen like Diane de Poitiers and 
Marguerite de \'aloi8 to possess themselves of only tho finest 
books procurable gave a (lowcrful stimulus to such men as de 
Toumes and Clovis Eve. 

In regard to tlio covering of books, the ear' ' ■■• ma<lo 

by women were in the way of nec>dlcwork. A [> «*!»rly 

part of the 14th century, which belonged to a o 

Felbrigge, of Brusyard, is generally accepted as bein^ -t 

specimen of cmbroidennl bookbinding in ozistAnee. But there 
are many records which point to other women engaging in tbia 
class of work. Queen Eliscabeth, for instance, is crodit«cI, and 
with good reason, with having workctl tho cover on a small 
volume containing (K>rtions of tho Xew Testament, now in the 
liodleian. It is al- "1 of Mary of Scotland that with ber 

own hand she em'. : th<> cover of n book of rersea in 

French, '"Of the Institution • n by harsalf for 

the use of her son James, s .n 16C6, say* that 

he himself had scon this book, but it cannot now b* traced. 
Could this little volume t>e found it would be considered aagraat 
a treasure as that other lost book, the " Frencho sonattis in 
writt," which tho baplesa Chastelard addressed to tha equally 
unfortunate Mary. 

Tlie palm for bookbinding by women rightly belongs to tha 
Collet sisters, or " Nuns of Little Uidding " as thcj are 



familiarly called. In covering <■ 

with the orthodox gold-toiiled le 

some really first-class work. ' 

on bindings compo8e<l of vo 

gold. A few earlier ex.-in.. !■ - : 

but none of tliemapproiic!. t::v iv, 

ness and beauty of effect. Connected 

sister* is a curious tradition, the origin ' 



*• Hannoniea 

tboae ladiaa did 

-« expanded 

designa in 

'tyle ara known, 

' s for samptaons- 

with the work of tha 

f uliicli no line «r>r«*ra 



20 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



to b* kbU to diaeoTw, bat whidi has fcivm riae to manjr diffi- 
oultiw and much annoyance, both here and in America. To 
GoUeetors there luu alwajraheen a |)Oculiar fascination in (Kiasess- 
ing a " Little (iidding " binding, lliose known to bo genuine 
ara ao exoMStrely rare that one can more easily obtain a dozen 
OiolMn than a single 8|<«cimcn of the work of the Colluts. On 
til* oUmt hand, numen^us small Hiblcs nnd rmrer-lHKiks, in 
fa«W riMdlework covers, hare of late cliangod hands at vorj- 
■OS on the Hiisumption that thoy were df>m> nl " Little 
A fow weeks ago an auctioneer's cataloguo (*ontai>io<l 
this entry : •• ' Little Gidding " Uinding : Holy Hibic, Ac, in 
a t«aatifal cont«m|x>rary needlework binding, l(i35-<3. " There 
is no authority for such a statement, and it may be well to 
ra*^' '•■•'•■*  briefly the only sources which, even by a wrong 
>nt< . could |K>«sihly be strained to 8up]Kirt the myth. 

Roshwonn, in bis " Historical Collections " of 1080, writing 
of a " Progreas " of Charlea L in 1633 says, in reference to the 
•o-eallad "Protestant Nunnery " at " Giddon." that the in- 
«lat«« *' were at lil>erty to use any vocation within the house, as 
binding of books, teaching of scholars," Ac. Carlyle, in his 
" Cromwell," puMished in 184<5, quoting from this occount of 
Ruahworth, says of the nuns, " they employed themsolvos in 
' binding of Prayer-books, ' embroidering of hastiocks." &e. It 
i» just possible that the present tradition 8])ning from a simple 
misreading of the latter statement. What authority Carlvlo had 
for using the expressions " Prayer-books " and " embroidering 
of hassocks " is unknown : Uushworth does not employ either 
of them. Failing, therefore, the pro<luction of unimjicachable 
evidence upon the [oint, it will l>o well for collectors to be on 
their guard, for, as matters stand at jiresent, it may be safely 
said that the " Nuns of Little Gidding " never worked a single 
bookbinding with the needle. 



OLD BOOKS IN 1897. 



Books— their very character, plots, and aims— change with 
the times, because they are, for the most part, written under 
the influence of passing fancies. Those which are not are few 
in number, but live longest and some never die. This of new 
books ; those sanctified by the touch of time may rise from 
oblivion often before they attain eternal life— or death. The 
whima of fashion resuscitate most of them, the minority and the 
nobler aort rise spontaneously to maintain the ndo against the 
•till-living 0\-id's exception— /» Mo plHrimim nrU leyor. Old 
books, indeed, are subject to the law of roineamation, and they 
come into being not singly, but in battalions, like with like. 
The records of every year have sometliing to relate and prove 
in this respect. Of late there has been much vitality among 
cookery books. A curioiu fashion <]emand8 and dares to taste 
the dishea of " Le I'aatissicr Franvois " ; Royal feasts and 
anoaatral pomp conjure up Puli^atoons of Pigeons and Battalia 
Pjrea. Old cookery books have gone up in price 76 per cent. 
•inoe January, 189C. They live again, and may flourish. Works 
of the Early Knglish printers came into voguo well iii;;h a century 
ago, and from that time to the present have continually increased 
in value and lK.roiii« go extremely scarce that they are barely to 
ba met V public libraries, at home or abroad, have 

almost ni' i them. The same witli Americana and the 

flili',>,ft ),ii, .rij^t of world-famed outhors like Shakespeare, 
Dnnto, Virgil, and the rest. Kvcry year sees such books as these 
hide thcmsclveH in public institutions ; the few that remain free 
are treasured with religious care. Book collectors of the new 
achool do not know what they would bo at. Some of them afl°ect 
newer lights like Shelley, Keats, Byron, and will sr>end £100 or 
more on a single pamphlet of " The Curse of Minerva " degree 
of rarity. All olassic works are scarce if only thoy belong to the 
" right " edition. Other collectors, unable to afl'ord literary 
.1 thoKo, malteaapaciality of illustrate<l books of 
' >' : i In this caae tba artist is | aramount and the 
aatiwr nowhere. Cruickshank, Loach, Row landson— these are 
tbo names to conjure with. A few yaars ago a perfect mania 



anveloped Cruiokshank and" Phiz." This abated and finally 
dio<l almost away. Very s|>ecial copies were always sought after 
and are now, but the demand for ordinary examples failed in 
1896. Thoy camo to the front again last year and may oven rule 
the market again in the near future. Bo, too, sporting books, 
es]M>cially if thoy have coloure<l or tinted plates, wero the rage 
at ono tinie. Those, too, fell away, though only very slightly, 
and during ISO" tho prices obtained for them wero, if anything, 
higher than they have over been iHjforo. Speaking gemrally, all 
old and rare luoks and all illu8trote<l books of a sporting or racy 
character and most books with etchings by talented artists aro 
becoming more ditticult to meet *'ith every day, provided tliey 
be good copies, and the same remark applies to books of inven- 
tion, music, dancing, lace-making, and spooial subjects of a 
curious or technical character, provided they have ago in their 
favour. 

The question arises. What l>ooks, then, are of little or 
no account ? This is the question that agitates tho mind of tho 
beginner, in whoso oj-os every book has a possible value. Inloss 
a man is a hard sijocialist ho must take refuge in general principles 
and study his guides, of which thero are lialf-anlozen or more. 
It will then dawn upon him that 19 books he casually conies 
across out of 20 aro, from tho collector's point of view, rotton 
at the core. The cookery book is tho only one that has emerged 
from the groat literary mountain of dust and ashes, built, during 
long years, of old cyclopiedias ; poetry by unknown hands ; bad 
e<litions of overj" kind of book extant ; sermons preached to 
rustics : nio<lern Bibles, ponderous it may bo, but worthless ; 
18tli century Greek and Latin classics, scholarly many of them, 
but not wanted : essays that Bacon never wrote, interminable 
and aimless lucubrations on Death and Eternity. These are tho 
gods — for a time — of the incxi>orienced but ardent bookman, 
and yot possibly ho may learn more and have more in his 
youthf'.il days than in all tho days to come. There is no know- 
ledge so nobly won as that acquired through tho ogency of a 
limited number of bad mistakes. 



AMERICAN BOOK SALES OF 1897. 



The first important American book sale of last year occurred 
on January 18-22, when Messrs. Bangs and Co. dispersed, in their 
auction rooms in Fifth-avenue, New York, the third ])art of the 
library of the late Henry F. Sewall, merchant and collector. 
The first part had boon sold on November 9-l.'{, 189C, the second 
on November 30, December 1 and 2, and for tho 4,220 lots of the 
three parts tho total was $31,140. Mr. Sewall had little liking 
for modern authors, but ho loved very niucli books printed in the 
first years of printing, classical m.-iniiscripts, missals, and books 
of hours, early English prose and pootry, and extra illustrated 
books. His collection of 2;i,000 prints, tho finest in the I'nited 
States, has lately boon sold for almut 900,OIH) to tho Boston Art 
Museum. 

In the third part of the Sewall library wore tho four folios, 
the " Poems," a " Lucrece," and seven of tho quartos. The 
first folio, which brought 8j00, measured lljin. by 7^in. 
Junson's verses, the title page, and tho preliminory loaves wore 
not genuine, and Harris had facsimiled the last four leaves of 
"Cymbcline. " Practically in the same condition wore the 
second, third, and fourth folios, which fetchwl 9115, 8376, and 
866. Of tho quartos in good state, " King John," 1011 (the 
Steevens and l{'>xburghe copy), brought S230, " Love's Labour 
Lost," lfi.'5l MJardner's), 816, and " Richord tho Second," 10.T4, 
8210. Tho " Poems," 1040, had the title in facsimile and sold 
for 870, and tho 1666 " Lucn'ce " (tho Farnior, I'ttorson, and 
Hazlitt copy) for 8106. Tho Roxbiirgho and Sykos coi)y of 
Spenser's " Sliephoards Calendar," 1680, fetched 9'M)0, the 
"Complaints," 16'J1, 8116, iloynolds's " lUlian Sketch 
Books (the originals), in three volumes, 890, Waller and 
Godolphin's " Dido," 1068 (the Hel>or copy), 810, the Virgil of 
1470, 8146, and .Stanley's " Poems," 1661 (the Park and Sykes 
copy). 830. 

On I'obruary 10 and 11 Messrs. Bangs sohl the library of the 
American bookbinder, William MatUiews, who (lied on April 16, 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



21 



181X5. Tlioso who aro familiar with tho biiidiiif^s hi' for 

Kico, Moiizioi, Colo, unci KooUi rank him mi! :tl, 

/nohiiB(lorf, Trnntz-Hanzonnut, niiil Lortio (tho fatln r^. I', rnoii- 
aily, hia iidinirutioii for tho worlcnmn»hip of FriinciM lki<lf>>r<l wan 
groat, ami ho liail many IwiokB from liin library, not:i' ' 
of (iowor'« " C'onfi!8»io Ainaiitiit," which Iknlford 
morocco in tlio »tylii of fjo (jiuicon and mint to t)ii' ■• Miuit p'm. 
In tho Itodford salo tho throo volumes hrou^jht i'^lH. mid in tho 

Muttiiow'B 8117. Ephnissi"* " Diirur," I'aris, !«> ' 

morocuo hy Mntthowa. futrhLHl 81!W, Irving'*" Km 

nuhlinlied liy tlio (irolior Oluh of Now York in IH^ .. : 

l)y MatthoA'H in brown morocco m tho Aldine, Kvo, and I^e 

Gascon stylos, JiTjoO, and an oxtra illustratod " Anjjler," in four 

volun\e8, with liir) prints, in crimson morocco by Matthowii, 

840.0. A total of 810,907 was obtainod for the 7:i"l lots in tho 

library. 

Ono of tho most intoreatinc aaloa of the year waa that of tho 
late Edward Halo lUorstadt's library, which Messrs. Ifcir 
oi\ April r>-8 and lU-U'i, tho total amount roaliaetl for ih 
lots being 814,007.41. It was tho library of one who foil kiiiuv 
tho lovo of books in all its phasos. '1 ho ranpu w;is from tho 
standard works wliioh form tho oarliost collection of a reading 
man to tho luxury of choice oditioiia and boautifiil liiiulingB. 
Mr. Biorstjidt, who know bibliography well, hod contributed 
largely to the (Jrolier Club's " Catalogue of Original and Karly 
E<litions from Langland to Wither," and to tho throo similar 
works yet toap|)«ar. Liko Mr. KdmundCiosso, ho had nonoof "the 
whito olophant-s of bibliography," but in his library wcro ropro- 
aontod Knglish wriUTS from Chancer to Hridgcs and American 
from Longfellow to Stodman, while of Clovolanil, Waller, and 
Wither ho had nearly every known edition. Florio's 
" Montaigne," the edition of 1G03, brought 8115, and 
Flabington's " Castara," KUO, 852. Daniel's " Worthy 
Tract of Pauhus lonitis " fetched 880, Jonson's " Churactors of 
Two Royal Masques " 811''>, Cleveland's " London Diurnal " 
818, Shirley's " Poems " 860, Suckling's " Kragmenta Aurea " 
8Itr), Waller's " Poems,'' 1045, the tirst authorized e<lition, 850, 
and Wither's " Shepherd's Hunting '" 8'-iO. Tennyson's " Tim- 
buctoo " brought 850, and " Pooms, Chiefly Lyrical," 8C5 ; 
" Tho Story of tho Glittering Plain," the first Kelmacott Press 
book, 814, and " Pooms by tho Way " 830 ; Swinburne's 
" Atalanta in Calydon " 8'<5, and Rossotti'a " Ballads and 
Sonnets " 818; Mrs. Urowning's " Promothus Bound " 84C, and 
Robert Browning's " Paracelsus '' 817 ; Lang's •' Ballads and 
Lyrics of Old Franco " 8-7, and Locker s " London Lyrics '' 
930. 

Of especial interest in the library of the lato Charles W. 
Frederickson, sold by Messrs. Bangs on May 24-28, was 
the " Queen Mab " which Sholley hatl given to Mary Godwin, 
and in which she had written. '• This book is sacred to mo." 
It brought 8015, another copy of tho first edition fetching .*?iOO. 
" Zastriizzi " brouglit 840, " St. Iroyno " 845, " Ala.stor " 
8130, " Laon and Cythna " 8145, " Enipsychidion " and " A 
Proposal for I'utting Reform to the Vote " (in one volume) 
8330, " Tho Conci " 865, " Promethua Unbound " 827.50, and 
" Adonais " 8.'535. Presentation cojiios of Keats's " Poems " 
and " Endymion " brought 8300 andSITiO, and Lamb's " Elia," 
182;), with a letter to Cunningham, 8"-W. Tho second folio, 
measuring 13Jin. by OJin., fetched 8100, and " The Deserted 
Village," 1770, 8140. Lamb's copy of Chaucer, 1598, with notes, 
brought 8340 : Byron's cony of '' English Bards and Scotch Re- 
viewers," annotated by fiim, 8130 ; Coleridge's " Chapman'a 
Homer," with annotations, 81(X) : " Venus and Adonis," 1714, 
with notes by Lamb, ^'210 ; Donne's " Pooms," 1069, also 
Lamb's, annotated by Coleridge, 8115 ; and Lamb's copy of 
Drayton's " Works," 1748, with notes, 8250. Mr. Frederickson 
had much Slielleyana and also 02 letters of tlio jwot's, which 
ranged in price from 880 to 80. He ha<l, besides, letters and 
manuscripts of Lamb, Poo, Thackeray, Bj-ron, Keats, Cowpor, 
Gray, Scott, and Moore. Lamb's woll-known letter to Tom 
Hoixl, signed " C. L. " and " Elia," fetched 8100. The total 
for the 2,410 lots of tho library was about 819,(W0. 

The library of tho late tVodcrick D. Stone, librarian of the 
Historical Society of Pennsylvania, was sold by ilcssrs. Davis and 
Harvey in I'hiladelphia on October 18. It contained many of 
the rarer items of Americana, including Thomas's " .\ccount of 
Pennsylvania and West New Jersey," which sold for 8145. On 
December 2 Davis and Harvey dispersed the collection of the 
lato Dr. Leimard R. Koecker, Burns "s copy of Inglis's 
" Patriots," with numerous notes by him, bringing §05. Earlier 
in the season, on Octol>er 6, Messrs. Bangs sold tho fourth 
folio for f^y2 (it lacked the portrait), and on October 20 a volume 
horn Grolior's library for .«30. It was tho " Methodus Conscri- 
bendi Epistolas," Paris, 1530, and was bound with five other 
books. 



Hiiicvican Xcttcr. 



Tho 
first iaaii 



v'« " Ri.. 
'-wad in 1-- '•, 



5 rpry 
•oon to r to market, i he a 

Messrs. Jl^ , , ,«o contemplate a ih l, . m 

of an abridgment, which will be Usucil in F«l>rtiAry. The Rev. 

William Elliot Orillia, a writer of f"--" '.■ •■-- • .- n- 

sidcrab'io liat of books to his credit, h ^ '■ 

throe volumes into ono, and haa adilio .i u: ' » 

Dutch nation from tho death of William tli> 
1897. Tho wl   ., ..;y to 

bo popular Hf itratwl 

wit' «, 

" '1 e 

still a good IP to nin, and t). to 

bo abridgetl at , Dr. Griflis, « I,-. 

ment of " Tlio Dutch Republic," spent f our yo . i) 

of his early manhood in Japan, where he hulpt.-i m Ui.- ».>:<. of 
organizing Japanese schools acconling to the American system. 

American publishers notice with little satisfaction tb* pro- 
spect that a Bill will shortly Iw introduced in CongreM pre- 
scribing that six copies of every book copyrighte«l shall be 
deposited with tho Librarian of Congress. At present two IxMika 
are required. Tho pro{)osal to exact four more is baso<l on an 
opinion, which seems to emanate from the two Icadin;:: I'ni- 
versitica of California, that, ina.smuch as tho C il 

Library at Washington, in which alono a complete ■- .. .. of 

American copyrighted books is preserved, is remote from tho 

Wost and difficult of access to many millions of Amf" -"W 

depositories of copyrighte<l books should bo creato<l <i 

in other parts of the country. So tho now Bill pr ; 
such depositories at Chicago, Denver, San Fr.nii v:.  ~. . 

Orleans, and to require authors —or more > ^hors — 

to supply the necessary volumes. It i^ it tho 

British publisher gives up five copies of i k 

for the goo<l of his countrymen. The Ani. ; .,. 

used to such linorality, fools that two copies are enough, and 
will doubtless opfKiao tho measure which would mulct him of 
more. It seems a small matter, but it ia bigger than appears 
how much bigger may lie estimated from th<> .■■■•• — -• ■• •\„ 
Librarian of Congress that, in 1896, 72,470 « ,1 

from his office, and that the number is c .pi>ily 

increasing. When ono considers what n: ^s» of 

literary rubbish this immense is- jt natural 

iiiferenco is that ono completo v- an books is 

quite enough, and that tlv ' houso five aeparato 

collections is not one to be r i -.on. 

Dr. Edward Everett Hole, in whose bono r waa 

given by tho .Vhlino Club of New York on lioccii . aid, in 

response to a toast, that, thanks to a good constitution, going 
to be<l early, and not worrying, he was n Kutvlvr ,.f . '>"^«whon 
American authors had to get their 1 Dr. 

Hale was born as late as 1822, and, t....iiL;ii n- i.v.in to write 
pretty soon after learning to talk, there is no reason to suspect 
that he was ever himself compellwl to ' ' across 

tho water to got it into typo. So. i •>.tkinjr 

tuimoror*' 
writer oi 
bo content wi: 

For at lea- ; f rts-tleaa 

industry. Besides the . .> 

compose<l since carl}- in i. . .: — — a  < 

clergyman, ho tuis turned his pen, with a good nature and 
ness which to most men's literary reputations would have i'<-< ti 
fatal, to any sort of literary work that seemed t<> need doing. 
Y'et ho has never leaned to hard upon hia pen a« to blunt its 



23 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



point, nor dnwn wo hMkTily on vitiier hU h««d or his heart ms to 
giw any on* tha impreation th«t oithar of them was anywhera 
naaramptjr. Perhaps if he had taken hinijolf more seriously 
and aroamapactly as a man of lottort, we might hsro had more 
wtnk from him of the qiialit.r of " The Man Without a 
Ckmntrr.'* I^t he has navar aaamad to care to bo more than 
ineidentaUr xn »iithor, the raal buaineaa of his life being to 
pcomota i: good wt>rka, and good sense, and sor\'o his 

faUowHBt : . 'ut of aaaaon. 

A Chio^o firm (A. N. Marnuis an<l C».) announce as in pro- 
i^ntion a book with the title " Who's Who the Country 
° which, if it fnlfils its maker's profesnt-d purpose, will 
«.s-iiio'<- ••!> outline sketch of the biography of every living m«n 
and woman in the United States who has gained more than 
loeal distinction. Such a work, if well done and frequently 
laiiaad, would be welcome and useful. There is at proaont no 
dietiooaty of Amarioan eontemporary biography which quite 
answars tha porpoaaa which are served in England by the 
■l^liah " Who's Who ( " and by " Men ond Women of the 
Ama." " Appleton's Cyclop.Tdia of Aniorioan IJiogrnpiiy " is 
•aoallant of its kind, but there are six considerable volumes of 
it, and its aoope includes the departed as well as the living. If 
Meaars. Marquis will make a convenient, comprehensive, dis- 
criminating, accurate book in a single volume, the jingling 
title of it may be forgiven. 

Dr. Weir Mitchell's novel, " Hugh Wynne," is in its 30th 
thousand, and his new st-jry, " The Adventures of Francois," is 
•dvartiaed aa among the more glowing attractions of the CentHnj 
Magmme in 1WW. As haa been said in a previous letter. Dr. 
MitdieU ^'  "ses medicine with credit ami renown, but ho 
is not ao < d down to his practice as ho was before he 

had raiaad up a son to share his labours and relievo him. The 
idaa o< raising up a son to do his father's work and lot the 
father have some fnn before he gets too old is a very good one, 
and 6t to gain more attention and a fuller development in this 
eountry than it has yet received. Only the more crafty and 
indostrioos and suoeessfal parents seem able to make it work. 

Tha OMfbodk lately scarified with cheerful derision an evil 
whidi wma recently dwelt upon in Liffrn^urc— the excessive 
dcvalofMnent of the bump of approl)ativbness in contemporary 
l at i aw wa . But, after all. whot can wo expect ? Not only have 
writan of books increased and multiplied till the numtier of 
tham bafflea computation, but the reviewers, too, are like the 
aands of the sea for multitude. Every newspaper pays attention 
to booka nowadays, and that means that every newspaper 
f — -' — nne or two reviewers. It is out of the question that 
ktion should so abound as to suflico for so great an 
aimy -A critics. It is " bettor business " to praise than to 
damn, and it is also kindor, or aeems so. Is it surprising then 
that  ering his " Blesaecl are the 

mer. i icy," should say the best thing 

lM ean, and better things tlian he ought, about every ])ook he 
daala with 7 There are too many literary courts and tf>o many 
«aMa bafore all of them for wise reviewing to be other than 
•seaptional. Th" n.sf<.riiiihin:» iliing alH>ut current literature is 
that the bnga amoi. bread which is dumpi^l on to 

tha watan doea m in. Kut n<> ! the stream flows 

on, baaring the wh ting, obliterating, saving, 

and aomdioar. after ,iig hack what was worth 

ratnming. The ) b-> sure to be just that it 

bahovaa oa to hav< with the imperfections of the 

praliminary proceed ing.^.. 

Sanator Lodge's " Btory of the Revolution," which opens 

tbaJanoafy numbar of ' 

as tboogfa tha story « 

•ntaaunoB at fir<*' 

froB th* Jiaco po 

doas nok jomy th« . ;>• 

I/odga haa baan ealled i> 

dali^tf ul and praiaewo:.... 

wbaa ha daala with Anaricai 

ton " made a man out of n ' 

qualities. If 1 

oadant, and kn 

lant aatartaiaawnt (or madars, both A : 



Serthnrr't Mminzinr, ig oM good reading 

not so old and trite. Tlio natural 

'■•■volution ajjain, and 

r ! " Hut the storv 



• ' •■■ ill 'I" .-■• 1 11, in 

His " Life of Wa'-liing- 

it il:«ti;ir.i''i!i' lii. !ii-roic 



id iihtish. 



jfovcion Xcttcv6. 



FKANCK. 

The late I.i<-<>n Say snd Napoleon I. 8haro<l the honours of 
the last public sitting of tlio French Academy, when M. Vandal, 
oflicially roceive<l by that Ixxly, had to pronounce the customary 
eulogy of his immediate protlecossor, and Count d'HauMsonvilio, 
in his reply, drew a picture of the latter which, even after all 
that lias been said on Na]>oleon for a century, was still striking. 
M. Vandal's sjieech was not a distinguished performance ; and 
Count d'Haussonville singularly neglocto<l him, not even deign- 
ing to make him the butt of the familiar academic raillery. M. 
All)ert Vandal began his career in tho dmaeit d'Hint, but resigned 
on account of tho hostility of Radical Ministers of .Justice. He 
is a i)rofes»or at the Kcolo dos Sciences Politiquos, where he 
lectures at present on Eastern jiolitics. He has been a thorn in 
the side of M. Hanotaux, as an active supjiorter of tho Armenian 
agitation. Tho author of several overrated volumes of diplo- 
matic history under Louis XV. and Napoleon, and of a book of 
travels, he is of the tyix) of tho Mezorays and du Cliastelcts, 
whoso membership of the Academy becomes to posterity their 
sole inexplicable distinction. 

Not so Count d'Haussonville. His speech was excellent 
and characteristic. As most members of tho Institute are old 
men dwelling among tho shattered ideals of the jiast, a com- 
j)arison lietween yesterday and to-day to tho detriment of to-day 
was received with almost unanimous ajiplauso. Count d'Hausson- 
ville was by turns witty, sarcastic, eloquent, fervid. His 
speech was full of adroit allusions to Louis X VIII., Count de 
Chambord, and tho Snere Coeur, the white cathedral on Mont- 
martre, fast becoming visible high in air from every quarter of 
Pans. He pleaded tho causo of tho National Assomblj- of 1871, 
spoke irreverently of contemjxjrary Ministers, assemblies, and 
munici)>al bodies, qualified his praise of Napoleon by numerous 
quotations from the incomi)arablo dosjvtt's recently published 
letters. In short, ho showed himself once more the jK-rfoct 
academician that ho is — not a profo\nid thinker, nor an original 
writer, but a nobleman able to answer an attack in a Parlia- 
mentary Assembly and toll an anec<lote Insforo a literary 
audience, equally at homo among tho Senators in the Cajntol 
and the Sophists in the lecture-room. 

By two cfKlicils to the will of Edmond de Ooncourt M. Ldlon 
Daudet, the eldest son of the great novelist — but not, I may say 
in iKissing, so r/Ioricux as ho was described by M. Zola in his 
funeral oration over the botly of tho father, his friend — becomes 
the associate of M. Lt'on Hcnniquo as executor of the Goncourt 
will. It is likely, therefore, that tho formation of the " Gem- 
court Academy " will now proceed more rajiidly. M. Ij^on 
Daudot is a fighter and not devoid of ambition ; and not oven 
his fdial piety— although that characteristic is tho finest thing 
the public has as yet soon in him — will bo required to encourage 
him to rcaliiie tho wishes of do Goncourt without unnecessary 
delay. Meanwhile, however, that ])iety will, no doubt, find many 
an object on which to manifest itself in tho iireparation for the 
press of the unpid)lished mannRcrij)ts of Alphonse Daudet. Ajiart 
from "SoutiendeFamillo, "lie has leftacomjiloto novel, "Quinze 
An8deMariage,"and a five-act play based on the former story. His 
l>ortfolio8 are full of fragments, but more interesting than all are 
the petita ranirl.i, tho littlo noto-books, which, if jirinted, would 
reveal strikingly how invariably Daudot worked liko the great 
draughtsmen and the great painters, by making " stuelios from 
life." His corresjiondenco also will Ik) published. There are, 
notably, his letters to Mistral extending over a period of 30 years. 
M. Lrfon Daudet is the heir of a great res])onsibility. 

Among the more recent oii|»re<MationH of Daudot which have 
ajtpcared in France, that signed by his old friend, tho poet 
Copix<o, has uttractu<l the most otteiition, owing to tho pecu- 
liarity of the personal cimfession with whicli it liegins— 

Bctwern the pslc fln;erfi of Alpbonae Dtiulet an he Uy on the funiTal 
bed there wa* a cruciBx ami • chapetet. In presence of the dreadful 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



28 



Difiitery of (Itoth it in the inatinct ami tnulition of all funilie* in whirb 
thnihit ntill iionii' mliniouii feeling to |)Uc« tbt^i »»i i on Iho 

rcnisini nf iM-ingn that aru iluar. But, in tho workii ' I>«uil«t, 

BH in almint all that luw bci-n Jn > '  '  ' ' • t 

;nu may look in vain, it muat ) 

« conci-rn for tlui futuiM life. .s. . |.ii. .-,.. .... . . .... .... .<.».i..i> 

»>f rontcmporary min<l«, ami Iii', aluo, who wrltcn thmo liiira wan, until 
very riTcntly. aflc<rt<'il by it. To-day, wlirn HufT'TiuK" which ho cannot 
INiHHihly think of with nufBciiiit i;ratituili> havo rinlort-.! to him hin 
rt-llgiouH faith and ctvmal bo|M-ii, he in pained at the thimght that the 
({lorlnuii frienil whoHi) luM ho deplorea ilid not abare thia faith and thnw 
hopcK, and he can hardly reaign bimaelf to l>elieviiiK it. 

This (lossago id important a« tho first roally clear announco- 
mont of Cupp^o's " L-oiivuraiun." Hia ariiclea in Le Journal have 
loft no doubt that tho " HiitTuringa " of thu last year had worked 
a change in him, and it i« curious to note how tfjuchingly ho 
refi'ra to this " coiivorsion," as if ho felt that his past hud liuon 
wastod, and that oidy a few days now remain to him in which Ui 
xtaiid up and " testify." 

It need not surprise ovon tho readers of Literature, who have 
been rocontly informed as to tho fecundity of M. Paul Bourj;ot — 
though I may here remind them that within a yoar he has published 
three volumes of fiction, that still another is announced by M. 
Lemerro for February, and that a fourth, in his earlier manner, is 
now appearing in inatalnicnts in the Echo de Paris— to loam that 
thia writer oxprossod tho other day, while staying in a French 
country house, his fatigue of tho novel form and his desire 
to return to criticism. And this confession need not surprise, 
I say, for attentive readers of M. IJourgot will have noted tho 
signs of his growing impatience, of his positive intolerance, in 
presence of tho stupidities and ineptitudes and silly nrtificiality 
of tho men and women of that world which at tho outset of 
his career ho was accustomed to frequent. No doubt at tho 
perioil when, hypnotized by the example of Balzac and fire<l 
by a consuming ambition for literary glory, he shut himself 
up in his " ivory tower " — in his case an attic near the 
Jardin dos Plantes— and worked all night, as some watcher 
of the stars, ho formed a peculiar conception of his duty 
AS a man of letters. He resolved to explore tho undiscovered 
countrj' of tho modern Parisian drawing-room and to record 
his observations with tho scientific precision of tho professional 
psychologist that, having road Taine and Stendhal, ho sup- 
posed himself to bo. Ho perhaps fancied that in mixing with 
" smart " people ho could achieve tho difticult task of being in 
society without becoming of it, and that in thtis preserving tho 
necessary detachment which is tho condition of all scientific 
inquiry as well as of all artistic and literary work, he might 
really become tho hero of a scientific mission. That hero ho has 
become. He has recorded his observations in a number of 
volumes, which sell unceasingly : and it woidd not bo pertinent 
at present to discuss how far his work has profitod by thia 
method. 

Tho point upon which for tho moment I wishe<l to in.-dst is 
that tho little signs of disillusionment as to tho charm of tho 
partictdar world that he had sot himself to study, signs which 
in his Inter work had boon growing in number and importance, 
havo fin.illj- become so obtrusive as quite to alter tho nature of 
his product, and to make it oven violently, at times almost 
aggressively, aevoro, reproachfully ojacidatory. sternly and 
ironically moral, in its discussion, for instance, of " immorality" 
and of Parisian club morality. M. Hourgot has evidently tiro<l 
of this world which for scientific motives he invaded, but why 
he has tired of it ho does not reveal, and his rea-sona, no doubt, 
do not concern us. Yet it was interesting to know this fact, 
for it partially explains, perhaps, tho new longing to which 
ho confessed rocontly in the French " country house " — the 
longing to retnm to criticism. 

It would not bo safe, however, to conclude from tho 
appearance in a recent number of the Jierue H(Mom<tdairf, 
published by MM. Plon, Nourrit, et Cio., of a brief little 
critical study of tho Italian novelist Mmo. Slatildo Serao, that 
M. I'aul llo\irget has decided to give up novels for critical 
articles. This st\idy is by way of intri^luction to a translation 
of fllmo. Serao's " Pays do Cocagne," a translation also evidently 
done by M. Paul Bourget, for it is signed with his initials : and 
he had, no doubt, special reasons for undertaking to inttwluce 



to French nmdan a Udy who ia not ooljr a noraUat, i 

"•'*-"  ' -- -  ''-* - " aatiMiriio-i 



V, liv !..■ r. . u.xl M. The 
' . ' • ' i\\ iin. ert 



the ! 



'• war* Kwdal 

., — 1 -ii at OxfonI, aad 

tiM AiwdMa^. So that Ut «• 

'lona from iho rntrieidflynrv, of 



iiuu aluiiu, auU Vo iKita laatvly 



CoiTCsponbctKc. 



TENNYSON'S LAST POEM. 

•I 



'•'T 



Sir, — In hia very : I iinliiU-int revi,-* 

" History of Modem Kngiiah Literature " in <' .,..;- 
January, Mr. Andrew Lang says : — 

" Did Tennyson, by the iray, oompoM a lyric ' on hia death- 
bed ' ? It cannot havo bo«n ' OroMing th» M-- ' and I arould 
glatlly see it." 

As Mr. I<ang doubtless reooUoots, " Croaiing in« Bar " vaa 
the hnal po'^m in the " Denwter " rslooM of 18W. It wm 
written in October of that year. Tennyson composed a greet 
many things after that. The [xiem to which I rpf^rrMl in the 
passage from which Mr. I>ang quotes is " loea," 

which was published on October 11, 1801'. to the 

poet's funoral, in a very small edition, uniform with the original 
issue of Tennyson's works, with a title-page of its own ; t'.i^ i« 
now one of the rarest of bibliographical treaaiiros. 
October 1'2, it was reprinted, in the Order of Service ..i ..i-.l- 
minster Abbey ; and, yetjagain, in the " (Knone " volume of 
1802. Tliis I suppose] to .be the history of tho latest of Tcnny- 
son's poems. 

In the newspapers it was stated at the time that " The 
Silent Voices " was dictated by Tennyson shortly before hia 
death. This statement was never, so far as 1 ntradict«l. 

LorI Tennyson, who conlil give no aotle .formation, 

does not mention " Tho Silent Voices " in the body of his 
" Life " of his father. He says that " Love new in at the 
Window," in The Fortsttrt, was " the last song ) ever 

wrote," but, as " The Silent Voices " ia not . • ■'■-« 

not help us. Supposing it, therefore, until : a 

supplied, to be a fact that the poet dictatvu it 

Voices " from his death-bod, or in his last illness, I ! ^ 

hold that it offers to us the i: :i 

record of tho survival in a gr&r .1 

proficiency at the final exhaustion t>f t 
" Tho Silent Voices," brief as it is, 
melo<ly, but an organio metrical structure, with ; 
rhymes correctlj- di3tributo<l, and an excellent exa:; . 
poet's lyrical art. 

Those are the considerations which led me to use the phrase 
which has puzzled Mr. Lang :--" Kven in the extremity of age, 
. . . Tennyson composed a lyric as perfect in technical 
delicacy of form as any which he had writton in his prime " - 
desiring to dwell on that curious uniformity and stasis of 
Tennyson's gift*, which I boliuve to have been among the moat 
notable of his 

But Lord i .. if he will, can doubtloas tell lu exactly 

when " The Silent \ oices " was composed. 

I am vonr obedient servant, 

EDMUND GOSSE. 

29, Delamere-terrace, W., Jan. 1, 1886. 



CHARLES LAMB AND KEATS. 

lO THE KDITOR. 

Sir, — In his endeavour t :li»h po»'ts haro 

been for the most p.irt van. "f one another, 

Mr. William Watson, in y .-mUT 'Jii, quote* an 

opinion of Charles Lamb's . its as showing how 
inadequately he estimateil the genius of that groat poet. 



24 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



AMordiag t« Mr. Watton, I..;imh MlocU>d tho wi>ll-knowii 
eoaptet from " The Pot ft Kaail," about " tlio two brothiTS and 
their murdered maa," •■ • ty|iic«l an<l reprc»entAtiri< oxarojile 
of Ke*t«'s poetic quklity. 1 vvntiire to ask whether Utii is quito 



Th« pMH^e Uwt Mr. Watson had in mind was, of cotirse, 
the following from the autobioL'raphy of Ix>i^h Hunt, ffunt is 
•peekitig of Ke«ts's " !:. • of poems, containing 

* Lamia,' • Isabella, ' tl .' ntxl ' Hyperion.' " 

Hunt then aild« : — " I i irntion 

on reading this book ; I. . _ jnntion 

of Mercury aa ' the Star of Lethe ' (rising, as it wore, and 
glittering aa be came ujmn that pale region) ; and the finf dnriuL' 
anticipation in tliat paa<tago of tlio second poem — 

* So the two bmtheni and their munlored man 
Rode paat fair Florence. ' 
80 also the deaeript'on, at once delicate and gorgeous, of Agnes 
pmying beneath the paint«<l window." 

ThiM far Leigh Hunt. Now, I must think that to cull a sinslo 
one at theee o h ae nr ntions of I<amb and present it as exhausting 
his vhob- I !it«'fi merits is har<lly sound criticism. 

Tber< n ^fr. Watson's paper to which I listen 

doubtingljr ; but tl. I liare cited may suffice. 

I rem - , yours very faithfidly, 

Athenicum Club. ALFRED AINGER. 

AMERICAN HISTORIES. 

1 J THK KDITDI!. 

Sir,— In your issue of Docombor 18 Mr. Goldwin Smith 

Ravs :— " A trial now await.1 the .\nierican historian in his 

haracter which it will not be very easy for a native 

meet. The South is demanding a version of the history 

o{ tiia Civil War rectified in its interest, and fitted to be taught 

in its schools. ... It will bo curious to sec a Southern 

history, especially a school history, of the War of Secession."' 

On behalf of various persons (and one largo association) in 
the es-Confederate States, I ask you to kindly allow me to state 
aa follows :— 

Tbe 1896 report of the I'nited Confederate Veterans' His- 
torical Committee (of which Mr. Goldwin Smith seems to have 
heard) haa been ).r"i'''l. ■"■'  ■■•■' y of it is in my jyossession. 
This report oerta! i the iirctwmtion of u now 

■' Inic and r.']i:il ' :u Civil War." Hut it al.so 

•.■>rii>s of the United States, and one 

\ il War, as " suitable for use in the 

•States. It also onimenda (as 

1 list of (J8 books whicli throw 

UijLt uj' sonoges of the war. Most 

of thcs<> : , but one of tlicm is the 

volume . litf which has been so highly 

commoni! Mr. Gladstone. 

In til" n Till '■]  ■' 1 1 j^ 1 '!■(], the 

Confederate soldier '■ 1 with 

hon' ■' ■•■' has abi<l( ,1,. d.- n imned to 

the nn equ lod in the Union as a 

fri. , hunibl'- v a...n ;i:(v .,,, in-tty 

n tr.-.icl. , of the 

-, nccoi't;: , . . : „ ;:. ; : ;ro, and 

proud of the i>a»t." 

I liave tlio honour to lie, Sir, vmir nbadient servant. 

M VTONSTURMER. 

Primrose Club, 6t. Jam> 7. 

RENAN AND MARK PATTISON. 

T(» THK EDITCJK. 
Sir, — Mm*. Darm«»irtnt«r. in l)«r very interf-ntinr " Life of 

11 my " r ''ns of 

.'IS I thin', t one- 

r issue 

while 



course are yet nimblest in tlie turn : aa it is betwixt the grey- 
hound and the hare. ' ' 

My old and kind fnend, Lord Houghton, used to say with 
truth tliat some men can derive real (ileosure from the con- 
' ' '  ' fs which tliey have ceased to hold. He was 

f himself. ISut he was a poet ; and he must 
.1 mis faculty of feeling warm when clad only in 
1 roams are made of comics oa.sier to puots than to 
;..,.. .,■.....,. It was never thoroughly acuuirod by I'attison. 
He could not, like Heiiun, and es|.eciui!y like Matthew Arnold, 
be a ihuruugh iconoclast, and yot delude himself into thinking 
that ho was (if I may coin such a word) an iconoplost all the 
time. He micht, imlood, have amused himself by the effort (to 
use Reiukn's phrase) iaitlfr n sa r/tiiif son rumau <le I'itijiiii ; b\it 
ho would not have boon able to persuade himself that such a 
]Misthumous coAtlc in the air was a sure refuge against spiritual 
tempests ; in short, his sonso of tnith was such that, although, 
like Henan, he could play witli his imagination, ho could not as 
completely and so coiitente«lly os Hoiiau play with his emotions 
also. He could not, so to say, make believe to bo true whot ha 
really believed to bo fal.se. 

Not wi.shing to seem unju.st to the great ond wise Henan, I 
will shelter my somewhat atlverso cnticism under the authority 
of Edmond .Si.lioror. Scherer in one of his •• Ktudos " has 
oddly comjMired Henan t<i Darwin, and has more oddly sot him 
above Darwin. Yot in a private letter — the last tliat ho wrote 
to mo — he told mo that he became more and more convinced 
that, with all his merits, Henan was " a jolly-lish without back- 
bone." I should not myself have used such a com|>ari8on, but 
this exaggerated or exaggorativoly-expressed view may serve to 
illustrate my own more moderate view. 

1 am, Sir, yours faithfully, 

LIONEL A. TOLLEMACHE. 

H6tel d'Angloterre, Biarritz, Doc. 25. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

TO THE EDITUK. 

Sir, — I should think very many of your readers will dissent 
from the views of your correspondent, Sir. J. M. Loly, regarding 
the inclusion of letters in biographies. Surely letters are not 
the least of the charms of great biographies. Not to mention 
Boswell, whose immortal work apparently does not altogether 
niease Mr. Leiy, what o loss would it not be if the numerous 
lottors had t>een excluded from (or, worse still, relegated to an 
appendix in) Moore's ''Lord Byron," Locklmrt's "Scott," or 
Ircvelyan's " Macaulay " ? Pfven though all subjects of hi o- 
graiihy bo not as oiiiiiiont as those. Cardinal Newman was right 
when he said " that the true life of a man is in his letters— not 
only for the interest of a biography, but for arriving at tho 
inside of things, the publication of "letters is tho true method. 
Biograjihers varnish, they assign motives, thoy conjecturo 
feelings, they interpret Lord Burleigh's nods ; but contemporary 
letters are facts." 

Certain biographies published not so very long since afford 
abundant confirmation of tho truth of these words. 
I om, dear Sir, faithfully vours, 

Dublin, Dec. 28. P. A. SILLARD. 



cvursu 



W, m C(.r 

.'■on's '• y 1 - 

\Vc avc iu t«a£ta, Uiat Uiuae Uiataro weakokt in tlie 



©bituar^. 

—  — 

The <1 :: Edwakd .\v<ii .-^tis Boxn, at tho ago of 82, 

almost in: after his nomination as K.C.B., recalls tho 

inaugurati.ui 1 n-mo of the most useful reforms in tho admini- 
stration of the British Museum. Ho liogon life at the Hecord 
Ollico, and in I.'<J8 was transferred to tho ..Manuscript Depart- 
ment of tho museum. In 1878 ho was opiiointed princii)al 
librarian, and retired in 1888. During his i)criod of ollico tho 
White Wing was constructed, giving further siiaro for prints, 
drawings, antiquities, and MSS., and electric light was intro- 
duced into the Reading Room and galleries. He de8igne<l and 
comploteil a series of facsimiles of .\nglo-Saxon and other 
chorters in the museum. He published for tho OxfonI Commis- 
sionora tho " Statutes of tho University," in three vols., and 
 '■ ' ' ' "' vernmont "Tho Six-eches in the Trial of 
besides other iiublications for the Hakluyt 
' "•' ' ' ■• log. His chief work, how- 

italogue of the MSS. in tho 
■\ to all acquisitions from 
>. was in fact reorganized 
iencv. In conri'- i"" uifji 
Tided the Pal; A 

Ho marrioti 1 „ ' r 
of tho author of the " ingoldsby Legends." 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



Botes. 



In next week's Literature " Among my Bo<iks " will ba 
written by " Vernon Leo." 

« • • « 

Wo cun(;ratiilato tlio Athemmm on the cololirution of it« 70tb 
liirtliday. Alodorn ruadurs must often have been |>uzzlii«l by the 
tonilic uttorauoes of Cnrlylo and Maeaiilay in dunaiiciatitui of 
" imffery " and " putl" paragrniihs," and if iini,h ternig hare now 
bocorao a little obsciiro wo (.wo it largely to the Alhrt^itiim, to 
tlio bravo stand made by that journal against tlio abominable 
8y8tum by which " critical " reviews of a l)ook wore writttm by 
•omobody in the ollico from which it issued, itefore the 
appoaranco of the Atliciuium honest and impartial reviewing was 
almost non-existont. Colburn piibliBlied and Ma^'inn criticized, 
and even in tlie quarterlies it went ill with a poet if ho had lioen 
m-en taking a walk with a member of the wrong ]>olitioal party. 
Crokor, for example, was by no means an ideal editor of lioswoll, 
but something more than literary indignatinn inspired Macaulay'a 
notice, his " dusting of the varlefs jacket." Wo know too well 
how a writer faro<l at tho claws of Hta<-ktiH)ud'> if ho had Iieen 
guilty of taking tea with Shelley, and Macaulay, again, found 
Ualt's novels tho worst in tho world, simply because they came 
from a Tory i)ubli8hing house. To its great credit the .Hhduium 
began a now era in criticism, laying aside both tho venalities 
and political propoHsossions of tho old school. From the first it 
was an independent journal of literature, not tho organ of Bacon 
or Bungay, of Whig or Tory. 

* • »  

And not oidy were the new reviewers honest, they were 
eminently sagacious. To-<lay they can quote the following para- 
graph about Tennyson : — 

\Vc linvc never before seen a prize poem which jn<liratr<l really flmt- 
nito poetical geniiii, and which wonl.I have Hone honour to any man 
that ever wrote. Such we do not hesitate to affirm is the little work 
before us. 

This was written in 182!>, l)eforo the " old " critics had even 
begun to laugh at tho future laureate ; and tho reviews of Shelley 
and Keats, of Coleridge .and Wonlsworth, whom few then rightly 
viiluod, aro equally appreciative. And this, too, on Moore, shows 
that tho Atlttiiiium'.^ destructive criticism was as sound as its 
appreciations : — 

Hi> never gives us a representation of whnt ii, but. as if the world 
*""'■ • • • in il« chililhooil chosen to put itself into masquerade, and 
he hid since got possession of the cast-off finery, ho arrays it anew in 
the tirnished tinsel and old artificial flowers. 

To have laughed at Moore is almost as meritorious as to have 
foretold tho glory of Tennyson, and we again congratulate tho 
Athenartm on its bright beginning and its tino ixjrseverance. 

 « »  
Professor Max-Miiller has been oven more than usually busy 

during the last 12 months, for in tho early part of the year there 
were new editions of several of the " .Sacred Hooks of the East," 
which doubtless required careful revision, and these wore fol- 
lowefl by two volumes of " Contributions to tho Science of 
Mythology," which have already appeared in French and (German 
translations. Then came a new e<lition of the Professor's trans- 
lation of " Kant's Critique of Pure Heason " with the incor|>ora- 
tion of the various readings from the new materials that will 
soon bo published by Dr. Adicke.s for the Hoyal Perlin Academy. 
And, further, the Professor's volume of romini.iceiices, under the 
title of " Auld Lang Syne," will be published by Messrs. 
Longmans this month. 

Remembering that Professor Max-M(lller is now in his 76th 
year, this would appear to bo a fair budget of work, but, apart 
from these labours, he has also given some six or eight months 
to a " History of Ancient Philosophy," comprising the six 
recognized systems, and this volume, if not already finished, will 
be completetl in the course of the next few weeks. 



A CoiTMp<>n<lant avmla lu th« tullowing 

P' r  • '■•  'M- ■■■■••• •■• -- ; — 

[Mr 
up. A ii'.v< uM ].iiii\ a<i\./u»i-.i Mi ii iHvt AC i ^uuxuaI lut auuiX 
original plota.J 

l>no V ' -• ' ' ' • e, 

'b or sky. 



And show as all llw ' 

l!ut DOW 1 stay ■■.■ 
And laam to advcrtiM: fur |ilou 

Now ■■'•"'■■ •■»■■ " •• !■•■"' and Ka, 

 nnd ttM kyr. 

TllC> 'r>r, 

And 

Abo  
Wbcrt? novrliin. iimM 

My (;««rtt«T I  
And Irarn to advertiae lot |*iui«. 

'ITie maiil of high or low it< i;.-. . 

The youth that lor In !.!i.. 

Men who bunt treaaorr, rr 

A wiinl, or rnt . pie, 

Havi- all lje«-n ir. . aul why 

Was 1 bum late ? Inviuiiou iul» : 

I work co-oper«ti»clT, 
And learn to advertise for plots. 

Prince, Fancy's fountain has rtin 

But, would you (jathcr coin 
I've found a dodge r «o wi|j* your e)t , 
And learn to ailvrrtiae tor plots. 
• * * • 

In the current number of the Gmttmporafy Stxitte Mr. 

Havolock Ellis, who has been exporimentir '  " t!i 

the drug " mescal," gives a minute iind ■• ,f 

his sensations while under it^ 
is of special intercut for the 

part of the charm of this dn. , • 

beauty which it casts around 

If It should over chance," suys Mr. Lllia, •• iption 

of mescal becomes u habit, the fuvourit , ;:,....iil 

drinker will certainly be Wordsworth." If this is so, tl^ 
narcotic, it seems to us, will as certainly supply what 
tisers describe as • " felt want." For whatever the fsi 
Wordsworthian may think, there are many images and i: .ii '. 
more lines which seem even to a genuine admirer of that prvat 
]H>et to require a little more elevation than they p<^s*eM. This 
the reader himself will now be able to au|)ply. Fortilic<l with a 
" nip " of mescal wo shall nj ; "So |>a«Mgt>a in a now and 

more favourable m<H>d. A " inty" will rest u[on ttie 

l<I«dc. wit!^ '.lie c'o'Jud, 

and when the Ssilo: xho has 

travelic^l far mn lluil to m'« 
What clothes he might have lift, or oth»r j roprrty. 
we shall for the first tii; 
hy{>otbctical wardrobe, : 

• « » ■» 

It is to bo hoped, however, that Mr. Ellis will porsue his 
exi>erimonts further and wit! •• . • • ..ly bo 

that every poet has his a; ,1 h« 

administered to the reader « '..i a iuil .u • 

ciation of him. Mescal, of c !1 case. V' 

is wanted with some poets is ii<<t a < 
commonplace, but one which will sinq 
for instance, should we " exhibit " bcfort' 
certain " Dramatic Lyric " beginning, " .1 
What does the Browning Society re i ' 

absinthe, or bromide of potasaium y I ;.- .■,..;...-.-- ..... 
thoughtful b<Mly should certainly institute a <-<iurso of cxi»ri- 
ments. As to tho min< * it is p<jf ' ' ' ig regard 

to a certain unifonnity i' c ami mn* .e " drug 

of appreciation "—if we them all. 

Only it need not necessa; . isably, be 

a narcotic. Homoeopathy luay Im piuhetl too tar. 



26 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



Mr. Oeorg* Giasing, who is in Ronio, ii.i ' much of the 

pMt year ia th* south i>f Italy, and thinks ii book on 

hi* esperienew in such jilac^s as Cotronu and Cutanxaro, where 

Kni^isk p«ople »r» rarely, if over, met with. lAst autumn, at 

.. Mr. Oisain^ C'>iiu>l»*ttHt a small volunio on Charles 

I', sens which is to npi>ear shortly in Messrs. Ulackie's 

" Victorian Era .Series. " 

« « « « 

The total number of books publishod iu 1897— 7,020— shows 
an iocreese of 1,353 on the figiires of the preceding year. Those 
who may tegret the increaae of fiction from 1,»>54 to 1,9(30— a 
total esoeediog the number of books published in any other 
department of literature by 1,268 — may find some comfort in the 
fact that on an average onlv one of every three works of fiction 
has passe<l a first edition. Perhaps too they may derive conso- 
lation from tlio increase in books on theology from .">03 to 594, in 
educational works from 629 to 692, and in books dealing with 
Political and Social Economy, Trade, and Commerce from 347 

t.) .'sSl. liut fiction alone has entered the tliousands. 
« • « « 

Since the days of George Faulkner, and later of Curry and 
M'Ghi.shan, publishing in Ireland has not amounted to nuioh. 
^\ \\\t there is of it, at present, is of so small a value that one 
r.>i;;ht safely ignore it when comi>aring the publishing houses of 
Dublin and Belfast with, say, E<linbargh and Glasgow. The 
IJIack woods, the Chambers, the Blackies in Scotlunu have not 
their like in Irtdand. Ireland, as a writer in the Xeic Ireland 
H- nVir say.', has only her booksellers. This is remarkable when 
iMie remembers th.it several distinguished exponents of English 
literature were Irishmen born. Burke, tJoldsmith, Mooro, Lever, 
Carleton, Justin M'Carthy, and Conan Doyle, along with Swift, 

S*-^--''' '■' I I'.eb,.! , ,r,,.., no mean gallery ot literary artists. 

-\ t all of those men found their first 

a,,; ... J..._.and. Mr. Robert Blake, in the 

course of : • i-ferred to, takes up his parable from this 

text, and .•-  lat, in view of the movement in favour of a 

revival of Irish industries, it might be well if capitalists turned 
their attention to the establishment of publishing-houses in the 
sister isle. Ho says : — 

The fact that publishing cannot be said to exist, as a busi- 
nfis, in Ireland, and that iu consequence literature distinctively 
Irish has cra*e<i to be pro<laced, not only implies the financinl loss of 
■II that might be gaine<l in the succi-ssful pursuit of publishing, but the 
loas of all the influence Ireland might wield if she were properly rcpre- 
■eated in the world of letters. 

He claims for Irishman over Englishmen a larger fund of taste, 
fertility of imagination, humour, and all those gifts which are 
necessary for the making of literature. 

But as publishing is to so great an extent centralized in London, 
and is almost exdosirely in the bands of Englisb Qnns, there is n con- 
stant paralyzing pressure < xercise*! by tr.ido influences against the de- 
velopment, even again.<t the Minival, of those peculiar Irish gifts to tlie 
■pleodoar of which the literature of the English Uinguage owes so 



« • * « 

There is much to bo said for the establishment in Ireland of 
publishing and printing houses, and esi>ecially for the erection 
of paper mills. Labour is 'cheap, water ia plentiful, rent is low. 
The trouble in the past has been that what books were produced 
: the hands of the manufacturers in so wretched a garb. 

I .t to romemWr the appearance of Irish school books 

t iilea of how badly a book may lie prmluced, in so far 

.-\ ' i>ai>or, i)rinting, and binding. But, after all, pub- 

ln.'.r- I annot make literature. A sj^cially Irish literature — 
and this has to l>o define<l — would not pay either the autlior to 

€•'■■' — ' ♦'  • vhlislior to publi.sh. Ireland has hardly, as 

.<le circle of readers. At present sucli work 

' 1,1, l,v Kiir li nil ..rr.inization as the Iri.sh 

I not achieve success 

1- ■me in appearance, a 

delight to handle, and a pleasure to read. 

• » » « 

Mr. A i that Temiyscm was 

" a poet th . :g in tnunlations. " 

We are inciiuwl to agree with Uie critic after reading the fol- 
lowing version of " Itrcak, break, break " : — 

Caasez voiis, casso/. vous, cassez vous, 
O mer. snr ti"* froids gris cailloux. 
But, after all, : v one more instance of the rurious in- 

competency of i • li language for the expression of the 

deeper emotions. lUther one might say that French has no 



" mvstory language." The " thon " and " thee " which the 
English writer always hoUls in reserve are used, indeed, in 
French, but to convey a sense of familiarity and not of sub- 
limity, and there are many amusing stories illustrating the 
strange catastrophes that have liefallon the French translator. 
" Angels and ministers of grace defend us " must be renderotl, 
we know, by 

Mon Dieu I t^u'ost co quo u'esttjuo ^a? 
and the solemn " void of nnderstaiuling " of the Bible appears 
as " absolument di^pourvu de bon sons. ' Perhaps the defect is 
really to Ito sought not in the words of the language, but in the 
minds of the jieonle. There is a talo of an Engliuhman who 
heard mass in a French church and was deeply moved by the 
austere splendours of the gospel for the day. He tried to express 
his enthusiasm to the priest after the service. Tho pood ■•iiic 
was mildly astonished. "Oh, yes," ho remarked, " il y a des 
tres jolies ohoses dans I'r^vangile.'' 

« • « « 

Though Mrs. Frances Hoclgson Burnett's novel, " A Lady 
of Quality," ha<l a gaod sale in America, and though the 
dramatization of the book, produced this winter in Now York, 
has made one of the greatest successes of the soasoii, her now 
work, " His Gr.ice of Osmonde," which wo review to-day, has 
been severely hiindled by the <Titics. It is said to have been 
written in gr0.1t hiiste. Mrs. Burnett, who lias passed much of 
her time in England of late, has returned to her home in 
Washington for the winter. 

• « « • 

For some time post " George Egerton " has been working 
uix)n a longer and more sustained book than she has yet pro- 
duced. She will adopt the practice of some other lady novelists— 
a practice which Mr. Balfour in his researches into current fiction 
seems so strangely to hovo ovorlooko<i — and treat of the dovolop- 
nient of a woiiian from childhood. It will not, however, follow 
tho lines of " Tho Both Book,'' but toll quite " another story," 
for •' George Egerton " is a careful observer of life on her own 
account. Her method is to arrange tho story in her mind 
beforehand, completely and in detail, the actual WTiting taking 
her tho shortest possible time ; and she has already some two 
or three future books in ijcito. The volume entitled " Key- 
notes " has now been translated into Gorman, Swedish, Danish, 
Dutch, and Hungarian ; " Discords " is now appearing in 
German and in Dutch, and " George Egerton 'a " later books 
have been sold for Germany and Italy. 

« • « * 

" The Arabian Nights," like a classic of a very different 
kind, " The Pilgrim's Progress," has always attracted artists of 
the most diverse styles. Its newest illustrator is to be Mr. Fred 
Pegram, whoso illustrations have lightened many a dull serial, 
and tho edition comprising his works will bo publishod by 
Messrs. Service and Paton during next autumn season. 
« *   

Mr. LawTonco Housman, whoso curious book, " Gods and 
their Makers," created some interest last year, will have a now 
book published by Mr. Grant Richards next February, called 
" Spikonanl, a Book of Devotional Love-Poems." Its " note " 
will 1)0 found to be extremely mystic and its form is modoHod 
on tho religious writers of tlio 17th century. Next September 
Messrs. Kegan Paul will publish Mr. Housman 's third book of 
fairy tales, entitled " The Field of Cloves." It will bo uniform 
with the others already published, but for the first time the 
illustrations will bo engraved u|)oii woml by Miss Clemence 
Housmiin, so us to insure fidelity to tho original drawings, which 
Mr. Lawrence Housman foels cannot bo secured for them by the 
ordinary " process " reprotluction. 

«  « « 

A correspondent says in regard to our " note " of the week 
before last on the eollal>oration of Mr. (!rant Richards with Mr. 
G. W. Steovons in tho writing of a romance : — 

Vou mention this matter as though it were somewhat surprising that 
a publisher sboubl also Iw an author, whereas I am ■ur]>rtse<l only wbrn 
I lind pu)>lisber» do not write. Is not Mr. K<lmunil Downey a well- 
known author as " V. M. Allen," and is there not a demand for the 
folk-lore works of Mr. Alfred Nutt ': Was not Mr. William Bi-incmann 
publisbeil by Mr. John Lane, and, only a riiristnias or two ago, did not 
everybody receive a rbarming Iwoklet written by the owner of the Bodley 
Head ? Wc know the names of Macmillan and Bodder and Murray nnd 
Blackwno<l both among the authors and aiimiig the publishers. Mr. 
Kegan Paul has written, it is said : Mr. AnilrewTuer has, I have under- 
■tooil, )>ennrd a tolume or two, and Mr. K. U. Marstun has produced two 
or three excillent but unpretentious l>ooks on Fishing. Mr. Oswald 
Crawfurd (even an outsider may know ho is "not altogether unconnected," 
as they say in the Press, with Chapman and Hall) has written both 



Jumiary 8, 1898.] 



Lri'llKAIIRF. 



27 



» 



]»(Mi<lnnyniouiil]r adJ iu hi* own nun*. Mr. BurKin utill wrilv*, uwl if 
he !«• iiiit » publiMhiT h» ia saiil to !)« protly iii'«r one. TtKM ure th<t 
fitw lutinm that ofcur ti> ii<e h»p-hauircl, but thvrn kto utheni I bavn no 
ilouht. Somii of im h«Ti' hraril from time to time tb»t uutburs h«vo hrva 
II nad nuiiinhoit to thiir pulillnhpri ; let US ho|« that tbe publiiber will not 
lieromo a nuisance unto hllll^<'lr. 

■» * » » 

Wo hnvo watfliod tlm risoand tlio clocliiio i>f the Klamhoyant 
school of oliiHtticnl (.'ritii'isiii : iium no lonKor < ompiiro •+;«iliylii» 
to a ]iine-grovo, or ivpply Jolinson'ii (Icucriiitiiui of u " nest of 
ninginj; birds " to uny (?rc>iip of pouts who )iup|K'ii to live ut tho 
."nmo period. Hut timro is a now terror ; dmnocrooy liss taken 
tlio barricades of tlio scliools, and I'lsto, AriHtotlo, and Horo- 
dotus are to b« taught their places. Professor Murray, at tho 
instigation of Mr. liossu, haa written a little l>ook almut soinn 
l)ig l)oiiks; I'lato, it seems, is " witty and facile," Arintotle is 
"cocksure and nrr.'('=," Herodotus i« very gravely >' tli 

ijross credulity. Mr. Herbert Paul ha.s ventureil t :v 

little, to hint a fault in this method of criticism — liviii m m, ii.it.' 
<li.-iliko when the professor finds fault with Thncydicles'H ^•raiiunar. 
His article, "Tlio Now Learning," has "drawn" I'rofissnr 
Oilbort Murray, and in tho current number of tho ]\'iii'i,;iilh 
Ciiiiunj Athens and (ilusgow are very prettily pitted against one 
another. One is a little reminded of Dr. Johnson's remark to 
Adam Smith, also a Glasgow professor, who had been pniisiiig 
tho beauties of Glasgow. " Pray, Sir," said tho doctor, " have 
you ever seen lireutfi^rd ? " 

• « • « 

Of late, lK)tli in England and Scotland, there has Iwen an 
imusual activity among law publishers in tho launching of 
ambitious iirojects. Concurrently in both countries Enuvt^lo- 
ii.edias of Law are in jirogress ; in Scotland there is shortly to 
be begun the issue of a serios of revised reports on the model of 
that now in progress here under tho oihtorsliin of Sir Frederick 
Pollock : but perhaps more important than these, at all events 
to the working lawyer, is tho Consolidated Digest of reported 
cases, which is nearly ready for the press. This work, which will 
run to 12 or 13 volumes, is a huge undertaking, consolidating 
for the first time in one digest practically tho whole IxKly of 
English case law. 

•»#■»» 

Nothing, writes a classical correspondent, was hidden from 
tho prescient eye of Virgil. As every one knows, tho prudent 
medieval put his trust in the soites I'iriiiliaiin even more than 
iu the presage of Holy Writ. The great Mantuan seer (one need 
hardly say) is not at fault in tho present diplomatic complica- 
tion. Ho knew all about Kiau-chau and I'ishop Anser's visit to 
the Kaiser. Even in tho placid context of his " Georgics " 
(i., 119) he cannot refrain from a hint about this very improbu.i 
A)i.icr, and tho Uishop's audacious invasion of that august 
society whore all Gorman geese become swans is foretold, not 
obscurely, in the line (Eel. ix., 36), 

" Argutos inter stropero Anscr olores." 
But never is A'irgil's second-sight more piercing than in its 
almost photographic perception of the Bishop's arrival in the 
gilded halls of Berlin : — 

" auratis volitans argenteus Ansor 
Portioibus, Gallos in limine adesso canobat. "' 
{JEn. viii., 0C5). Wo soem almost to hear the Ihittorod whisper 
of the jiatriotic prelate as ho breathed into Imperial ears tho 
rumour that tho French were descending upon Hainan on tho 
very threshold of China. Jiut why n njciilcus ? snmo may ask. 
Surely no epithet could bo more titling to an ecclcsi.Tstic whose 
salary at ^haIl-tung is naturally represented by the shining 
silver taels of tho Son of Heaven. " 

•»»■»•» 

Mr. W. D. Howells, who has returned to New York after a 
visit in Euro]H) of several months, is finishing a new novel which 
is to appear serially in Harprr'x Bazar, Ix-ginning next July. It 
deals with tho life of a young girl whose fortunes take her from 
the country in New England to a brilliant career in Europe. 

• « •  

Mr. E. C. Stedman, whose collection of verso published by 
Messrs. Houghton, Mifflin, and Co. was mentioned in our 
American letter last week, is perhaps better known in England 
for his critical work than as poot. His " Victorian Poets," ' 
published several years ago, gave him a place among the best- 
equipped and the most vigorous of tho American critics. For a 
man who is devoted to two occupations Mr. Stedman has accom- 
plished a surprising amount of literary work. Though trainoti 
to journalism after leaving Yale University, he has" for more 
than 30 years been a member of tho New York Stock Exchange. 



> moDOtoojr 

famoua mm 



Having no novel in hand at tho muniout. Mi 

M-— ' t.....l.. t,. . !..„..».. 1.. I.- I .- •> I 



t!j»t 

: ; - .»r- 

snoe, and llwl t: .:■ ^ a 

larger amount "f -• m 

poiuwss. One <i 

in the life of ' • 
autlior. 

« 

Mr. W. S 
lias written u 

tho Now-cut "-> il <■■■,,,, „, 11 ,.,■, i. , I,, 11, »i;i| ;i 

revolution in a little l.'mbrian town iu th> 1 .ry. 

« » • 

Mr. Anthony Ho|>o has not very favourably impTMMd the 

una: 
of 111 

a manager ot 

tensivelv, shai. g 

out-of-tlie-way UisUicla in I. •.> 

make a literary use of his o\| . , 

must bo rather arduous. A 

readers fn>iu their own bo' ,1 

fatigue of travel in that va^ n 

s|ioaking iMsforo largo audiem- :  ' v 

declares that after his present leoiurini; lour ih loinp I 
never undertake another. 

 « * * 

Among the pictures in the now Millaia Exhibition it is 

interesting to find that tho pro-P-^'-'.^oii*.- -i t :.. ti .. ......»•, 

work is most obvious in his i )i 

as " Jjoronzo and Isabella," ' 
and ' ' Mariana. ' ' This is sui  
Millais was under the influen 

ideas of these pictures occurruii to him. For i: n 

" Lorenzo and Isabella " the charm of the words is ,y 

conveyed by tho mc<lieval of the (lainting tlul it 

seems to be the appropriate a of tho poem in colour. 

The elaboration of detail in " l^oreiizo and Isabella " reminds 
us of the artistic finish of the poem. Keats, a little reckless of 
his riches in Endymion, was now a master of poetic oc<inomy. 
and though the picture represents necessarily but one moment 

in the narrative it is an "apt f-' ' " •■•' •'■•■ '■•■•->■ ( .i.p 

whole. In accordance with the v, u 

l>y Lessing in his " Laocoon," t' ,:. ,. 

acme or transcendent point in" — ni-. r 

of Lorenzo nor the despair <i I -but a o' 

tho I>eginning of the poem, so tlmt ; , 

have the whiHo story tiefore him. I .i.l. 

at dinner with their retainers. liesulo her is 

Lorenzo. Tho sinister expression of the two br< • 

they will regard the love of their sister for tho " 

trade designs." In tho " Evo of St. Agnes " tl f 

of Madeline as— 

Pensive awhile she dirsnis awake, an 

In fancy, fair St. Agntf in her I>«1 
is so well conceived that wo cannot but wish that the painter 
hud also delayed at tho previous stanza and painted her in the 
colours sho<l by the moon-lit casement — 

A..< ilowii sbo knelt for tlr.tven's grace ood boon ; 

KoKs bloum fell no ber baO'ls, together {mat, 

AnJ on her silver cross soft amethyst 

And on h<<r hair a glorv like .i »int. 
Perhaps, after all, this vision should remain Hu:n<1 to the lover 
who witnessed it and tho poot who describes it. 

« « « 

Mr. Grant Richards has in tho press for imm<'<ii.i 
tion a novel entitle<l "Convict W," written by M 
Leighton and Robert lA>ighton. This 8t<iry of r^ n 
ap|>eared originally as a serial in .1 ■.<"-t«. Mrs. Liil' 
of the most industrious   ' ^ on tin- li 

periodicals, in two of w ^? pns' 

Sejiarately.and in conju: !ir 1, .- 

some 30 serial novels, an ;!i. -■ ir. 

issued successively in i"' k i 'm:; o\ .mi iiranl Kii ) 
lioginniiig with " Convict 09," " 31ichacl Dnnl." and " 1 
vi.wi.v. .,,■ i;..iit." Mr. P-'- <■' ' • ' -' » .n, who is on th" «; . 
.is also • " The Golden <■ .'i' n 

: . _.\e<l in Lit ther story bo«.>k5 i r !■ y.s 

published by 3Iessrs. Blackic and Son. 



28 



LITERATURE. 



[January S, 1898. 



The rush fur pohi in Klonilike hu already pr<xluc«Mi <|uit« 

• rwpactfi'' ' • on thv ctiuntrv. Wi> may nu'ntinn " llio 
Pioneers -vo " (Samt«<<n Low, 3m. tltl.), an fti-omnt of 

two ,• on Uic Yukon, narraU-il hv Mr. M. H. 

E. 1 Mr. H. West Taylor, and riluftraU'il l.y 

» •! "• '1 l>y Mr. Hnyno, who is rosponsihli' for 

• . •■ ~ :i ,' with tin' first days of tlio cri'at 
> ; ; . M'r>' one with a toiu-h of gold tovor 
woi. I to know. Thf goncral view of tlio Hituation is not 
nin<. -V, and *' If," sayg Mr. Taylor, " 'Klondyko ' bo a 
8rn>>u>tii iur wealth, thi-n «urvly will * Klondiction ' for all time 
ataiK) for fi-rtilo. iinn'^itmiiKHl inioj^ination." Tile American 
joir il di'al of irresponsible romance 
ab. ; with tolerant amusement, and 
thi' ' itv " are rallied a little for their 
•«■; liaroly ItOO mile.s awuy— scepticism 
whirii i.Tninaniy uiM n. i ii;ivi- tile Americans until theirCanadian 
noif;hboura had staked out the l>est claims. Mr. Taylor is 
anx-   •''•■• the golden river shall receive its proper name and 
be a V- It ap|>ear8 t<> be a corruption of the Indian 

"T k,'"' the "Swift," or "Deer,"' river. "The Gold 

Fields. if Klondike," by John W. Leonard (Fisher Unwiii, '2s. lid.), 
is another work of much the same class, but instead of the narra- 
tive of one it contains the exi)erience8 i>f a large number of 
people who Were among the pioneers, including more than one 
lady. The point of view is American, Klondike is spelt with an 
<, and the reader is told that hu will succeed if he be provided 
with " a sound constitution, a stout heart, and American grit." 

« • « • 

Rut the roost important work on the district is yet to 
be pubtishe<l. It will ap|>ear early in February, as a largo 
octavo volume, with a1)out ]00 illustrations. Its title is 
to be "The Yukon Territory " ; but the work will include, 
in reality, three separate contributions. Part I. is Mr. W. 
Dall's " Narrative of the Expedition of 1870," consisting 
of an account of the Yukon territory since the time 
Alaska was acquired by the United .State's Government. Mr. 
Dall wan Director of tlio Scientific Corps sent out by the 
^Voste^l Union Telegraphic Com|)any, in 1800. This narrative 
represents the American side of the historj-. Kritisti points of 
view are supplied in Parts II. and III., which consists of 
reports mode by Mr. George M. Dawson and Mr. J. S. Ogilvie 
on behalf of the Canadian (iovemmont. Mr. Dawson went out 
in IfWT to report on the seal fisheries, and Mr. Ogilvio's report 
the somewhat sensational account of the discovery of 
il, and other minerals, which first drew public attention 
to tlie Klondike district. The reports have been carefully 
digesteil and recast into narrative form under the editorship of 
Mr. K. Mortimer Trimmer, F.R.G.S. The volume will be 
published by Messrs. Downey. 

• • • « 

Apart from scientific papers, Dr. D. H. Scott is at present 
workins on a book to be called " Studies in Foesil B<itany," 
which Messrs. A. and C. Black have undertaken to publish. It 
will bo founded on a courte of lectures given by Dr. Scott at 
University College last year. Its object is to bring before 
l.,.t...,i,.nl ..t,,.!.,,'" H,...,. ....;,.., i„ which the study of fossil 

t bearings on genonil botany, 
^ : .. _ ..inlutions from fossil l>otany to 

the theory of New editions of Dr. Scott's " Intro- 

duction to ^ I Hotany " have appeared this year : in 

Part II. some account is given of the important .Japanese dis- 
covery of spermatozoids <x;curring in certain flowering plants. 
• • • « 

Mr. Trmplo Srntt hn« almost finished an elaborate biblio- 
jrm; ;id his translators. The work, which 

i» t L' by Mr rjmnt Richards, will con- 

taii to all tl.' o on the subject. 

In usual bi! ptions, the notes 

wil; " on the various 

trni Clo<ld will fur- 



nish 



'■^r-ijiim;iu iiiiriHoiciioii t<> tne \OiUinf- 



Whethet almn 
may iMsrhaps be ib 
clerical .- .^'.-•- • 
almanai- 
and in ' 
The •iiti- 
the crc< t > 
cottagers of < 
thry i-cc.tiyty ! 
a<Ie<|tiate to t  
man to rea<l .. 



':Id bo in< 



m.iny n 

.-... 1., .1. 



■'.a 

. i.i ij 1 i  >i I iM- Ml.l^^* t)f 

. s: — "In their Interest 

iv me to say one wonl ? 

 that 1 have no room in the rectorj* for 
II, and on lo giving them away to the 
that iNijuite out of the question. Whether 
H nt or modern, their wall space is in- 
ion of an almanac which requires a tall 
i of January', or a short man, or the tall 



man on his knees, to take account of what December has to 
record, Itoduco the size and moke it uniform, so that what- 
ever almanac people prefer, the family frame will hold it." 
« » * « 

Tlio collecting of old almanacs is of comparatively recent 
date, and to the " average " person will perlmps seem a 
singularly foolish game. It can hardly be said that these 
ephi ' '' : rank very high as literary priKluctions, 

yet • I ntuny iilmses of interest to the curious. 

An e.\> I |>Li'<ii.iii_\ >' iij^ t.eries of old tVench examjiles was sold eX 
Itobinson and t isher s the other day, 'M renh/Ane a total of I'llU, 
or an average of over three guineas oncli. 'llie set extended 
from 17o7 to 171W, but wanteil many iiitoi inediato years. The 
greater portion are in beautiful old French bimliiig, richly 
tooled, and liearing the armorials of the French Uoyal Family, 
and many of the old French nobility. 

■» » « « 

Hocontly wo noticed the statement made in the annurJ 
report of the Public Free Libraries Committee of ]\lanchester,. 
that out of UC3,127 books lent for home rewling politic* 
and commerce accounted for 3,047, fiction for 78y,01(>. As aa 
agreeable contrast we learn from tlie f^iblic Library Journal of 
Cardiff that while the deinaiK'. for fiction in the Caidill' Freu 
Libraries appears to have remained practically stationarj', there 
has been a marked advance in the ute made of every otlier de- 
partment. 

« «  « 

Mr. Eneas Mackay, of Stirling, is publishing, by subscri] - 
tion, " The Battle of SherifTmuir, related from original sources." 
The volume, which is being issued in u limited eclition of 500 
copies, has l)0eii illustiatod by 16 original pen-and-ink drawings, 
" taken on the ground." The author's name is not given, but 
ho is an " F.S.A. (Scot.)" 

 * « •» 

The announcement that a life of the first Earl of Durham ia 
in preiMiration has caused some sjieculation as to the existence 
of adetjuate materials for a complete and " veracious " historj' 
of what may be termed the jirivote and iiersonal politics of the 
reign of William IV. and the first four years of tho 
Queen's reign. Probably the most iniiioitant collection o£ 
political |)a])Crs dealing with this period is possessed 
by Mrs. Ellice, of Iiivergurry, the daugliter-in-lnw of Edward 
Eilico who was for many years tlie wiro-iiuUer and general 
manager for the A\'hig I>arty, and wlio enjoyed the unbounded 
confidence of his leaders in both Houses of Parliament. He had 
a positive genius for i>olitical intrigues, and his " gerry- 
mandering 'of tho redistribution clauses of the Reform Bill of 
1832 in tlie interest of the Whigs was a triumph of art in that 
lino. He was for many years in tlio heart of all tho 
secrets, both political and ])ersoiial, of his jKirty. "Bear 
Ellice," as he was always called, was a man of marvellous^ 
sagacity, full of tact andyi'jic.iw, and renowned for tho cxcellcnco 
of his table talk when ho was in tho mood to converse. He 
passed many years of his life in the very tempest and wliirlwiiKl 
of )x>litical agitation. His papers and coirespondence are care- 
fully preserved, and many years ago a selection from them was 
placed by Mrs. Ellice in the hands of ?lr. X., a <jualificd 
Scot<;li man of letters at Edinburgh, to be edited for publication. 
Mr. X. was so staggered by the revelations concerning tho secret 
management of tho Whig imrty (to which ho himseli belonged) 
between 18.'J0 and 1SJ3 (including tho whole period of the Reform 
Bill agitiition) that he privately consulted one or two of his. 
political friends as to the expediency of publishing them. They 
earnestly advised him not to do so, the result being that the 
pu)>er8 were returned to Mrs. Eilico, and nothing more has ever 
been heard of them. 

• « • « 

Messrs. Downey and Co. have just published a very hand- 
some edition of Albert Smith's " Struggles an<l Adventures of 
Christojiher Tadpole." The length of too story has necessitated 
tho use of rather thin pajier ; but tho printing is well done, and 
the volume includes reproductions of thit twenty-six etchings 
which John Leech drew for the original edition. The introduc- 
tion coiiHists of a reprint of two articles which the late Mr. 
Kdmund ^'atos wrote on his friend. Albeit Smith, and forms an 
elegant tribute to the memory of a character that was both up- 
right and engaging. 

« « « • 

There is perhaps no more attractive a place for a pleasant 
lounge than a second-hand bookseller's shop. This fact has not 
l)eon sufficiently realized, for many l)Ook collectors hesitate at 
entering a fhop unless armed with a definite inquiry, Tho grim 
sarcasm of tho bookseller to Leigh Hunt, " Take a seat, Sir, you 



Januiiry 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



2» 



mint Iw tired," after ho had paruwd the flrat vnliimo of* work 
mill was al>out to attack thu Bucoiiil, in not forgntUni. We are 
^'lad to 800 timt Imokiiulli^rs iii-u wakiiif; iiti to tlu< fact that 
<Mmtomcra aro to ho titicoiirofjod, imt «iiii!)i)ed. Sir. H. 8. 
NicIioIh ha.s tittvd u|> a hixiirioiia loiiiifjo at ( 'hariii^^-croHH-rixul ; 
Mr. Frank Murray, of Loici-Htor, and Mr. H. Walker, of LimmU, 
Liavo iidogitoci tliu .Kaiiiii phm in tli« provincutt. Thu u an it ought 
to liii, and we liopo others will follow suit. 

« « • • 

Tlio Uisliup of HiuiRor whoso now Welsh hvnnial, 
" Kmyniadur yr Kj;lwy8 yiiR XKhymru," Messrs. Jarvis and 
Kostor have just issuod— raises in his prefaco to the work tho 
old question whetlur an »>(litor or compiler is entitled to niter, 
or improve niMin, tho ori^'inal form of a hymn, un'i '■■ i' •• ' 
it, so to speak, " up to duto. " Dr. Lloyd holds that ' 

confesses that ho has done so in connexion with b 
}iyiMns in this ooUeotion. Ho hoa adopted tho oomnionly- 
accoptod chanj^cs intnxlucod in somo of tho Iwttor-known 
hymns, and ho has made a few alterations hi msolf in cnsos whoro 
ho folt that the langua^o or the sentiment rtHpiirtKl it. The 
llisliop admits that he lays himself open to criticism, and an 
oxamination of his work shows that ho has applied the dot'trino 
very caiitiou.ily ; but the result of tam|>ering with some of our 
finest hymns is sometimes so vexatious— to say nothing of what 
is duo to tho author — that it is not pleasant to see signs of the 
practice extending. 

« « « « 

Dr. Louis Waldstoin's " Tho Subconscious Self," recently 
luiMiahed, is intended ns n prefatory ossay to further volumes 
li'aling more fully with the histology of the nervous sy.stein. 
I 'r Wuldstoin is now cngaced upon special exporimontal work 
which will enable him to develop nis plans in this direction. 
 « •  

The world of Cornish mining life has boon little explored by 
tl:e writers of lietion, and wo ore glad to hear that Mr. H. D. 
Lowry, whose knowledge of the subject is extensive, has in 
progress a novel dealing with tho men and manners r)f tho 
wostorn minors. It will probably not lye finished mitil next 
autumn. 

•»   » 

Mr. Kichard Marsh's novel, " Tom Ossington's Ghost," 
which is at present appearing in serial form, will be published 
by Mr. James Uowdon before tho close ot tho spring so.ison. 

* « « ~* 

The interesting hook on '• Pictnresque IJurma " which was 
written by ilrs. Ernost Hart after her visit to that country 

nspired tho hoiio that she might give us some further volumes 
dealing witli the art of other Oriental countries ; but, owing to 
tho regrettable illness of Dr. Hart, these plans have jierforco 
1)Oon laid aside. Jlrs. Hart has in hand somo further liooks 
developing the gen(>ral ideas ]mt forward in her useful book 
'• Diet in Sickness and in Health,'' and thc.'^e will bo t.uMi-Iied 
from time to time during the year. 

* » ' » 

Mr. E. W. Honuing, who is now in Naples and proposes to 
s|)en(l more than a year in It.ily, is revising and in part re- 
writing a novel which appeared serially in a number of p.rovin- 
eial newsimper.-!. This book, called " Young IMoimI." will bo 
published in tho spring by Messrs. Cissolls hero and by Messrs. 
Scribner in America. Auiither woik which this writer proposes 
to comploto in Italy is a novel dealing both with the early 
Victorian goldliolds of Ballarat and Hendigo and with the 
• rimean war. Mr. Hornung has also hnislied a short novel 

ntitled " Tho Solo Survivor," soon to bo publisho<I. and 
.ntcnds further to write a series of stories for diaseWn Minjuziiu. 

* « » » 

Mr. Aubrey Hopwood is engaged upon two now 1 '■• ■""> 

novel, tho other a volume of short stories. He is a! 
I no lyrics for the new play which is to follow tho Vii 
tho Gaiety Theatre at no very distant date. 

It is unlikely that Mr. F. Marion Crawfonl wiP have any 
lovol published this year. He is at present lecturing in America 
ind has no now work on hand. 

» « •  

In 18,"?1 Mr. John Pavne Collier publishml the first edition 
<ii his " History of English Dramatic Poetry to tho Time of 
.'^hakospeare ; and Annals of the Stage to tho Restoration." It 
was by no means an exhaustive work ; but it was a luieful con- 
tribution to one of tho most interesting perimis of our litera- 
ture. P\)r many years Mr. Collier kept making additions to his 
 wn copy, .ind for nearly half a century he never faileil to enter 
ind to take note of any rare publication or manuscript which in 



ui tlu«« vol 

tb* 

-vof 



a tliiu siiuil ' 
in America or i 



any w.i nrt. In 

mady, and 

edition of 

Collier'* • 

olforta at • • 

hi ■• I-  

out of print. I' 

but tlii.fl.' ;iri. 



and thu " llijttury uf Lliaiuatiu I'tjttUy 

• • • 

In - 
honso 

Authors." It W.I.H tlicn 
namea of all writars bom 

t' 

t' . , is now ' 

Ok. . ■-•- :iames. '1 .. 

list of his works and a li 
dbftd. A novel feature , 

each entry, showing who issue tho wntvr'a bouka. 
« • • 

Tlie volume of jMnny literature is 
abroad, and .Messrs. Wnrd, T.-ck, and C' 
of the movement i: '. now a; 

eluding " works in g( .iture,"ri. 

and til ts. " Thu sj)ecim' 

its tit! on adopted in a i 

Poultry I", 'i;, and is one of tho most .-»ttra ' 
tions wo hare seen. Its author is Mr. L. C. I' 
President of the Poultry Club. 
« • 

ti 
1> 

w 

ti. 

S -n in tho thir 

<li - that sage ni 

Suuliul to be commonly dubbetl " ihuninv, 
bravest of the brave. " Snchef's •nrtvs^ in ' 
was conspicuon.. 
Ho thoroughly i. 
cainpiign, ;is Sir .i.ii 
minute written for tl 
• ' ' ' ' II his life I 
ut to 1 • 
!i, .,. .w I. Vive b'- ' .■ ... ..... 

lato years in fav j who acr 

ho. The woH.I it is ~- 

boen more i' 

more oftrr. 

tion b 

schcnii 

Franfaiiiu uUiit i',k '." 



i W Hoftt 



Uto 
all 



;>ub- 
tlM 



AiB«rio*a 

.\fneriC!*li 

I til* 



I ill 
•• to 

I . 



it- 
"IV. 



to 

of 

.,1 

the 

Wnr 



In his exile at St, He! 
Masst'na lirst among the o 
to victorv. and I > 
this decision n 



to the devout «• 
as Grouchy an 1 ' 
olHcers, tho 
inHuencG<1 1 . 

dicrs who cluarud thu bi iilge at LuUi. 
• « 

W 
doinc 
V. 
1  



 Of 






M o'luai 1--1 . ^i u[« 



I 111 III I I III' II a: 111 



practically extinct. Tb» sheikhs of the Aihar are 



iki 



80 



LITERATURE. 



[January 8, 1898. 



aatboritiM tlwy onoe were on matters Arabian, and Cairo in 

thaw Uttar dara cannot pr<Mlucn a native historian or 

arohwolaciat. \Vitiioss the ** l'ataloi;ii(> of tlio Collection 

. .„>,; .... proBcnr' *' ' ' Hvial Library nt 

ot h_v a ; i/.i or SnjMiti or 

 ,^.. ' ..>  -, .iio author <'i .... !■. .,...., .'>...^<'iim cataloguos of 

Oriental coins, Mr. Stanley I.ane>l'ooIa. 

« «  ■» 

To hring an En$;lis)inian out to Cairo to do Arabic work 

— ■• '■ '■'   -' •-> V. r ' ■•*. nttor of fnct, 

That the 

ciilloctinn, 

. a talpTitod 

Kiitish anil in 

th«- ;-^nil coins, many 

of _ :itly nniquo. As 

the lys — 

' ^TfT\^h of the collnr-finn lie* in Ihf «irii"i of coins of 

i cmli|4><, iv - of the 

. In all ' not fftll 

 •■■ i>f the (tr< a; >..,.. .,.,.,. ^ ,.i i,. ■.,..■,. ..ud Pnris ; 

— 11 - It ereu exceU them. 

* •  

Oi <■ ;..n of any fresh pories of Arabic coins 

monn» :■ iiiation of our previous knowlmlgo of 

tVi"  ny, cUioni.lo^, and penoalopy. Mr. Lane-Poole's 

gri. is to collect and .siimmarizo all the historical, 

peograijhical, and other results obtained from Arabic coins in a 
sencral corput. and for this purpose the ]9 volumes of catalojjues 
he has f ' 'of the collections at the British J^Iuseum, 

the Bod! \u-ch, Cairo. Ac, are so many matfriatir a 

 - ' ;iw • r.-.-u Arabici" with which he hopes to crown his 
tic labours. With rcganl to tlie present volume, wo may 
....■, i..iit it is well and clearly printed, after tlie model of the 
Museum " Catalogue of Oriental Coins," witli fiill indexes and 
dvnastic tables : but we r. m,.* fl.r. absence of photogra\Tare 
plates, which are always a il mature. Perhaps the money 

for the plates has Ix-on spci.: l'lt. 

« « « •» 

Mrs. Xevill, of 6, The Drive, West Brighton, pleatls for a 
good cause :— 

Will you help me in the work of giving literature to tho blind ? 
Tlie British »d<1 Foreign Blind Associntion lirings out liooks in n raised 
tyiie that blind people c«n revl for tbemwlvps. Their work is splendid. 
Any book will be brought out if the metal plates from which these books 
are print--! »re paid for. They then sell the books nt the cost priee of 
prill" per. The Aasociation brings oat for me two mapazineB, 

on- iid one for children. These magazines, wanting Christ- 

mas n'!-.'-:' 'r«, cr-st me nearly £50 a year. Now, I db want to get a little 
help to l.ring out other books. I liave started a Pastime Scries and a 
ebildicn's lihrary ; also the " Imitation " has been printel. .My idea is 
to have a society, called "The Braille Literature Society." for the purpose 
of briagir- •• " -=" books, t propose to bear tho cost of tho ordinary 
books thir. ;•> books are translated from, and to act ns editor. I 

hare oftc: — .uned of the gratitude I have receivetl for so very 

little on my part. Of course there is nothing like the touch of nature 
for calling oat jvrninihv. When our own lyes are gooil we think little 
of the monoto:/ m-ss. I have this tourh myself in my own 

ai^t. It ba« mse of my work for the blind. The liritish 

and Foreign BiiD<l Association is a well-known London charity, and 
DM<U no words of roin-j to voneh for its honesty and good purpose. I 
eiD (ay that the work tamed oat is splendid from my own axe of it. 
« •  « 

One of t)i9 most precious of tho innumcrablo literary 
IrMnirM in th« Chantilly Library was, in tho opinion of the 
lat< " 'lie book of tbo Prince de CoiiiIl', as it 

wn :i of Ijiiuis XVI. The volume is a 

'■"■  •■ I'rinco 

ail'' 'i »>iiii, .11 ttns \olumo aro 

ran- arty of   head in one day 

(R* "'"1 . l,li;<» partridges. 

La' ins in one day Icilled 020 

I'^i'  r I7P."i. (here was a Royal 

' I in two days, the 
'!. At this fK-riml 
b.-eechloadeta were unknown. 

 •   

Il on tho eamintrs of authors 
«b. onmal, it has lately liocn stated 

that IJ: r " Our Mutual Friend." This 

'• an . reached high-wntor mark in 

Jii" t> '.v iji' iitlij< 1 . fore hi* death, when bo made 

th ,1 for the publication of " Etlirin Droo<l " with the 



late Mr. Frederick Chapman, of Chapman and Hall. Tlie price 
paid down was £7,000, and publisher and author wore to divi<lo tho 
not profits of all sales beyond IVi.OtXt copies of tlio monthly issue. 
The number considerably exceeded 40,0m) from the publication 
of the lirst )>Krt of tho story. The American ])ubli8liers jiaid 
Dickens i" 1.000 for tho early shoots for use in tho I'liitod .States. 
Dickens, calculating on the uiiexpoot^-dly largo sale of tho early 
numliers, exj)ccte<l to clear about ilO,OOtt by " Kdwin Drocnl." 
« • « « 

When " Our Mutual Friend '* was published a highly lauda- 
tor)* notice of tho book ajipoaioil in a loading journal, which was 
written by Mr. X., an nojuaintance of Diokons, and a very 
clever man, who has been deiul for many years. Mr. X. wrote 
to inform Dickens of tho service which ho had rendered him, 
and not only did ho rccoivo a grateful, not to say gushing, reply, but 
the author was so deliKhted with the timely lift which his' iMiok 
bad boon favoured with that ho prosente<l the roviowor with tho 
MS. of tho story, iMiund up in gilt morocco. Mr. X. acknow- 
ledged tho gift ill glowing terms, nssurine tho author that only 
death would part him from tho precious MS., and that lie would 
tako caro that it should ultimately find a iilaco in tho national 
collections. A few years later oiio of DicKons's most intimate 
friends was travelling in America and happened to visit the lato 
Mr. Childs at Philadel]>liia, in whose libniry one of tho chief 
features was this same MS., which it turned out had been sold 
by Mr. X. for £2iiO. Anthony Troliopo'hnd a stormy discussion 
with Dickens at a London dinner party about the transaction, 
asserting with characteristic voliomcnce tiiat Mr. X. was wrong to 
inform Dickens that ho ha<l written the review, that Diukena 
was mucli to blame for having taken any notice of his letter, 
and that tho gift of the MS. sjiould neither have been offered 
nor accuptcd, as it was jiractically bribery and corruption. 
 « « • 

Tho corporation of Loicoster have authorized tho publication 
of a volume consisting of extracts from their earliest muniments. 
Tho book is to be printed at the Oambridgo University Press, 
and will cover tho period 1100-1327. Tlie work has been in- 
trusted to Miss Mary IJatoson, Associate of Xewnham College, 
Cambridge. Tho Leicester records are rich in early merchant 
gild rolls and mayors' accounts, and afford material of excep- 
tional value for the history of municipal institutions. 
* « « * 

.K. London dealer has now a fine copy of one of the rarest 
Elzevirs for sale. This is " L'Escliolo do Salerno '' of 10.")!, well 
boun<l in red morocco, 131 millimotres in height, and the price 
asked for it is only 12 guineas. X copy of this book, which is in 
tho library of tlio American niillionnairo Robert Hoe. holds the 
record for Elzevirs. It is 147 millimetros in height and. although 
it consists of only 139 pages, yet at the sale of tlie do liehague 
library it foti^hod IC.lOOf. The dilforciico botwoon tho two books 
is merely a fraction of an inch, but as tho latter haiijions to bo 
the tallest copy in existence an otherwise insignificant qtiantity 
of blank jiaper rises to such imixirtance that its value can only 
be men-surod in hundreds of jwunds. 

« « « « 

The Palieontographieal Society deals in its annual volume for 
]8(l!l with "Crag F'oraminifera " and " Devonian Fauna of the 
South of England." Tho secretary of tho society, tho Rev. 
Professor Wiltshire, announces that Mr. H. Woods, of tho 
Woodwardian Museum, Cambridge, is engaged on a monograph 
of the " Cretaceous Mollusca," and that Mr. Edward Wilson, of 
Bristol, has in preparation a monograph on tho " Liassic 
Gasteropoda." 

« «  » 

Tho now French daily paper, La Fruwle, appears likely to prove 
a groat success. It is entirely a woman^s pajwr. edite<l, written, 
and managod by women. It is understood that tho typo is set 
up by women and, in fat^t, that no men aro employed at all in 
the administration. Amongst tho woll-known writers on tho 
stuff of Im Frmxilf we may mention Mine. .Judith Gautior, 
Georges do Peyrcbrune, Daniel Lesiicur (whoso oxipiisito poetry 
t'lok a prizo at tho French Acadiinv), Marie Anne do Hovot. 
.Judith Cla^lol, Augusta Holmes, and Sc'vi^rine. The edilroas and 
ilirertrii-e of tho paper is Mmo. Durand do Valfore, formerly of 
the Tht'utro Fran^ais, a lady journalist of renown in Paris. Tho 
new venture appears to have made on excellent (Ubitt, and has 
been on the whole well receive*! by tho I'arisian Press. It is 
Ki;H>ken of as " the TemjM in petticoats." 

  « • 

f !yp is not on the staff of l.a Frawh. It appears that fho 

was invited to contribute, but as she did not consider sufliciont 

lati' I her oa to the choice of targets for her arrowa 

she i . '"g where slio Iiada wider field. Tho Jewsand 



January 8, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



31 



the Oovommont itru twn of Oyp'i pet Umbbm, and tliuae »he wm 
invito<l to loavo in peace. 

« * « » 

Strimi;ely oiioiik'i, MuK«uriot'« now niKira, >' 
Dnndot's novel, had jimt lieen put on wlu-n tlic i 
novolirit'K HUtMon dontli wah nnnounood. On thit iim\ mi i'iumh i -< 
funoral Calvc' wan iinablu to play, RO that, as Unjihn hud boon 
annonncotl for that ni^jht, it wan withdrawn for a wcok. On Now 
VtMr's Kv« Siiplm was aijain withdrawn, tliis timo on account tif 
the funoral of fli. Carvalho, Director of tho O/wra Comi'iur. 
« « « • 

Forty yenrn ago npp*?nrod tlio iinp<irtant " Diotionnairo 
I'nivorsol th(?ori<iu<> ct |>ratii|Uo du ('oiiimcrcn ot dn la Navi- 
gation " which romained famous for a (piartfr of a contiiry, but 
which, havini; finally gono out of print, had bvcn of late almost 
forj^otton. Moriiovor, tho chan^^vH of lato yearH ini>vitnbly 
rendered it so far behind the times n« to make revision obli^B- 
tory. Tho publishers, (luilhiumin ot Cio., have decided, how- 
ever, not to revise so much as to remodel this work. This tank 
has boon undertaken by MM. Vvos Ouyot and Arthur 
llart'nlovich, uniler the iiotronajro of a dozon or more of the most 
ominont economists and practical buHineii.s men in Franco. The 
names of Paul Loroy-lieauliou, Aynard, Molinari, Tievassonr, 
Ac, aullico to indicate the importance of this publication. The 
now dictionary, which will bo called " Dictionnaire du t'om- 
mereo do I'lndnstrio ot do la Han(iuo,"' will bo pul)li.sho<l at 
oOf., but it may bo had at JOf. by those who subscribo to it 
within tho next ifew weeks. 

 « •» • 

Hor Royal Highness Princess Thi<ri^.so of Havaria, daughter 
of tho Princo Regent, has l)oeii given tho Ph.D. degree by the 
Munich I'niversity. Her Royal Highness, whose rec'ont scientitic 
book of travel in the Hra/.ilian tropics was mentioned in a note 
in Literature, is the first lady to whom this honour has been 
given. 

* * * * 

Messrs. Velhagen and Klasing, of Leipsiig, are doing excel- 
lent work in promoting a ta.sto for tho elegances of tho library 
among a people who have hitherto boon singidarly lucking in 
it. Their Zeiticlirift fiir lUirhcrfrtnuih', a popidar bibliophile 
monthly, was only started last April, and has already made its way 
very well. The publishers now announce •' Die Bilcherlieb- 
hal)orei in ihrer Entwickclung bis zum Knde dca lilton Jahr- 
hunderts," by Otto Miihibrecht. This contribution towards the 
history of bibliophiles and bibliomania is enriched liy more than 
200 illustrations. A numbered edition, limited to 100 copies, is 
issued for '20 marks, and the ordinary edition is sold in paper 
covers for nine marks. 

« « « « 

Tho system of Public Libraries, which h.is been introduced 
into (iormany on American and J5iiglish lines, is pniduallj- 
making way, despite tho comparative poverty of (ierman enter- 
prise and tho short-sighted opposition of certain political circles. 
The cathedral city of Cologne is distinguished by four such 
institutions. Tho first was tho gift of Oppenheim s Hanking- 
honso, in colobration of their centenary in 1890 ; tho second 
was duo to tho munificence ot tho Vice-Consul of the French 
Ropublic in 1892 : a third was sulisequently adde<l, and tho 
fourth was opened as recently as November 13. In connexion 
with this last-named library, which is due to tho head of 
Camphauson's Bank, there was also opened the first public 
reading-room in Cologne, a line building in tho heart of the 
town, capable of accommodating 40 sitters at one time. In 
addition to the classics, it contanis a largo and judicious selec- 
tion of modern novels, historical and scientific works, and it 
subscribes to over :!0 newspapers. Tho hall, which is liglittd 
by electricity, is open from (5 to 9 on weekday evenings and from 
."> to 8 on Sundays and holidays. The occasion was utilizetl by 
tho public-spirited citizens on tho Rhine to make speeches fioxir 
eiicourager lea auires. 

* «  * 

Messrs. Mullor and Co., of Amsterdam, are issuing a 
sumptuous volume which shoidd prove of great interest to all 
students of Australian exploration and of the doings of tho 
Dutch East India Company in tho first half of tho seventeenth 
century. Tho volume is tho long-promised work on Tasman, 
and it contains, reproduced by photo-lithography, fifty-three 
drawings and charts, as well as tho recently discovered Journal 
of Tasnian's discovery ot Van Dieman's I-and and Now Xealand in 
1M2-1;'.. In addition there is a word-for-woi-d translation of 
tho Jotirnal into English, and of the letters of instructions for 
tho voyages of 1(542 and 1044. Mr. Uoote, of the British Museum, 
has revised this portion of the book, while a very valuable 



nMmoir of tha Ufa anil Ubuur of Taantan i« eontribatod hj 

y '■ ' puMMMa «srn>- 

tlafpM. Fiaally 



ry ! antl tber* *•• 

-. Mvliii\bli< niriiit 

* ,» 

.it 

t4»tlw 



-1 



fi.. ,.. 1..,.. :,.^< I ..i.i,.i...i 

" }' 

■tiii .  

k saul, * Lot t: 
I . ' " Wo may 

when the o of th< 

rniirsc it; It 1^ i- 



till^ : 1- till.-. BiiUll tJi. .K. 

to tl . and tho majority 

Wo uiio.-i •ill: 
" ctdlation " 

T- ■•■ ■' '  t.-^ r-. , 

who ha 



The Government of the Diifch K.isl Indicft linii in.kt ii«ae<) a 

valuable contribution to tl » East 

Indian .\r -Mprlngo, which ^ i : thr«a 

ition. It is etilitlud ' .r 

I :id Tidal ?«tn-ams in ?' ,- 

l)el.-^;o," ;ind is issued und' ' r. J. 1". Van d<>r 

Stock, who is at tho haail of ; aorv It nf'oaka 

well for tl ' . . I ji p ^,  . . ^ 

shoidd is English ; ho 

freely in tiii> comiirv. 

*  

In our issue for Deci'inU r 1^  y 

which '• .John .Stninpe Winter '■ «., .• 

" I*rincess Sarah. " W.- '' '•■' ' 

" Princess Sarah "' wa^ 

Wanl, Lock; "Tho i . .^ 

Mesars. F. V. White. 

« « 

Fietio» awl Ftift, a new halfpenny wi .v 

popular, comprising stories and bits of i, 

mado its tlfbitl last Monilay. Its : ■, 

and it is printed on light Mno pnpor. i .1. 

' 'id Co., who  :i the LiUfUiy U'uriJ, the 

U'nrlil. and ot 

Jlr. Fisher fnwin  - - .■ ., "j-jj^ 

I.iesbia of Catullus." is Mr. 

J. H. A. T ' 

The adv. ; 

Foil..;,...., . 
novels of Charles 1 •, 

will come " Rolanii .. ._ >• 

and will include all thi .'' It will 

be ready, probably. to» ,\ 

Captain L.J. Slmdwell, I 
for Instmction, and Special ' 

is writing an account of tho .> 

for Messrs. W. Thacker. »1" .11 

bo fully illustrated 

Messrs. W. • a volume of 

" ir ' "■ 

thiiii 

and a second edition was issued the f:- Ilieso haro been 
long out of print. 

Messrs. Seolcy, Bryers. and N"> in, «r« issuing 

a volume of speeche- bv Mr. J.  )v< 'ti«t left 

England for New ' The 

iv'llpction will inc! ii hare 

inioud'i, reputatiuu oo a rarliaiueut^ry aa Mcll as a 



llie Ivuk of Glasgow 
Morison llrothcrs. will Ihj 
in t' ' • ' • = ■• 
catl. 
haVf .. . 
on the ! 
features'. .-. -..: 



Ml 



Archbishop Kyre, who hare made them a special study. 



ttMifld 

:» 
to 



92 



LITERATURE. 



[Jaiuiary 8, 1898. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 



Bioor; 
th« C. 

ri»i(w7. M . 
SITppk Loodi' 

or 



9|xWii.. < 

Cvneral Omi: 
Friend. '■ 

il'i. 1 ion ,. 
ir !.,.„. 
Wtl'ii iuul 



m. .V. 
' 1 RIG- 



'S to I 



I ru»clL H.tAK 



BOOKS FOR THE YOUNO. 

AnAlmanncofTwelvoSportB. 

It, II ,. \ >,..'- .,, \\ .111 



l"i 



-1. 



CLASSICAL. 
Oiitllnaa of iho Hlsropv of 
Clawilc.- 

vnni». 

EaUnted. :i>.iiu.. M i>i>. lbi.i.ia 

aad Loodoa. 1807. GInn. io ccnl.". 

EDUCATIONAL. 

ThoTiRht"! nnri Thpoples of 
- UyJ. I.. 

ia. 7x 

Ml. .-i. Sl.nn. 
Ovid : Meutmopphoxes Rook 

\ I T I t . , i-. .1 ).- / // It.f ,,.!.. t. 



(Ihn Lnivcrnity Tutorinl Sorio«.i 
Cr. 8vo., lis pp. Cllve. 3«. 

ETHICS. 



n- 



Mark*. 



FICTION. 

Oavid Lvall's Love Ptorv. ?Iv 

thi- he 

\/t: n- 

doTi. . •'.*. 

Nopthang-er /\ p- 

■uaalon. lu 'i 

111-: •■ •  ... 

An" '»- 

"Ol !1 
•Ikl ;■.•■>. 1 ■! ... r- . . 

.M 1' inillan. 34. 6d. 

Tha Antiquary. 'W^vfrloy 
.Vorel*. Borrt"-!- 
Anrf<. KdllM! 

IML 



'W«*plns Far 



11 
A. 

<]■ 
A S 



An ! 

// 

it... - 
pp. Vh 

Thp ' 

S' 



A Nina Daya' Wondap, nr. T)in 

Ms--. v> in I!..- 1I..11,,-. A Till.- .pf 



 lloiiit- Wurd.-.' 1.-. til. 

The Romnnces of Aloxnndra 
Duniiis. 

Monstci. -^ 

Will. ] 

rt>." \ 
M V. \u. : I.', Tlo 

Maulton. 

Vi : Vol. II.. vi; 

isy: Oi-ni. H.»i..i,. 

I.iltlo nnd Itrow n. 3s. 0.1. curh. 

^ Uomiin. By 

: voN. 8vo.. S7S-f 

1)! ai Lcr. lu iliirks, Reb. 12 MKrlm. 

C^iita'ti Wnt(. -^iftcriHtf (^riJblfl. 
aiw toi Anfin>t<n t« lilinfttu; 
\nmt in •Horn. With 12 Plate*. 

Ky Anthonv itr ft'nal. 8vo , xill.+ 
210 pp. Iicrlin.lt«L Becker. 3Mark.H. 



OEOORAPHY. 



LAW. 

- 1 1.1 HMW V I ' 



.i ,. A 
llrnrii 



Wpii. 11 •  I- 

namroll an-l I'i'Imm. .Vir-<-ii;«. 
A DA«urht«p of Two Natlona. 
Br a& J. M ;«()ln.. 

ittpp. Chlea. 



I.ondon ; Dulaii. 



iiin-tiiKt-r. 
l.'w. 



From Tonk'n •" InHln. lu-iiie 
Jan. IK. 

Irons. 'i. • V 

JV-nt. JI > l>y (.'. 

Vuilllcr. ii;7 M). 

Ijondon, Ivo. .» n. 2js. 

Cairo of To-day. .\ Pracllcnl 

'■'liilo to t'airi) nihl ;;- Kiiviroiis. 

K. A. /{■ '. H..\.. 

ii.8. aiyii l..iiuli)n. 

A. A 2.S. (id. 

Dautaohland Uebepsee. Wclt- 

kviri.. ziir rdHT-itlit tli.rili-ut.s4>h('n 

' ' ' ' ■' :it- 



ism. 



Inn 

t«i : 
an< 

t.l': 



M.A. 

don. : 



Oolni 



Wx2l cm. (auf dcr Utli-kNcitcl. Hnr- 
lin. 1808. Hcini'T, t Mnrk. 

Kapte dep Kl i  <u- 

Bucht. Ost Shant .- 

Ti<m-7firhniiHK n i- 1. ;i 

i|.- Vvrt. 11. 1. X. 

Ki'-h. Kii'ixTl. .:'■ 

>-i;ii Vcrf. 1 ■!! 
fiirhlhofrn, I : T.'"i.i««i. Mi ^ 44cm. 
BorUn.Ue8. Roimor. I.Mark. 



HISTORY. 

The F '- "-■-• -Mnn. A 

Mi \-ol. I. 

Thi IViiiplc 

<*!h--i'-.' r. I. 11^ i-:.i. 1 (I'lUnnoX, 

M..\. exiln., 300 pp. I»ndnn. 
ISC. Dont. 

Bupko. Speech on Concilia- 
tion with Amcplca. I'I'ho 



. I'ji, Kir. toil .lllil l.-MHIilll, 

Ulnii. 00 ccnta. 



JANUARY MAOAZINES. 

Snlnt Opo-ko. T!;. .i ,-inI of 



l>on- 
Ui. Oh. 



MILITARY, 
fri Wan In GnoocD. lU' 



Vurk, IttU;. 



KuucU. i\:2i. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
The Ppovopbs of Northnmp- 

tOnShlPe. Ilv fliri.<loiiln r .1. 

.VarA-Anrn. K.S.A. 7j • .Miii.. vll.+ 
39 pp. Northiuiiptoii. I«il7. 

i?tnritoii. In, n. 

Clubs fOP 1898. A LUl of 2.2.y) 

flnlw fn'inii'nii-d liv tlic KnitHih 

ill all purls of llio World, ilxtiiia., 

144 pp. Loniloii, ISilS. 

SpoitiHWiMKlc and Co. 2^. 

The Poultry Book. (Now I'eniiy 
lI.ill(UM>ok-.l 7i • ."'in.. H.S iiii. I..OI1. 
■lull, Nt-w Yorlc, niid .Mcllioiirnc. 
l.-ar. Wanl iind I.flfk. 

Knowledgre for 1SI7. .\ii I IIukI ra- 
ted .Miit;a7.ino of Si-lnu-f. Litera- 
ture, and .\rl. Vol. .\X. lll^Uiin., 
xil. -1-301 pp. London. 1X!)7. 

Knowli-<l|{e. 8«. 8d. 

I Lockwood's Bulldeps', Apchl- 

I tects'. Contractors', and 

Engineers' Price Book for 

IHSIS. I.:<1. tiv tyaHriM T. H'. MUltr. 

7 > IJiii.. '-'»!) np. Umilim. ISiiS. 

Crosliy, I.<M-kw<MMl. U. 
Archlv f. celtlEKshe Lexlko- 
fcraphle. MrsK. v. Uhillev 
Stokes 11. Kiiiio .Meyer. 1. IW. 
I. Hft. Larte 8vo.. ia)+:K iip. 
Halle, 1S93. Niemeycr. B Mark^. 



' Ma li- 
.'h. n. 
izlns. 



-..,ty 



Thf Luay_s 

"<.M. i; 1. T,. Thi 

Review I-' 

National Rcvli 

■>. 1.1. Reliquary, i 

Archaeologist. M 

Tha Bookman. lluJtlcr and 

M'limliliin. M. 



NAVAL. 

> rcntKl\-iir)icii1'i<. 
: iiiit "i'rvjnlatnt. 



Mv 

tt} ::.:,. 
8vo. BerJ 

iTic i£t.-iut>-.   ; \ 

iicbil Bfui WcitftcHiinirf, bctr. Dit 
ttlltfcfrc ^Icttt. Berlin, 18U8. 
Largo Ito., 11. -H» pp. 

Heymnnn. 1 Mark. 

PHILOSOPHY. 

Practical Ethics A Collection 
of \  -. Tly 

III, f'Tho 

Mciii .Jxiiln., 

vi. »'.'i>i iiji. i.oiiiidii aiKi .\e\v York, 
1897. Sonncnschcin. 4k. 6d. 

POETRY. 
Poama. Hy Sl< j>li'n I'hillipH. 8x 

.'tin., vii. ^I'tS pp. Liiniloii and New 
York. 1S<»K. Lane. 4-. PkI. n. 

Speolmens of the Ppe-Shake- 
spearean Drama. Vul. II. 
Willi Intnl. .\iili-. lie. Wy Jiilin 
Miilthiirs Minili/. rriie .Mliellil'illil 
I'rt'HH SerieH.I "JKoiii.. vii. -f jthlpp, 
Bo^iton and Loimon, 1SI7. 

tUnii. jLon. 

Tennv . " ~' r  .s. 

lAlr 

ivll, iV 

Allirri .s. I .... . rii I p.. I, M.I I. 7) '< 
5ln.. xlvl. 1 1,S7 iip. IkMton and 
I..4»ndoii. 1W17. (iliin. .'jOeenti. 

The Lyric Poems of John 
Kents. i;i. liy Kmrnl Jtlii/n. 
f, liii., xxlii. '. l.s^ )pp. London, 
1H.I7. Delil. 2». Bd. 

Rhymes of Iponqulll, Selcrted 
by y. A. Ilair. ■' "J ■.ojili., 

xrl.i-lJUpp. 1. 

u. 6d. n. 

Rip Van Winkle .mil other 

I'ooni". Ilv ll'illiam Akrriiinn. 

:-l?in., vld. I>ct pp T..-.n.Ion, 



Rhyme*. UyfCdith r^n-rrtt Dtilton. 
t>l ' <)in., 4.^ pp. Boxton. 18117. 

ll.ii:ir«-!l .mil I'phaiii. Aileent.-*. 

The Bab Bnllads. Willi wlaeli 
(It.. Ml I.. I Sr»n !»■•» oTn Rn vov- 



Yiirk. li-*;^-*. KoiilledKc 7«. t«i. 

The Votive Tapestry. .\n Kpir 
Ilalliulof Itw iT 
Jirv. C.C. Kl,;n> 
.*-*!. Akiio«', Li\ I : 
IW pp. Liverpool, 1S.C. Vouiii;. l-.'-. 



SCIENCE. 

First Year of Solentino Know- 
ledge, lly I'iiiil lln-l. Ti-iin- 
Inled by Madame Paul Herl. I!i- 
viwd and rewritten bv Itii-lianl 
Wi.niii II. II. .S<-., .M.A.. .iiiil M..i!t I 
k. .M.I)., ' 
; in. .117pp. 1- 
i :ii ; .Kmiaiiii -. 

SOCIOLOGY. 

Industrial Demoor&oy. Hy 

Siilni'j/ and ftrtttricr tl'tNt, 'J voli.. 
Bi.'illn.. xxix.f!)-a lip. Ivondon, 
New York, and Hoinday, 18U7. 

Lonirniaiis. 2.5.1. n, 

Tl h. ,\ Social 

•il. 11. yi". 
1*<7. 
Uaiiliici' <tnd Darton. 

SPORT. 

Kings of the Turf. Memolra and 

.\lii-i-iliplr~iif ili-i;i,.;'i;-lii-ili Iwmr-. 
Iini-k.|-^. '1 
who |p;iV'' 

Turf. Ily-y .. _: 

9x5{in., V1U.+378 i>|i. Loiuloii, !»«'. 
Hutcliiii8on. 16». 

THEOLOGY. 

Barrow's Lectures 1896-97. 
Christianity, The World- 
Religion. Lci-liin.~ Delivereil in 
India and Jii|>an. Itv Jofiii //. 
Harrow^, D.U. 71 x.^tfn.. 112 pp. 
Chieaifo. 18S»7. McC'lurK. 9\.:*>. 

Scientific Aspects of Chris- 
tian Evidences. Ilv Ffilrrirk 
irrii/lil, D.n.. LL.l)'.. K.ti.S.A. 
74.^5iln., xL-1-382 pp. \uw York, 
1893. Applctoii. 91.5('. 

The Religious System of 
Chtna^ it- aiieieni lonii--. evoln- 
linn. iti.iory. .V , I'lilili^heil 

with a stlb\i ■:! ilio 

I>iiloh Colonial I Vol. 

III. Hook 1. l)i i . Dead. 

Part III. The Onuc i:;. Ilalftcl. 
Hv fh: J. J. .U. 'Ir Uronl. Ix.'x.8vo., 
iv.-(-pp H21I to 14118. Willi plates and 
llluxtratioiM. I<oydoii. 18!<S. 

Hrill. 2')Mark-^. 
ThoNf- T^— - — r— ^^ 'i— IS. 
orl I 

I'a- 



V^lnnlng the Soul, and otliur 
Sermons. Hy Jl<r. Alejr. Miirlin. 
M..\. «xS»ln.. vlil.H.1JI pp. Lon- 
don. 1897. Ilodder k SUniKlUon. (1-. 

The Ornamentaof the Rubric. 

(.Mi-uiii Club Tnii-ls.l Hv ./. T. 
MiilihlhiraUr. K.S.A. Ini  lijin., 
7U pp. London, Ne-w York aii*i 
Hoiiiliay, 1897. Ij^uiKmiins. As. 

Logos. Chrint-Idoala. Not Chrin- 
tiaiiily. Hy A. (lollmhinu. 7)xAin., 
87 pp. London. 18!IS. (iol IxeliinK. l«.r. 

Malmonldes' Commantar 
zum Traotat Bdujoth Ab- 

schnitt I. I I'.'. Ziini ersti-n 

.111. ver- 

. deill- 

•I. \n- 
ini'P " ; . /■■ 

7/1/1/ 

lin. i . . 



tiah Alllti 



t.Sl pll. 
1897. 



ICJinU'ii'aii and l^iitilun, 
lilackwood. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

Picturesque Dublin, Old and 

New. Ill l-'rtiniiH Hii-iiril. W itii 
!M Illii-'tr.ilionH by Kot<« Hartoii, 
A.U.W.,S. lOxOiln., xlL !-42i» no. 
I/ondon, 188S. Hutchln>«on. I'ii. 



Edited by Jl. J. ffralU. 



!litciatiuc 

Publlahod by 7\U Zimti. 



No. l.J. HATURDAY, JANUARY 15, 1H08. 



CONTENTS. 



Leading^ Article— Book IlliiMtnitinn 83 

Poem ■• Dcsiiiond Wai'," by tlif Hon. Emily Lawless... 40 

"Among my Books," l>y •' Vernon Loe " 49 

Prom the Elysian Fields :— A Dialogue 60 

Reviews - 

.SlrpliiMi PliillipM'8 Pooins . 36 

I'l'ter tin- Oivivt 36 

Tlie I'lipiLs of Peter the Great 37 

Williiun tlie Hilcnt 37 

Stiulie.s in Friuilviieiw 38 

An IntrixliU'tion to Folklore 30 

Sloop Ilallii.-lrmtloiiH niiil llliwlons— Tho Lout Kmplre* of tho 

MiHl.rn W.Mid .'», 40 

Three Books of Essays 

Tlie Pei'soniil K<iuation 40 

Varia 40 

Notes on the Margins 40 

Reprints - 

Doiii'sSiH'iiitor- Poems of Thomew Hood, &c 42, 43, 44 

TopoKPaphy— 
•CiiinliridK'' London lUvoniido Churches— London Signs and 

iMKcripl ioiiM 44, 45 

Theoloary— 
Intorniitioniil C'ritioal ConinumUirj" (Phllipplnns and Philemon)— 

Tho Christ of ULslory iind Kxperlonco -C'liauncy SInplcM 46, 47 

Solenoe - 

The Hun's IMoce in Nature 47 

The Founders of Geology 48 

■Wonderful Tools -The JIarhlnery of the Unlvoreo— Tho Story of 

Oerm Life 48 

Fiction — 

Anton Czechow 52 

Perpetua 53 

The ( 'amp of UcfuKC A Prince of MIsichance— Deborah of Tod'a 63, J>4 

The Morrison Autographs 54 

American Letter .' 55 

Foreign Letters— Gennany 50 

Obituary—Mr. Ernest Hurt— M. Ernest Haniel 57 

Coppespondence- Tennyson's Last Poem— A Dictionary of Ennllsh 

Authors (.Mr. Karquharson l^harp) -yuivstlodo Aqua ot Torre (Mr. 

r. IT. Itroniliyt -.\ Psychological Chestnut .58 

Notes 50, 60, 01, (12, (B 

Iilst of New Books and Reprints «a, OJ 



BOOK ILLUSTRATION. 



Now that the flood of Autumn and Christmas pul)Ii- 
cations has abated, and we take stock of the profit and 
■enjoyment we have derived from tlie books and magazines 
■on which we have spent superfluous cash, it is perhaps not 
impertinent to ask what ])roportion of that enjoyment has 
been due to the poet, the novelist, the es.«ayist, or the 
historian, and what to another member of the book-pro- 
<Jucing class who is beginning to claim an almost equal 
■share in providing for the needs of a literary public — 
the artist. The answer wiiich readers will give to 
■such a question must of course differ according to their 
tastes and temperaments, but the question itself is without 
<loubt one which has a direct bearing on the interests 
Vol II. No. 2. 



of literature. It is hardly an t-xa^geration to »ay that (!>«• 

moat conspicuouB feature in the publicatiuiu of the 

moment, regarded en rttOMf, in to I • ' ' ' •' 

wealth and the excellence of their illii 

youth of the world music wait the hnndniaid of tU<-niture : 

in these latter days the art of the ,; ' • ' 

become not t>o much its handmaid aii i: 

or even its salaried |>artner, and in the College of the 

Sacred Nine, Polyhymnia and Terpsichore nr ' -' - '■ 

yield their places to the Muses of the /ii: 

the Camera. 

With the technical devc' ■■■•'< of Iim 
methods of reproduction, and . of plm 

— though much of the b<'st work was done Ix-fore pi. i - 
graphy was calletl in — some such result Ivcame al; 
inevitable. Mechaniail difliculties jirohably in a . 
degree accotinted for the fact that before the prem-nt 
century scarcely any great artist — except llolboi- 
illustrated lx)ok.s. Kut mechanical development do« 
wholly account for the close connection between art and 
letters, either at the present day, when their marri'v- 
may be said to be complete, or a century ago, when ; 
began seriously to "keep company." Illustration, 
as we know it, came into existence at a period when the 
consciousness of the literary world was awakening once 
more to all that was beautiful in nature and all lliat »ag 
moving in human life. The historians, the philosophrm, 
or the essayists of the eighteenth century did not call a 
Bewick or a Stothard to life. We should not l)e far 
wrong in connecting the rise of English illu.«tratian with 
the revolt against literary orthodoxy and conventionality 
which marked the close of the v)  . and 

with the return to country life w! , li the 

easel pictures of Constable and the woodcuts of Bewick. 
Once established, the illu.«trator, as distinct from the 
maker of subject-pictures, has become more and more 
a member of a special class. In the middle of the century 
the line between them was more often oven-tepjied than it 
is now. There is no more beautiful memorial of the 
late Laureate than the Tennyson's Poems of 1857, in 
which great arti.^s combined to do hone ur to a great 
\Met. " Drawing for reproduction " has now grown to a pro- 
fession, the members of which graduate in special schools, 
and which, if it does not promise the - 
and luxurious 7«i»«(7</«' of a successful l> , 

at any rate can secure a competency for a slmjrgling 
artist, and sometimes lure him : 
more precarious flights. Nothing 

tration is comparable to the changed introduced by 
photography — cIk' 
far from 1km ng < 

photographer will no longer be content to act as an 
a.«sistant, but will claim to be the sole o))erator, oosting 
the artist from the illustration of lKx>ks as he Itas already 



34 



tjtkkatukl:. 



[January 15, 1898. 



ooated liim in great measarj from the illustration of 
nuigarine^. 

But here, a^n, it would be a mistake to suppose 
tliat the present luxuriant growth of the art of illustmtion 
is line onlv to the dist'ovprv of certain metliods of repro- 
duction. It springs i«rtly from the wider diffusion of 
artistic taste and the facilities offered for the stiidy and 
practi<"* of art. ni) ' ' from onuses not so satisfactory. 

If the jKiwer to :■.: ■<• literature were sprenjiing with 

the same rapidity, there would be little reason to look 
vrith susj>icion on the increase of lx)ok ilhistration. Many 
people, no doubt, would contend that it is so spreading. 
and would point to the activity of the publishing trade, 
:■■.' ' 'le imiKirtant place criticism occujiies in current 
j 111, in supi>ort of their contention. There is 

certainly an increased interest in literature, which may 
or may not lie preliminary to an increased knowledge 
of it. Hut the development of sound literary taste is 
l)ecoming more and more difHcult of realization. The 
v.vWA supplies an abundant and delightful relaxation 
1. Ill the mental strain of literary study. The restless 
and superficial habit of mind which is the danger of 
continuous overdoses of m.-igazine n'ading willingl}' 
allows itself to be still further indulged. A new magazine 
addressed to " the million " can hardly hope for jwpularity 
unless it be provided with a jiictnre on every page. There 
imist he something to catch the eye, some method of 
supplying continual novel sensations without ruffling the 
rejKKie of the intellect. The " increased interest in litera- 
ture " resolves itself, to a great degree, into a love of stories 
and picture-books. And if this increased interest proves, 
as it may be feared it will prove, by no means incon- 
sistent with an increased deterioration in tnste and 
a-ipreciation, the artist must certainly be charged with 
having had a share in the result, and the jihotographer 
must be summoned to the bar as at least an accessory 
liefore the fact. The illustrated book is so firmly estab- 
lished, so universally accepted by popular tradition, that 
we are apt to forget that tlie union of art and letters is 
in many respects an illicit one. An authority on illus- 
tration not long ago made the naive sugijestion that a 
pood deal of paper and printing-ink might be saved in 
narrative or description by the use of the diagram. How 
mnch better a few strokes to indicate the lie of the country 
or the shape of the room, with A, B, or C for the principal 
iictoni, than the unnecessary verbiage which has been 
*• Ui-eJ for such purposes for hundreds of years because it is 
the * custom." " From time U> time we are fold that the age 
of great writert is jwst, but no one has hitherto been bold 
enough blandly to propose that we sliould throw up the 
sponge and return to the age of hieroglyphics, .fust so far 
as the artist usurps the place of the writer and attempts to 
fill up his alleged deficiencies, literature mu«t inevitably 
••Hffer. The writer is an artist, too, and his art lies not only 
in jiftinting a vivid picture, but in stimulating the imagin- 
ation by suggestion or omis»>ion. and here the illustrator 
i« not < n'y not r.v)uire;l, but is jiositively de (rop. Indeed, 
it may almost Iw argMcnl that in whatever degn»e the 
writer and the draught)-man collaborate, to that extent 



exactly the work of the one loses in literary (luality and 
that of the other in artistic quality. If a man be both 
jKJet and jninter — Blake or Kossetti, for example — then a 
jjoetic conception may adefjuately receive both artistic 
and literary expit ssion. But the conditions under which 
an artist is engaged to jwrtray literary ideas not his own 
can hardly, as a rule, satisfy the aspirations either of the 
idealist or the impressionist. 

This, however, will to most people seem mere jwradox, 
and the suggestion that illustration is overdone can only 
l>e as Mrs. Partington's protest against the incoming ocean. 
From the instructive or educational 8taiKli)<>int pic- 
tures no doubt are indis])ensable. In the decoration of 
the jiage, also, the pencil or the brush finds a wide and 
appropriate field. From the illuminated missal of the 
monk to the tyixigraphical masterpieces of the Kelmscott 
Press, a feeling of reverence for the written word has rightl v 
prompteil a desire to give it a worthy and beautiful sotting. 
And on the subject of illustrations of the oixlinary kind, 
the most single-minded lover of jiure literature inav still 
find his grains of consolation. It is no mean gain that 
the literary man shoidd have iierforce to concern himself 
far more than he does at jiresent with the quality of illus- 
trative work. Of still greater advantage is the opfwrtunitv 
given to the artist to interest himself in letters. The 
ignorance of the average art student is amazing. But if — 
to parody the well-known remark of a young lion of letters 
— he is content to say, " I do not read books, I illustrate- 
them," he will jirobably find a difficulty in earning enough 
money to pay his iikhIcIs. Again, many of those who prac- 
tise literature as an art still regard the aid of illustration as 
purely adventitious. It is rather the poets and novelists 
of the past than those of the present that the illustrator 
takes in hand. Many writers of fiction show less 
inclination now than their ]iredecessors at the begin- 
ning and middle of the century to invite the aid of the 
artist. This may be due to a healthy self-resjiect, or 
to a recognition of the fact that to the novelist illus- 
trations have proved, on the whole, of doubtful advanta<'e. 
.Scott has gained little from his illustrators ; of two signal 
instances in two successive generations of novelists illus- 
trating their own work, one at least has proved the 
arrangement to be hardly as ideal as it might seem ; and 
despite the beautiful draughtsmanship which has often 
embellished works of fiction, it has seldom helped to 
prolong their literary life. But there is one exception — 
an exce]ition too obvious to dwell uiK>n. and as one thinks 
of "Phiz"— "rubbish"' though Mr. Pennell thinks most 
of his work to be — one feels almost tempted to abandon 
the whole case and admit the debt of literature to art. 
And if we tuni to the classics in jioetry or prose, there is 
much to check a too extravagant claim on the part of 
literature to a complete indejiendence of the illustrator. 
We may make our jmitest against extravagant demands 
from the other side, but when all is said, it would surely be 
the merest jiedanfry to assert that such works as Sir Noel 
Paton's Aytoiin, Mr. Abbey's Ilerrick, Mr. Hugh Thom- 
son's Jane Austen, or Jlr. Birket Foster's poetical 
landfcapes have not helped the cause of literature. If 



Jauuury Ij, iSaS.] 



LITERATURE. 



85 



the artiHt Clin reveal not only artihdc nkill, Init t1i<»n^,'lit, 
HyniiMitliy, and ajipri'tiiition, ho may find a work to do, 
and may be the fitting minister, not to a reatletw love 
of novelty or to an impatient negjett of any true literary 
utandard, but to a deeper insiiglit and a higher culliire. 



1RCV(C\V8. 



Poems. I!y Stephen Phillips. 

I^tiidoii and New York, ISJW. 



8 uin., vii. + 108 pp. 
Lane. 4 6 n. 

No such remnrlsahio book of verne aw thi.s hns ai>- 
peared for several years. Mr. Phillips iolilly eliallenges 
comparison, botli in style and subject, with tlie work of 
great masters ; the writers whom he makes you think of 
range up to Milton and do not fall below I.andor. 
lie attempts nothing small, and his poetry brings with 
it that sensation of novelty and that sufl'u.-ion of a strongly- 
marked personality wiiich stamjis a genuine poet. The 
volume of his work is not great, but it i.s considemble, 
alviut equal in length to the "Cieorgics"; it contains 
altundant j)erf()nnance, and even when promise exceeds 
jierfonnance it is promise of the most interesting kind. 
Needless to say, he has not yet wliolly emerged from the 
])eriod of diseipleship ; the two most i)erfect of his poems 
are those which suggest a msister ;, but even in them, 
there is enough originality to justify all that we have 
said ; and two of the otlier jioenis, though less able to 
defy criticism, mark a new doiMirture in the art. 

I'nlike most modern poets, .Mr. Phillips does not 
shine in the jyure lyric ; he has not the simplicities of song. 
His verse has a grave and stately music which lends 
itself to impassioned narrative and still more readily to 
the utterance of imjiassioned thought. Four of " his 
poems — the four longest — stand out; two of them, 
"Marpessa" and "Christ in Hades," are classical both 
in style and subject ; the other two attempt a more 
difficult and more novel achievement, to harmonize in 
poetry the life of a modern city, with its gas lamps, its 
asphalt, and its crowd of trivial and tragic faces. "Christ 
in Hades " is of the four the least interi'sting, because the 
least novel ; it is also the most faultless, abounding in 
detached lines of extraordinary beauty. "Miu^essa" 
is a Greek idyll which tells how a maiden having to chose 
between Idas and the god Apollo preferred the mortal 
lover. The thought of the poem is beautiful ; and though 
Mr. Phillips does not escape the influence of Tennyson 
— why should he? — his blank verse is entirely his own, 
everywhere dignified, sonorous, and musical. 

He interests us more, however, with his two s])iritual 
tragedies of modern life, where his problem i.s how to 
combine the sharjiest realism with poetic style, than when 
he endeavours to introduce realism into matter made 
]>oetie already to his hand. One of tliese two poems, " The 
Wife," is the terrible story of a woman who goes out to 
get bread in the one way she can for her sick husband, 
and returns with it to find him dead. The subject 
suggests Mr. John Davidson's work ; what stamps it with 
the peculiar impress of ^Ir. Phillips is the j»assai;e describ- 
ing how the storm of grief spent itself, and time and 
natiue already began tlu>ir sootliing work— tlie tragic cure 
oT forgetfulness ; and so in the dawn beside the corpse — 

Atother and child that food together ate. 
The whole poem suffers from a kind of spasmodic energy ; 
it is, perhajis inevitably, over.stnuig. and it jars the nerves— 
a thing which poetry should never do. Hut the descrij*- 
tion of tlie woman's piiiiinf,' wiili lii>r child, who begs to 



Ije taken with her M she goes oat into the night, 

wonderful — 

I: .; it thu iliMir • m<>m«iit diti aho r|iiail, 

II. .M- tl, I till I.. ..,11 )m.|,;>..I I., r .....I 



Kniilod at I 



• •II 



Th. 
a line a 

redeems the indirterent end of the [ 
The most original thing in tlie book, ho»i^ . 

I>oem "Tlie Woman with a Dead .SmI." ; 
Wife " in a modification of C It in » 

singular enterjirise. Mr. I'l ■„ f.i] „ 

tragedy in which not 

sitting in a i>ublic-hou , ., , ...^ ^ 

notes her eyen that ha«l no inward . 

stared like windows in the j)e«'rof d.\ " 

to tell how that woman's soul had ;_ 

and left her a Ixxiy neatly dr..-.M-<]. «,-ll j.,)i 

mechanically jierforming the o|»erations of life. T) 

the problem of his narrative; to make vou t 

slow ix'rishing of a soul, and feel the hanr • • 

this survival. It must fairly be said th;: 

obscure; he expre.sses the feeling but .-^ 

It is not clear whether he means thrr 

unconscious of her cbange<l .self. II 

she tell him her story? Hut if so, ...j 

know that she is dead? He means, no doubt, that the 
tragedy is inferred from her words and her face. 

Gently she spoke : not nnr« hor rheolt frtw pale. 
And I traiuttate t" 

The problem of 'in^r; br.w t<> 

use language, as for instance M 

done, .so as to render the very e.-..~i ..^ ,. ; ,,..,{ 

imj)ression in describing such a scene and such a woni.m 
and yet keep it poetry. Here is the beginning : — 

Allured by the disaatroua tavern lieht. 

Unhappy tli " . 

And evor tl 

S d. 

■* ' d with mire. 

Tlu ... 

Sh)w t: 

And hi; . i 

Of that cold Jiico from which 1 i n 

Whicli even now doth slay mo p . 

The last couplet is bad, but the opening could not he 

better; it has all the beauty of verse, a!" ' 

ness of imagination, together with the i 

the essence of the scene. The i 

in itself, but it is redeemed I'. 

describing the soul's death : — 

Sh.. f.if '» .1;.. -1 i;mi.. .......... .i... 

F'  bly prar. 

St it pull," 

I" iifiil, 

Ai.' , .«Bko 

And slruci:li'd in the ilarHiiriw t k. 

For not ;\t .>nce, not without ai>' 
It '' - imoa it started hack to liie, 

JV' 'iniffl ermifin nft^r rain 

.R ' •■ 

N' ace or skr, 

\\r 

Or ight rweet. 

"'' . v.art,. .,. V..V Jark street. 

3~S 



36 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



Tho lines we have italu-iz«\I nn» the most obviously 
lieautiful things in a jjassjige of extraonlinary beauty ; 
but they have after all tlie mere Ix-auty of phrasing, not 
the power of suggextion wliich marks the earlier couplets. 
Mr. Philli|>8, as is only natunvl, overstrains language somc- 
times in his effort to be jioignant ; for instance, this line — 

in a fine jwem — 

Your wild and wet dork Imir 
Hluhed in my eyes }'i>iir essence and yuur sting. 

Sometimes, also, in seeking to vary the rhjihm of his 
blank verse be &Jls on a line wholly indefensible, as this 

one — 
• Tlien starting up 

With trivial words, or even with a jost, 
Kealist* all (ht uneoli'Urtd datni. 

And sometimes he is absolutely infelicitous, iis in this line 
of '• Marpessa " — 

And all that tint and mvUxly and bi-cath, 
Which in their lovely tniison are there, 
To be distributed towards Africa. 

It is an unhapp3' reminiscence of his classics ; Africa is no 
longer the vague and far-off beyond. Hut it is ea.sy to be 
< :'.]'tious, not at nil ea.sy to write such a jutssage as this, 
«hich we quote from " Marjjessa," as showing Mr. Piiiilips 
not perhaps in his most original or characteristic asjiect, 
but at the height of his technical acliievement : — 

How wonderful in a bereave'd ear 

The Northern Wind : hi.w strange the summer night, 

The exhaling earth to those wiio vainly love. 

Oat of our sadness have we niadu the world 

8o beautiful : the sea sighs in uur brain. 

And in our heart the yearning of the moi>n. 

To all this sorrow wa>s I Iwrn, and since 

Oii' '  womb I came. 1 am 

K o it : 1 would scorn 

T- ■;.....- o,„i take the joy, 

>'. : ■, pangs with the bloom : 

Tl :.. ...... ...- der. 

No man in our generation and few in any generation have 
r tlian this. The bcok is marred, we regret 
ny misprints. 



PETER THE GREAT. 



Peter the Oreat. Hy Oscar Browning, M. A. 7^, .">in., 
viii. +S17. I»ndon. 18U7. Hutchinson. 5- 

Mr. Browning disarms criticism by the modesty of 
his pretensions, lie "does not claim to iiave gone much 
beyond " Briickner and Schuyler in the composition of his 
work. .Since the Kussian T' ' ' put together tlio four 
Croat volumes of his ui 1 life of Peter, and 

vjev completed the materials in his voluminous 
11. ;ory of Hussia. the line of Peter's biographers has 
Ixin pretty clearly marked out for them. Dr. Briickner, 
of I)ar|iat, and .^Ir. Schuyler, of the United States, have 
not strugciwi ffir away from their Ustrjalov and Solovjev 
in the < ii of their books, though they have 

availed ti - of other sources as well. They differ 

mainly from their liussian leaders in bulk, for though 
I -trjalov did not have time to deal with the last fifteen 
vi-;ir^ of Peter's reign, e.Tcept as it concerned the Cesarevitch 
  four tin ' _• as Mr. Schuyler's and 

as I)r. 1'.. Mr. Browning lias 

now sifted the selection through a smaller mesh, and 
'■rr-Iiiced this unpretentioiLs hand-lxwk. It may be di— 

•■d as Schuyler in small, stiffened with a little 
liruckner. 

Waliszewski's book on Peter the Great has, of course, 
rendered any other biograjihy on thesamc lines super- 



fluous. Surely guided by his ]>sychological insight among 
the Ix'wildering j>henomena of Peter's conduct, lie has 
perceived and exiwimded his hero's constancy to his own 
character through all the vicissitudes of its n\anifestntion. 
Nor must one be lilinded to the worth of his matter by 
the liriiliance of its exj)osition. An accoiuplislied linguist, 
M. Waliszewski has ranged at large over all tlie best 
material, and his book may well supersede the lalMiurs of 
Ustrjalov and Solovjev on the subject for all but tiie 
" serious student," even in Hussia itself. With him it 
would, of course, lie absunl to comjiare Mr. Browning. 
Their spheres have In'en different. Moreover, Walis- 
zewski's work is jirimarily biographical ; historic events 
sene with him as lights ujion the j)ersonality of the Tsar. 
Mr. Browning's book is primarily historical ; it follows 
Schuyler's arrangement as a chronological epitome of 
events. It is, therefore, convenient as a book of reference. 
Waliszewski's is a book for the table ; Mr. Browning's for 
the shelf. 

Having these two books — a cheap edition of I.«dy 
Mary Ixiyd's translation of \Valisze\yski has just been 
published by Mr. lleinemann — the British public will 
probably be content without any new work ujion the 
subject for many years. One cannot, however, but regret 
that the English memoirs of (leneral Patrick Gordon, 
Peter's intimate friend — one of the most valuable sources 
of information on Peter's reign — have never been publislied 
except in a German translation. They came near to 
publication seventy years ago, for Byron excused himself 
to Murray for his own ])rocrastinatiim by enlarging upon 
the bulk of material which the ijublisher had already in 
hand, and instanced : — 

Tlien you've Oonoral Cordon, 
Who girded his sword on 

To servo with a Muscovite master, 
And help him to polish 
A nation so owlish 

They thought shaving their beards a disaster. 

But all that the I5ritisli jmhlic has ever seen of 
Gordon's Memoirs is a few fniginents issued in 18,59 by 
the Spalding Club of Aberdeen. 

Mr. Browning's book demands tlie attention of its 
reader, but that attention is conciliated by a certain 
(luality in the style, which cheers, though not inebriates. 
At times, however, the author suqtrises his reader witli 
queer exiieriments in language, such as, " There were no 
proper engineers to conduct the siege. The chief of 
them was Franz Timmernmnn." On the preceding 
j»ge we are puzzled by the capricious behaviour of 
fortresses, for we are told that " the Don Cossacks took a 
Turkish fort which hindered their supply of provisions, 
and another which enabled them to throw a bridge of 
boats across the river." Elsewhere Mr. Browning tells us 
that " no one who had been a Strelitz was jiennittcd to 
bear arms, nor might he enter the regular anny. . . 
These measures were so successful that it was possible to 
form a few regiments out of the former Streltsi for service 
in Poland." One is disjioseil to wonder of what use 
soldiers not is'nnittwl to Ix-ar arms can have been on 
service in Poland; but the fact is that, under stress 
of necessity, the ban wfis removed from the old mutineers, 
and no harm c«me of it, thanks to the severity of Peter's 
precautions. 

Mr. Browning has followed Mr. Schuyler's com- 
mendable example in marking the accents on Kussian 
names; but, unfortunately, he has followed him also in 
being guided in their distribution by jirobahility rather 
than usage. V<A<'>>jda, Olchukof, and terem for Vologda., 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



37 



(Hchi'iknf, and Ifrem are rfcuiri»nt errors, for which Mr. 
Schiiyl(»r was originally resjjonitible. 



Tho Pupils of Peter the Oreat. liv R. Nlabet Bain. 

O'Uiii., xxiv. I :(IK |>|>. \Vi-.stiiiiiiNt<r, 1X1)7. OonatAble. 16/-n. 

When we have said tliat Mr. Hain's Iwok diHplays 
Tnucli tievcrne.ss and .'ioine Icaniii)^ and tliat it is, in 
places, entertaining, we have saiil almost all tliat can he 
said ill its favour. As a new work on a subject of which 
little is known in England it may serve to i\\»\w\ some 
ignorance ; hut it cannot he regarded a.** a valual)le con- 
trihiition to historical knowledge. 

'1 lit" plan of t lie author in writing the book may Ije 
gathere<l from its title and, less easily, from its contents. 
It was designed to be a *' study of the rise of the mcxlern 
Kussian state," a history of the " j)eriod during which the 
followers and i)U]iils of the great reforming Tsar, tniincd 
beneath his eye and informed by his spirit, continued and 
consolidated the work of their illustrious master." Tlie 
subject is a promising one. We look for a description of 
Peter's reforms, possibly jireceded by a sketch of the 
pre-1'etrine movement towards the West which made 
them iK)ssible, and then a study of their development, 
showing how they affected the jieople and how they con- 
tained the germ of Russia's economy of tonlay. In all 
this w(> are disiip])ointed. Instead of a first chapter on 
the refonns we lind a meagre patchwork on Seventeenth 
Century Russia, which, Mr. Bain regrets to say, is still 
" an historical ten'a incognita in this country : " though 
for our part we were well contented with the fuller and 
livelier account of the matter to be found in Uambaud's 
History of Russia. The rest of the book is a history of 
])alace intrigues and the ding-dong rise and fall of 
favourites, varied by irrelevant excursions on the tedious 
vicissitudes of Polish iwlitics and of Miinich's campaign 
against the Turks. The whole ends with an account of the 
Kin])ress Anne's Court, for much of which English readers 
might have gone direct to .Mr. I'ain's authorities; ant' 
those who looked for a history of the development of Peter's 
work find themselves left high and dry at the moment 
when the reforms had fallen furthest out of sight, when 
luxury, commercial decay and ignorance had rt>i)laced the 
frugality, prosi>erit3' and enlightenment which Peter sought 
to introtlucc. It is fair to add that Mr. Pain proposes to 
carry his researches down to a later date if he receive the 
encouragement which he deems that his subject should 
secure him. 

Many of Mr. Pain's faults arise from the selection of 
his authorities. The memoirs and letters of diplomats 
and their wives seem to have been the chief sources of his 
information. The more thoughtful productions of Russian 
scholars who have toiled in native archives have been 
neglected, with the exception of Solovjev's History. 
Po])ov's Life of Tatiszczev, which contains valuable details 
on the actuiil condition of Russia at large at the time, has 
been ignored ; nor does Mr. Hain show any signs of 
acquaintance with Korsakov's '■ From the Lives of Ix'ading 
Russians of the Eighteenth Century," which deals in a 
masterly way with many of Mr. Bain's dramatis persona: 

^Ir. Bain achieves novelty by paradoxical accounts 
of the characters and conduct of historical persons, for 
which he should at least give chapter and verse. Ivan 
Dolgoruki. s,nys Mr. Pain, was "a stupid, idle, and vicious 
youth ": Korsakov, who has studied him in detail, describes 
him as " endowed with a lively and versatile mind and an 
excellent heart." Prince Dmitri (Jolitsyn, says Mr. Bain, 
was " frowned uiwn by Peter the Great." " Peter used often 



to visit tho Prince of a ii the hintorian of 

the GolitHvns, " to tell " "■' '"nr hUi 

opinions." Of Aiexei, tip ."He 

_.ii.|-l. .1.. 

wa.- V 

to ; 

1)0 llUf, •• 

light «il V .; 

nothing but playing the <■ ■• 

monks and priests and go.., „ ....... ;.- .> .. 

It is unfair to glorify this worthlemi prince, 

father Peter kill> ! l.r to make iw ' 

out of Pfter's i: ty. Volyn-l 

is summed up by .Mi', liuin in the ■. 

did the dirty work of the Duke >■: ' 

ran his messages, in short he was a mo<lel i 

Biren's jKjint of view" ; later, we are given ■<•■ 

he revolted from his protector, beat the poet Ti' 

for " cursing " a " 

Biren. From ot 

have known, that \ olynski revolutioinzi-*! i 

tion and probably had higher political iil 

other Russian of his time except Peter; thir 

Great said of him, " He was a good and 

and a zealous friend of all useful tendenc 

that jiosterity has raised :• 

from the very first the !■ 

oust Biren and the Germans from their |ilai-e« ; tiiat 

I)ersecute<l Tre<ljakovski because he hat! exer- i"-I 

jKietic talent in lamjiooning him; and, lastly, that" ' 

and not Biren was the cau.se of his ruin, as « (hutih; 

himself confesse<l when his own turn came. 

Mr. Bain's eclectic and 
Russian words is complicated ; 
prints than should have been allowinl to escajie 
such as Imprralritaa, Eluittrinni for /t7i/ 
Ekaterinxii, msshick for nisakiJch, Svt/f»ioi (<• 
and Vs'-' ' three times in two 

It iswr ly that Peter ''ii^ 

the Assumption) and retume<l to ihf Kn-iiiliii. ' !■.•>• 
that the cathedral is inside the Kremlin; and as t.. 
"F'enis, the bright falcon, the favourite hero of old R 

folk-lore" may Ix", we cannot even hazanl a < 

the name "Fenis" is unknown and jihonetically 

in "old Russian folk-lore" and the author whom .Mr. i; 

cites makes no mention of it. 



;<» 
he 
Ki« 

n 
win 



'.o 



un 



WilUam the Silent. 

200 pp. lyOIUloil, \!<>~. 



Hy Frederic Harrison. 7; • 

Mnntnlllttn . 



2.« 



.\ life of William the Silent, not too jvirtial. modemte 
in size, and drawn from the Ix'st sources, will b" 1 

by English readers. ^Ir. Frederic Harri.«>ii • •' 

name itaradoxical, because William was an :i 

and fond of conversation. But was he nui ..in- .i . i  itt 
iH'cause he knew how to hold his tongue when it was not 
desirable that he should sp^ak ? A ;i. 

Maurice of Saxony, had somethin. 
William was a statesman and di; > 

general. He was often unsuccessti 

patience won in the end, and he became the founth-r of a 

nation which was destined to have nn" -'••••" — "" 

the moilern world. In 1574, when hi- 

low, he could write, '• If it do not ]•]■ 

us and utterly destroy us. it will ^tllI  - 

the half of Si«in. in wealth as well as in men. i 

will have made an end of us," which » ^ :y 

much what happene<l. As early as 1559 Philip II. seems 

to have suspected where the real danger lay. As he 



38 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



leaving the Netherlands he toKl William to his fnce that 
he wna the mischief-maker — " not the States, bi;t you ! 
yoa ! you I " 

In his early years the Prince remained witliin the 
Roman fold, and it was not till 15GG that he wait con- 
sidered to have changetl his religion. In the next year 
>' - ' m and christened ns n Lutheran. Ten 

u's Pmti'stantism hml ndvaniHHl.nnd he de- 
iia.s"b<i' Ivinist" — adho y ' '. 

1 'il .\nne  - i_v, who was an au . a 

1, and mad ; but who was never brought to trial. 
\. ..... .-iie still lived he married Charlotte de Bourbon, 

■who had been forced to take the veil. The Dutch were 

•Icaswl at tliis decisive stop, and the German Pro- 

\vf>r-^ dumb. IIjuI not Luther married a nun, and 

liad he II i/(Hl the bigamy of Phiiip of Hesse ? 

Bossuet u.. is nuide good use of these irregularities, 

but the fact is that the Protestantu, though recognizing 
divorce, " had not yet instituted any regular system 
of matrimonial law." The Bourlwu marriage wa* 
. and after Charlotte's death William's 
I -•• de C-oligny still further identified him 
with the Protestant cause. 

The seizure of Brill by the '"sea-beggars" in 1572 may 

be retrarded as the foundation of the Dutch Kepublic. 

(• of I/eyden settled the future of 

lis inhabitants a lesson for all time. 

•• An inland city was rescued by a fleet which sailed into 

its streets. The Prince in |ierson directed the cutting of 

the dykes, having persuaded the jieople to submit to the 

tMicrifice. ' Better ruin the land than lose the land,' said 

thfv." For a time there seemed a chance of keeping all the 

t her, but the religious and ethnical divi- 

.at are now called Holland and Belgium 

was too decided. Belgium slipjied back under the yoke of 

the House of Austria, while Holland liecame a great inde- 

])<-ndent power. 

In 1580 Philip issued his Ban against William, 
offering a reward of 25,000 crowns, with a full jiardon and 
patent of nobility, to any one who would capture or kill 
him. This drew forth the Prince's " Apology" for his whole 
career, which ended with the fiimous motto, ♦' Je le main- 

' ipts at assassination naturally followed. 

:y very nearly succeeded, and William, 
when he thought himself dying, begged that the would- 
be murderers might not be tortured. lialthazar Gerard 
shot him at last, and the loss seemed irreparable. But 
tht' ■' ' *' :i of Spain ha<l been progressing ; the attitude 
of I fcame more decided ; and after the failure of 

iuia, a result to which Holland hafl contributed by 
, J. Fameses barges shut up in the Scheldt, she 
was safe. Geranl's family were not paid the 25,000 
crowns, f - ' '-- ' •■ ' -r >u-n scarce with Philip; but they 
got the ! , were exempted from taxes, and 

had grants out o: 



Studies in Franlcn( 
202 pp. London, IMH. 



3y Charles Whibley. 7? x 5in.. 
Heinemann. 7/6 



They wfao review Uieae ' ' Staclios in Prunkiiess ' ' miigt tboin- 
•olve* be (rmnk. Mr. Whiblojr is evidently it man of wide unci 
carioiw rMding »nd of gencr : athiea, but ho seomR (o us 

to b« bopelMsly ooDfuaod in y vision. Ho has road, it 

Appean, Sterne and Apuleiua, lUUilaiR and I'ctronius, and has 
sincerely admired Tristram and Fotis. raniirgo and Trimalchio. 
8o far we (olUnr him gladly, and even congratntato him on his 
«nriotM and yet «ieeU«nt choieo of authors, liut Mr. Whibley, 
it is to be preramed, is nothing if not analytic, and after he had 



didy tastcnl and rolishod his niastorpiooos he must havo Iwgun to 
auk himsulf why ho likod this and that, why " Tho Golden Ass " 
charmed him, why ho dulightod in the humours of " My I'nclo 
Toby " \ Tho noxt stop, obviously, was to oxaniniu tho books for 
some common mark, and, unhappily, Mr. Whibloy found a cer- 
tain quality— to him " frankness," to tlio I'uritan impropriety — 
common to all. Honco the conclusion tliat tho prerogative 
merit of those works is " frankness," that Ka1)elais, for example, 
is delightful chiefly because ho is " improper." And tho whole 
of Mr. Whibley 's Imok is pervaded by this assumption ; ho 
elaborates his theory in tho intro<luction,denK>liBhe.') his imagined 
Puritan, and shows us a short and easy way with Jeremy Collier. 
Violently, indeed, does ho belabour tho poor Nonjuror. 
" Stupid," " ignorant," " like tho clown at a country fair," 
" a pestilent fellow," " dullard," and " pedant " are tho best 
words the author can find for Jeremy, and all the while we aro 
reniindetl if tho parson in Washington Ir^-ing's " Old Christmas " 
who " had a legion of ideal adversaries to contend with," and 
had to quote a cloud of saints and fathers, and to demolish 
PrjTino before ho would let the parishioners eat their plum 
pudding. In (juite the same spirit Mr. Whibley will not let u.s 
peep into our Congrovo till he has ossuroil us that Collier has 
not a leg to stand on ; he is forced to enter the Garden of Kden 
and deliver a dissertation on abstract modesty while wo aro 
sharp-set for Trimalchio's ban<|Uot ; ho demolishes tlie morality 
of tho suburbs while all the time " My Father " is only waiting 
to bo heard. 

And the a.ssutnption on which this high arguiiiont is based 
is, we believe, thoroughly false. If no book is groat because 
it is modest, so no amount of " frankness " is in itself a merit 
in literature. Mr. Whibley professes to sj^ak for tho cause of 
pure art, but ho should remember that in art tho matter is of 
small importance, while the manner is (almost) everything. The 
mere grossnoss of Rabelais is often rather tiresome ; it is to very 
different qualities that tho " Gargantua " ond " Pantagruol " 
owe their real iiitorost. And Apuleius ; what do wo find in him ? 
" Frankness," certainly ; but also, but chiefly, tho ornate 
splendour of a docorated stylo, the delight of strange words, tho 
singular charm of that late classic life, when Isis and Osiris and 
Mithras were adoretl in Rome, a rare and fantastic imagination, 
tho wonder of romance. We reatl " The Golden Ass " for its 
hints of magic, for wild adventure with Thraoian robbers, for 
the picture of the ringing amphitheatre, for tho strange atmo- 
sphere of tho ond, when tho goddess rises from tho sea, for such 
purple ])assages as this : — 

Ainpli ealiceg varia; quidrm gratin; sed iffetiositatis <iniu.i. Hie 
vitrum faliro sigillatum, ilii crustalluiii impuiictuiii, argciiluiii alibi olarum 
et aurum fulguraiw, ot sucinum n)irc caratum et lapidea ut bilMW et 
quie<iuid fleri nun |Kitost ibi cut. 

The author of " Studies in Frankness " would rorhaps say that 
it is all this that he too admires. Then why did ho choosu such 
a title for his boi>k, why so much discoursing of I'uritans and 
suburbs and Jeremy Ci>llier ? Wo are like the congregation in 
" Old Christmas " ; we are quite ready to enjoy our pudding 
without arguments, postulatums, or proparativoi. 

Most of these essays, if not all of them, have appeared Ixjfore ; 
hence, no doubt, Mr. Whibley, having intnHluced Heliodorus 
to the reailors of the " Tudor Translations," has used his article 
for these " Studies." It is well to be economical, but ho might 
have found a far more intoresting study in " Uaphnis and 
Chloe." As he himself onfessos, tho " Theagenos aii<l 
Charicloa " is a lengthy and languid romance, too weak to 
take a place between tho " Satyrioon " and " Tristram Shandy." 
In the essay on Poo there aro many things said acutely and well ; 
Mr. Whibley perceives that Poe trouble<l himself very littlo 
about style, and ho does full justice to the immenRO influence of 
" Arthur Gordon Pym," though tho story is not rockone<l 
amongst Poo's happiest inventions. It would have Ixjen interest- 
ing to hoar more aliout Poo's criticism : somotimes full of the 
keenest insight and foresight, sometimes deplorably futile. If 
only Poe himself could havo analysed tho mind that hailed 
Tennyson as " the noblest poet that ever lived," and also pro- 



January !■>, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



39 



iioiinced Mooro u writer of splendid nnd Jitartlinp orijjmiility ; 
tltat woIuoiiiimI Hiiwthnrne ii» n clnxnic, and liuld up nonio 
nii.4oral)lo Kii^HhIi iniiKn/.ino story, ho)Kdt*H8 in it.H viilj^arity, mt a 
model tti Aiuorican niitliors. And a jxyint might Imvu l>eoii not«<l 
as to I'oe's creative work : that ho wax largely n man of one idoa, 
building up many of nis best tales on the hy|)otliosia that 
apparent death is not actual death, that dissolution is a slow 
and elaborate process, and not the sudden and final shock of 
common opinion. The study of Sir Thomas l.'rquhart cnntains 
nnicli valuable and interesting infurmation, but surely Mr. 
Whibloy is a little bravo when ho declares that " you wonder 
•which has the better of it, the original (of Halwlais) or the 
version." Sir Thimia.s'8 translation is, no doubt, a great 
jichievement, an adniirablo book in itself, but that delicate and 
oxiiuisito rill i>ini(in tlmt Unwed from tlio grai>es of I.,tt Devinicro 
is expressed in terms of usipieliaugh by the too lusty Scot. And 
.\pulciu8 is " ovnr the literary fop." An astonishing judgment ; 
it is as if one wore to degrade some glorious cavalier who shone 
>\ui\ fought for Charles to the rank of " dude " or " masher." 

In a word, Mr. Whibley knows the best bonks and loves 
them, but ho is singularly unfortunate in hi.s elFort-i to tell the 
tale of hia literary adventures. 

An Introduction to Folklore. Hv Marianne Roalfe 
Cox. 7x4iin., ix.+S44 pp. Index and Bifiliugrupliv. 

Nutt. 8 6 

It cannot exactly bo said that Miss Cox's work altogether 
satistios the exjiectation which hor subject would arouse. She 
<lnus not leave a very clear impression either of the sphere or 
of the metlunls of the science, if science it can yet bo called, 
with which she is dealing. Are all customs foinul among 
the folk a part of Folklore, or only those which there is 
reason to believe have a long history behind thum ? How 
are wo to distinguish between the two ? Then, again, 
bow are wo to tell customs that have been imported 
and those that aro native to the soil ? Miss Cox gives no 
guidance in these matters, though they lie at the root of the 
■whole subject. It cannot, however, bu entirely put down to 
Miss Cox's fault that she loaves such a vague impression of the 
t'xait nature of Folklore. The p\indits themselves are by no 
means at one as regards its fundamental problems, and this 
uncertainty only adds to the attractiveness of the study. Miss 
Cox's l)ook, in fact, is somewhat unwisely misnamed an Iiitro- 
<luL-tion. It really consists of a numlxir of essays on discon- 
nected portions of the subject, illustrating the method lulopted 
by certain investigators, throwing light upon the quainter sides. 
Thu themes she deals with aro : — The .separable soul, animal 
ancestors, animism, and myths. The customary side of the 
-s^'ionce is th\is left unrepresented, and the significance of the 
wedding, burial, and initiation ceremonies is omitted from her 
purview. 

While seemingly disconnected, the essays contained in this 
volume have at any rate one common link in the theory adopted 
to explain the remarkable similarities of Folklore phenomena 
throughout the world. Take, for example, the subject discussed 
in the first es.say, that of tho separable soul. This is the idea 
that tho siml can, even during life, l>e separated from the Inxly, 
can wander forth to do good or ill, and can Im) put aside in a 
place of safety. Tho conception is of considerable theological 
imiiortanco, since popular eschatnlogy is based uinin it. Popular 
tradition at times recnnls that this separable soul becomes visible 
as it imsses away from tlie body, even on tho occasions when it 
ultimately returns to it. The story is told throughout Euroi)o 
of the man who saw a companion's soul leave his mouth in the 
form of a bee or a mouse, and return thither as he awoke. 
Knw, the explanation afforded by Miss Cox, and of the sclund 
to which she belongs, is that at a certain stage of human 
culture it Injcnmes natural to explain the phenomena of sleep, 
trance, &c., by the assumption of a separable soul. Yet this 
does not explain why in so many cases the sej>arable soul in 
this particular anecdote should l)o represented in the form of 
a beo, while in others it puts on the fiTui of a mouse. The 



tb«r toMbdivid* 
(••rm U adofHti. 
ity. Thia ia all 

tti* tha 
itiniMtl 

:..... Y«t 
li'll •• tk« 

 lit 
'g 

K 
 4 

■i.» 
SP 

try 

la 
It 

Ml 



r«al problem in t< 
over whiih thii i 

' Oil tlio \mo "t tbt 
■: union i* of prior Itigiosl 
the nioro netewary niioo Utere i« a temUncy <>( tli« 

iu?ho<>l of FolkloriMta, oa they have * —  '• 

preaoncu of such an SMM-dot* aa  > 

«siKt«iicu of tliu undvrlv' -' ' ' 

it ia imiMHwiblu to bi 

eiulMKlimont of Uie soul iii u beu aios> 

placeM. MisaCox i|u<>t«a aiiotiier aat ' 

her theme, in which a ginnt nr » 

in the Ixxiy nf a duck, which a-jri 

■oiii iiual, and *n I. 

Clin 'S. Now this i: 

of country extending fmrn Norway to India, cannot 

would tlitnk, have been invented ao{i«rately in cn-i' ■•' 

whore it ia found. Coniequently, Uie intomtt of 

not so much in tho idea of tho aeiiarabie aoul which 

aa in the migrationa which liave carrie<i it over 

largo a tract of coiuitry. 

Uwiiig to tho neglect of thia f;ao|rra)ihieal diatributiun <•( 
Folklore, Miaa Cox's ex|i<>sitionx - r- 

ing ofTect. By leaving out of n n 

she is enabled to put Kido by 
all parta of tho world— China .. 
Miss Cox's pages. In a single ]iaragniph exampi' 

<pioted from China, Moxicn, Orocco, aiwl i^uth India. !«. .z 

being somewhat bewildering to tho reader'a mind, such a prop— 
really inverts the scientific order. The cuatom or tale ia uaad to 
illustrate a general principle, whereoa Uie whole object of 
foi-mulating such principles is to explain particular FotkkNW 
phenomena. 

It must not, however, lie ' og 

tendency is due to Misa Cox | aa 

tho ropresentatiro of a school nt .|a 

justifiably enough, is chiefly nccu]ii('i  :iig 

at first approximations to general principloa. It Itaa been bar 
part to ex{M>tuuI some of theae principles in a clear and interaat' 
ing way, and she has succeeded admirably. 8ho has beraelf 
produced one of the moat learned of Folklore productiona of 
recent years— hor remarkable analyais of all current varianta of 
Cinderella. She accordingly brings to her task a very large 
amount of illustrative material, which she recorda in a Tory 
bright and effective way. Any one who wishca to bec«io« 
acquainted with the leading conce|itinns that have »l"wlr hv^n 
arrivcKl at in order to explain some "' i;a 

phenomena of human Iielief cannot do )>• -li 

Miss Cox's (Miges. Though she has somewhat i: d 

all references for her statemeiita, she has addt . , .i.t 

edition a very useful list of English books of Folklore, where the 
reader who desires fuller disoussion may find any special 
problem adequately treated. 

Sleep : Its Physiology, Pathology. Hygiene, and 
Psychology. Hy Marie de Menac^m- •'. 

(Tlio ContciiiiHirai y Scii'ino Serii'.s.l 1 

viii. t lUl pp. London. Hifi. V.\.. .«. . ;^^ v. . .. ~0 

Tliis book, which has been already published in Roasia and 
France, gives a iM>pular account of the present position of 
science in reganl to sleep and its phenomena. Tho author, wbo 
is herself a Doctor of Medicine, while expounding the chief 
theories which have been oilrauced, recognises that there aiw 
many questions which the insuflicient •/<!((> at our conmaiid do 
not enable us to answer. It is strange, in view of tba vital 
interest of the subject, that tlio condition of all the fanetaaiM 
during sleep has not been i ated. Dr. 

de Monao^ine suggests that ; uia&kiod in 

general are intereste<l in sleep in bo iiu oiiiy aa the plianoSBana of 
dreama satisfy their love of the marvcllons and tbeir loagiag to 
divine the future, and cites tho fact that in Kutaia tbowocd ant 
(sleep) IS also employed to designate dreams, while tho diatioetivo 



40 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, I89«, 



word tordraMna is allowml to full into desut'tude. Tho author 

adopt* th* formal*, "■Im<|i isthero^tiiig-timcof consciousnnss," as 

an oxplanation of tht> cause of sloop, ami supports by iiitor«>sting 

fvidenco tho tliosis timt tho weaker is consciousness tho more 

•'.vs;Iy it is fatigUMl ami in neotl of sleep. Sho ar^guos that the dis- 

ori-j> im-ies oxhibito«l in tho sleep of the age<l cannot he explained 

liy t!u' i-homiL>nl or vjisomntor the<Tii'S of sleep, whilo on tlie 

"P is the rcatiug-time of consciousness this 

.T felt. This " psycho-physiological " stnto- 

y explains, no doubt, the m<Klitications nf slcop 

o and individual tompcranient, but the liuthor 

.pitulatetl tho experiments which thow that not 

■>''■•■ auditory, olfactory, and gustattxy norves 

iring sleep, but also the corebral centres cor- 

i<>j<'MioM^ to tnoso nerves. It can hardly, therefore, be a 

c >rrect statement to say that consciousness in at rest. Dr. 

do Menac.' ;stho vie-v that tho varimis sensory r.erves, 

ax wnll ns ; cord, are more or less incafnblc of fatigue, 

■<>re,iumain nw!iku<luring f leep, but the final word upon 

I cannot bo said until physiologists can more satisfac- 

i^irily account for the conditions which cause ui-.con.sriouBness. 

.lustice is done to the conflicting theories, whii.h ore stated im- 

pirtially, and the anthor has collected a great deal of evidence, 

supplemented at times by tho results of original research. A 

vdlutiblo bibliography is appended to each of tho four sections of 

the book. 



H 



of 1' 
Sciei 



\tions and Illusions : A Study of the Ffilhuies 
IJy Edmund Parish. (The ConteniiHU-ary 
. p 74 X jin., xiv.  ;jl(U pp. l^iiidun, IS!)7. 

Walter Scott. 6- 



This is an ambitious l>ook upon a subject which has been too 
much neglected by Knglish scientists. The work has already been 
published in Germany, but the English edition now before us has 
been rendered more complete. Although ho may be disposed to 
give a qualifio<l assent to some of the theories advanced by 
Mr. Parish, tho remler cannot but admire the conij rcheeiKive way 
in which the subject has been treated. Hitherto a ditference of 
origin has been implied in tho distinction between " hallucina- 
tion " and " illusion." Mr. Parish implies no such difference 
of origin, nor even one of (piality, but merely a difference of 
systematic order. By bringing into prominence tho general 
similarity of the process in all sense-deception, whether 
in the case of complex visions or of mirti lapses of 
perception rosulting from failure of attention, he avoids 
tho danger of classifying tho phenomena according to their 
more or loss striking character. Ho a<1opts the view, 
therefore, that false perception is not an aln< rnial pheno- 
ni'Mion. nnd that hallucinations and illusions, considered as 
I ■■.!, are just as much sensory perceptions as 

1 •• rtivo " i>erceptions. He includes in his dog. 

nition all false sensory perception."!, arising from whatever 
csTuie, and argues that, although tho underlying causa which 
in luce* this psychological state may be and freijucntly is patho- 
logical, fallacious perception has nothing morbid in itself. Tho 
view arrived at is that dissociation of consciuusnof s, or partially 
impeded assr>ciation, is tho favourable ground in which alone 
••nsory dohnions flourish. Tho author attempts to give in 
terms of j ■. an account of how falfo perceptions nrife, 

andtoinci. occurrence ns a link in a chain of succes- 

sive proces««-s, ami ho advances tho theoiy that if tluro are 
really psychic elements from whose " flocking together " the 
thin?-! inim -liately i)ercfived are built up, they are the elements 
out of which not the j.sychic fa<!t itself, but a symliol for it, its 
"description," is built up. It is interesting to note that Mr. 
}'----h remorselessly analyses the figures of the " Ite-port on the 
H of HallucinAtions " puhlishe<l in the proceedings of the 
' '■ ' il Rescarcli in IHM, and, whilo condemning 
li WA» madv of teleiMithic influence in some 
it is imi>oaaible in practice, ns in 
< < waking hallucinations and those 

<i( sleep. 



The Lost Empires of the Modern World. K.ssuy.s in 
Imperial lli.sioiy. Mv Walter Prevren Lord, down Svo., 
'Mi pp. London," 1>4>7.' Bentley. 

Mr. Lord has in this work a very different talo to toll froui 
tliat which ho unfolded in his previous book, " Tho Lost 
Pof sessions of England." In a general way it may bo said that 
for over}' inch of territory lost in one ]>art of tho world Great 
Britain has gained an ell in some other direction, whilo iu 
tho case of Portugal, Spain, and Holland -three of the four 
countries Mr. Lord deals with — the coh nial possessions thoy 
I can now boust of ore but a remnant, a faint shadow of what 
they once held. France, tho fourth country, stands in a 
citegory a]>art from the other three by reason of tho renusccnco 
in late years of her colonial ambitions. " La colonization est 
pour la Franco uno question do vio ou do mort ' ' is tho con- 
sidered verdict of one so little a Jingo as M. Leroy-Boaulieu ; 
and Franco hopes, in Mr. Lord's words, " to redeem tho losses 
of tho past by founding a great African Empire." To acci m- 
plish her ideal two conditions must bo fulfilled, tho fultilnient 
of which might have saved to her both Canada and India she 
must find colonists and sho must, when thi>y are found, give 
their leaders adeijuate' support from home. Mr. Lord, mindful 
of tlio personal jealousies and potty rivalry of Labourdonnais 
and Dupleix, Lally and Bussy, would have her find also 6om& 
means to "prevent them from quan-elling with^oach other " •_ 
but until tho leojiard changes his spots uiid tho Ethiopian his 
skin such a couEunnuation seems likely (us oven recent oxam]>les 
show) to remain in tho sphere of the desirable. If the 
" driving force " of French Kmpire, then, was luiventuie tor tho 
most part almost private adventure- never tliorouglily backed 
uji by tho Home Government, tho Portuguese won theirs nobly 
and worthily by taking thought ; the S|ianiard, brilliantly 

{ierha)>8, but detestably, by following tho brutal dictates of 
ust and greed : and the Dut<>h by pursuing tho principles of. 
small shop-keeping, as set forth in two well-known lines. So 
Mr. Lord's conclusions may be hastily summed up, and, having, 
arrived at them, he proceeds to point his moral. It is lieie that.! 
ho is on ground less firm than in his very interesting historicnL 
etsays. In his view, " La faim, c'est I'onnemi." " Let. 
England," ho cries, " with so much good wheat-country 
provide for hor own food supplies." Better, siirely, to insi.^"t, 
upon the i)aramount imiHirtanco of a Navy that shall, in tho 
first place, give enemies pause when they would be at us, and 
be strong enough to keep trade routes open should war break 
out. On debateable gniun<l, such as this of our f<iod .supply,, 
however, Mr. Lord eoidd not expect to win general assent. 
What make his book titnely and valuable are tho more 
general lessons tlrawn for the instruction of Englishmen from 
tho colonial histories of neighbouring State<s. If he can inipre!« 
upim his remlers (and tliey should l)e many, for tlie book is cast. 
in a jiopular form) that lortugal ought to teach us the danger 
of ever ceasing to take thought for the morrow ; that Franet- 
may show how heavily intelligence and expert judgment weigh 
in the scale of Empire ; that, if we should forget our dutiti» 
and respoiiRibilitits in icgaid to subject peoples and their 
lands, Sjiuin and Holland will em^hasiKe the dire consetpiences- 
of such oblivion then he will do a useful and needful service, 
worthy of Sir John Seeley, whoso disciple he proclaims him- 
self to be. 

THREE BOOKS OF ESSAYS. 

The Personal Equation. Hy Harry Thurston Peck. 
Svo., vi. .'{77 pp. .Now ^'ol■k and l.iondon, l.slfri. Harper. 6- 

Varia. Hv Agones Repplier. «vo., vi. - zrj pp. lyondon, 
1«K Gay and Bird. 6- 

Notes on the Margins. Hy Oliflford Harrison, k y .-ijinv. 
vii.-t-252 pp. l»ndon, 1W7. RedTvay. 6 - 

Statistics wore recently invoked to show that tho litorai-y 
essay was on tho high road to become extinct iti England. 
Happily there is little reason to suppose that this is really the 
case, and however tho annual nundier of volumes of collectml 
essays may have decreased of late years, ono may bo confident 
that tho Bjie'cial form of lite-raturo which I'ac<m shaped nnd 
.Addison approved will long lie |io].ular with writers as well as 
readers. Even if that were not the case in this country, America 
would 1)0 equal to supplying any reasonable demand for thp 



January 15, 1898.J 



LITERATURE. 



41 



ossay. MoHsrg. Harpor nlono offer a «coro of voliimc-i of the 
work of " oontempor cBBnyiatH " — Mr. HiRgiiiHon, Mr. <'iirtiii, 
Mr. Mnttliuwn, and tlio roNt of that accotnpliHiiiM) fi'llowHliip to 
th« appruoiiitivo roiulor. Tliiii in (juiti) in keeping witli what we 
know of tlio United States, whoro the opulent air and rich toil 
seem to enuoiirage greater fertility in lituratiui}, as in corn anil 
comers, than is known in this elderly world of oam. As Mr. 
Browning obsorvod, in that cliniato 

New pollen oil tlio lily-pot&l grown, 
An I still more lalijruithine huil* tbr roue. 
The first two of the voltiinos of essays mentioned nix ire, if neither 
of them can claim first-rato excoUenco, are yet pleasant com- 
panions for an idle hour, and Mr. Peck's volume in particular is 
full of solid worth. 

Mi.iH Ropi>lior is already known in this country as an 
aj;reeal)lo rattle. Few writers have made a more careful 
study of the art of stringing together (piotations, and her 
articles irrosistihly remind one of the patchwork ipiilts which 
Miss Wilkins has shown to play so largo a part in the education 
of the average New Kngland girl. The composition of the fabric 
is as hiitoro^onoous in tlie one case as in the other. The Now 
Kngland maiden incorporated bridal dress and funeral hanging, 
common print and chintz and rare brocade, with equal facility ; 
and so all is <|Uotation which comes to Miss Rcpplier's common- 
place book. In ten small pages of a simple essay she borrows 
from Horace, Scott, Matthew .\rnold, IJurns, Mr. Saintsbiu-y, 
Hogg, Fletcher, Herrick, Shadwell, Drydoii, Beaumont, 
Davonant, Ford, Mrs. Jameson, Cleveland, and Ben Jonson. 
This is merely what the farmer calls an average sample of her 
liarvest. It is mostly of goo<l qiiality, though it becomes a little 
indigestible when taken in bulk. One notes an occasional slip, 
like the assumption that " Tho Man of Fooling " is a romance 
in many volumes ; and tho statement that a single American 
authoress has written " twice as many volumes ])robably as Sir 
Walter Scott ever road in tho whole course of his childish 
life " surely argues an imperfect nccjuaintanco with Scott's own 
account of his "browsing in libraries." But, on tho whole, 
Miss Ropplior's work is well-informed and entertaining. 

Mr. Pock is a much more serious essayist. Ho has ideas of 
his own, which ho applies to various subjects with considerable 
efl'eot. His essays on M. Prdvost, M. Huysmans, and Mr. 
George Mooro show a wide acquaintanoo with modern French 
litovaturo and a decided talent for literary criticism. Tho latter 
is equally marked in a thoughtful and suggestive paper on Mr. 
W. D. Howells, in which Mr. Peck admirably expresses the 
dillicultios in the way of an author who desires to write the 
oagerly-dosired Groat American Novel — tho novel "that shall 
give an adequate and accurate delineation of the life that is 
lived only in this huge, loose-hung, colossus of a country." Tho 
writer who attempts to deal with American life is confront«<l by 
A v,ist kaleiilosiojiio nias^ of colour . . . shifting and cbmiiKing 
with every touch, a society in a fluid state, heterogeneous, anonuUou.-i, 
bizarre, and shot all through with a million piquant iocongruitie.s. 

Amongst his qualities Mr. Pock has tliot note of sin- 
cerity, of conviction, which is more common amongst 
essayists in his country than in oiu-s just now. Ho can 
turn aside to tell a good story with appreciation or shape an 
epigram deftly onoiigli. but on tho whole he is very much in 
earnest. One is grateful to him for so beautiful a specimen of 
French-English as is to bo found in tho following version of 
" Tarara-boom-de-ay, " which Mr. Peck hoard in a Norman 
town. Tho singer, to save tho trouble of learning the English 
words, had pieced together some lines of her own to tit the music 
from all tho English words sho knew. Tho first stanza ran 
somewhat as follows : — 

Ticket tramway clergyman 

Bifteck rumsteck rosbif van, 

Sandwich whitebiit^ lady luocb, 

Chcri-gobler, wiskey-ponche ; 

Aoh-yes all right shocking stop 

I'61-el why-not moton-chop, 

Hlum-kek miousic steamer boxe, 

Boulc-dogue high-life five-o'cluoks. 
Tha-ra-ra-boum-der-e, kc. 



vt Mr. FWk hM » rtfiMb- 

• «<-■«•<•« a ;;., h1 fund .,f 



ing  . 

g.stu.. i.iii..-i on A 
here ipoak* for 

TV- -• -• 

inbei 



to Its sitrot will. 

The attitude of those follca to England. ^.- „ '.,. jl:. 

Peck, who seems to be a perfectly tair ami vetl-iiifoniMd 
exponent of it, consists in "a curiooa mingling o( prid« 
in the ancestral homo, with a very real dislike (or nocb 
that Englishmen have done and are still doinK." Tb« 
typical American, in fact, fouls like a cadi t of a grvat family 
who has " gone into trade " and, wh< n 'is of woaltli knd 

success, finds himsnlf rcweivml nt b " t'>l«Tant con- 

tempt " and " osti  ounta 

for so much in Ai imacy 

that this point of view deserves more «o are 

jiorhaps accustomed to give it. Shall'- ., charge 

if, in taking leave of Mr. Peck's rery able and i: book,. 

wo point out a few jarring phrases that one would r v.^ ,....r-» 

to find in an English writer of Ofjual ability and critical ]>■ 
One who so keenly appreciates the French il' * ; ' ' 
should not allow himself to talk of a " i , .% 

" psychiatrist " in a literary csaay ; " % njmljUiuus," " aa 
opstrus-l ike desire," and " splendid ataraxy " show a similar 
tendency to a vocabulary " cut on Greek or Latin As fustian 
heretofore on satin." A " retreatant " is ugly ; and to talk of 
a speech as " an ephemeral splurge " is extremely cxproaaive, 
but not English. JSut these, after all, are only trifling flaw* 
in a really clever and valuable book. 

It is for several reasons hard to criticize Mr. Harrison's little 
book. There is a modesty and sincerity about his title and (ire- 
faco which, of themselves, go a long way to disarm hostility. 
Moroover, Mr. Harrison's attitmie towards bis subject make* 
criticism, as far as he is {lersonally concon>ad, snporflnoiu. 
Ho proi>oBes to the critic what is practically a ^amo n{ 
" Heads I win, tails you lose." If a scientific or p' -.1 

romler adopts liis theories, well and good : " 
doctrine will promptly claim the benefit of : 
if ho rejects them, ho has only proved hi 
" spiritual " discernment, and " mysticism "is none the 
Those ore indeed inicqual terras, yet. at tho risk of fi.. .^.;. 
ing all reputation for spiritnal insight, wo feel bound 
to protest that Mr. Harrison has written an exceedingly 
foolish and ignorant book. Wo will proceed to support ot:r 
decided opinion on this |>oint by a few references drawn mostly 
from tho " Inquiry into Mysticism," which fills tho first hun- 
dred pages of tho work. Mr. Harris<in does not succeed in 
telling lis very distinctly what tho " mysticism " ho pmfosaes 
is. But, after perusal of his " Inquiry," we tl; .Id not 

bo unfair t<i say that his particular form of " u _ is an 

idealist philosophy which is too much in a hurry and ton 
obstinately set on edification to be clear in its notions or ox.ii • 
as to its facts. Take the following specimens of Mr. Har: 
grasp of scientific principles and logical method. Wi 
i)uito early in the essay that wo are espectcti to ) 
implicitly in the thaumaturgic performances of the mysiirai 
"adept." On what grounds? Becaose there are many 
mysterious tniths in tho physical f ' nnd because llr. 

lienjamin Kidd holds that a rational : a contradiction 

in terms. What more o:  j'tic want / At j^ge 51 we learn 

that " matcrinlism is <: ! in its very citadel " by the 

doctrine, such as it is. tl are " centn^s of forte." 

Now, if " force " means, Harrison says it does, 

" an X as mysterions as the First Cause," it is difficult to see 
how any theory can be undermined by propositions concerning it ; 



42 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



•nd if it m««na, m tiie toxt-hoolc* of > >< luiy it doos, th« 

rat* of i-hanv* of momentum, thero i> . jiarticukrly non- 

> It it. At page 83 ww aru tald, as notorious 

i without any reference to authorities, that 

I*'' - vortex theory of atoms has boen " prove<t,'' unci 

■f^' iiially prepared for tho astounding announcement 

on i It " air ia now made into water." If wo turn 

froii. .|.. , . V of (wiontifir to questions of historical fact we 

<imi Mr. !lu:;;-n. if possible, even worso informet]. That ho 

tieiierea in •• 'i'hott " an.l " Hermes Trismc^'tstus " and " San- 

choniAthon " is. considering the scliool to which ho l>elongs, 

not to be wondervd at ; hut even a " mystic " might know 

»^tt<^ thsn to assert aa fact tliat Moses was an Egj-ptian priest 

' house ; that the " Books of Moses " were col- 

iit 5.10 or 000 B.C."; that Tlialos and Anaxi- 

niander, aliout whom we know next to nothing, as well as Fhito 

and Aristotle— Ariatotle, good heavens ! — al>out whom we knowa 

great deal, were the " great m}-atics of Oreoco." But perhaps wo 

oaght to apologize tor our asttmishnient ; a philosophic creetl 

elastic en'mgh to comprehend the materialism of the Eloatics, 

*•>« ' A of the Rosicrticians, tho taboos of tho Pytha- 

KOK magical j>orformances of tho Orphics. and tho 

along with tho doctrines of the Vodas, the Bible 

.need not bo stretchetl very much further to make 

••• " ' Aristotelian corpus. But why, if wc may 

••'''."  Mormon omitted from this OMtniuHi 3a</i<Tifm 

of phitosopliic and theological litoratare ? 

Our space is gone, and we cannot follow Mr. Harrison 
through the four eaaaya which make up the last 150 pages of his 
book ; but wo think wo have alrea<ly ventured far enough 
with him to loam that ho is hardly a safe guide along the 
narrow and masy paths of metaphysical invo.itigution. Perhaps 
it ia we ourselves who are suffering from spiritual amblyopia ; 
if so, we are deeply aorry for it, but wo fear wo are past cure. 



REPRINTS. 



The Snectator. in 8 vols. Vols. i.. ii. E<lited bv Q. 
Gregory Smith. With an Intro<luctorv Rxsav bv Austin 
Dobson. 7J X 4in., xxix. + 345 pp. London, 1897. ' 

Dent. 24 - the set. 

In a 1  tho writing of which Mr. Gregory Smith is 

to 1)0 coii. i, it is stated that " the main intention of 

thoM Volumes is to preserve the original freshness of the text, 
t.. .-.„., t in the words of old Thomas Sprat, ' all amplifications, 
-. ami swellings of style,' and to ' return back to the 
111 uiiui.i i.urity and shortness.' " In other wonls, this edition 
is a reprint of the first collected edition issueil in the years 
1712-171'i, with the old spelling, punctuation, capital letters, 
.ind italics prcsenrod. It was not thought advisable to reprint 
from the original sheets, since this would have meant incor- 
jiontir.r. in some form or other, the " many shortcomings in 
' ' hy, inevitable in the circumstances of their 

1 • ' i in this we cjuitc agree. A careful examina- 

tion of tho volumes so far published shows us that the intention 
has bfcn ailmirably realized. A comparison between this rcpriiit 
and the original collected edition has not resulted in the dis- 
corerj- of any crrwra, cither of omission or commission. 

Wc hare but one fault to find with these rolumes.and it lies 
'  r of Mr. Rmith or Mr. Dobson. It refers to 

' h the text is printed. A first consideration 

ook, from a publisher's point of view, hIiouM 
' "le. This edition is printed in ono of those 

American types, ihc designers of which aime<1 at achieving a 
notnrioiu oddity. Nor can they lay claim to originality in the 
design, the basis of which Is found in Jonson. 'I'ho return to 
medieval letter-forma in printing, which the late Mr. \Villiam 
Morris initiated, has been carried in America to a ri<licidous 
exc««a : and, although MoAsrs. White and Co. have at' 
eliminate a few of tho objectionable features in tlii 
which th«y hare printed theso volumes, the typ* is still tiying I 



to the ej'es. This is a pity, since Mr. Gregory Smith has lioen a 
most conscientious editor, and Mr. Dobson 'i> introduction forms 
an excellent story of tho conception, initiation, and sucoessful 
acliieveniont of tho S/ifetator. As wo might have oxiwcted from 
3Ir. Dobson 's woll-known i>artiality for Steele, ho does not forgot 
to give him all tho cro<lit ho can. " Tho primary invention, tho 
creative idea, came from Stoole ; tho shaping jwwer, tho 
decorative craft, from Addison." And ho thus concludes an 
eloquent tribute to tho ^indly Sir Bicbard : — 

AililiKon'n iwiHTii arc fnuItU*u in their nrt, ami in this way acliie\'« 
an cici'lKnco which is hcjonii the rrach of iStctle'ii iiuicker iiiiil more 
impuUive nature. But for worda which thu liiarl fiiiiU when thi' hi-a<l ia 
••■eking ; for )ihraiira Kl<>wi>>K with tlir whit<> heat of a gcncrouii emotion ; 
for M-ntcnn-s which tliriib anil tingle with manly pity or couragooun indig- 
nation, wc must turn to the CMayii of Steele. 

These volumes include tho 10!( S/teetatois issued down to 
Septemlter l;J, 1711. Tho edition is to bo completed in eight, 
and we aro pnmiiswl in the final volume a biographical index, 
giving a brief account of all conteinporiiry person.s nicntiinind 
in tho Spectator. 



Poems of Thomas Hood. Edited by Alft-ed Ainger. 
In 2 vols. ( Kvei'slcy .Si^ries.) 8vo., Ixxxi. - liVi, xii. Il.'> mi. 
London. 1807. Macmillan. lO/- 

Some years have i>a8so(l since it was first rumoiired that 
the Master of tho Temple was editing a " Hood," and tho work 
was actually heralded in 1803 by the ap[)earanoe of an illus- 
trated Christmas volume (in the " Cranford " Series) : — " Tho 
Humorous Poems of Thomas Hood, with a Preface by Alfred 
Ainger" Tho witty and pious editor of " Elia," has many 
natural aflinities with the jioot-jostor Tlionms Hood — one of 
Lamb's best friends and heartiest admirers, and he evidently takes 
koon delight in his subject. Ho has wisely not attempted to 
produce a complete edition, for Hood was forced to write for 
money, in season and out of season, when his heart was heavy or 
his body racked with ]>ain ; and wo cainiot wonder that he often 
failed, particularly in his comic work, for which alono the public 
had ever a ready welcome. Tho two volumes, rosiK-ctively 
devoted, by a somewhat artificial convention, to " serious 
poems " and " poems of wit and humour," contain Uoexl's host 
work, and as much of it as is likely to live. We note with somo 
siir|)ri8o the omission of " Eijuestrinn Courtship " and " John 
Trot," which are tT bo found in the af ore-mentioned illustrated 
selection ; but wo liar<11y know what could have been jirofitably 
turned out to make room for them. 

Undoubtedly the ]iocnis as a wliolo go far to support tho 
contention, with which Canon Ainger's symiiathotic critical 
memoir is chiefly eoncomod, that Hood was a thoughtful and 
imaginative poot, with a touch of genius by nature ; and " a 
fuiuiy mjin " rather by accident and necessity. It would bo i<llo 
to deny that wit and humour, for he has both, aro an absolutely 
essential quality of his Iwst work, but underlying them was 
something more than tho proverbial clown's melancholy. We 
find everywhere " the indefe.OHiblo charm of (looil's own true 
temiKsramont — his sense of the lacriima- rcrwn, and his tender- 
ness and reverence for all things human." His peculiar distinc- 
tion is to have provo<l, by his own rare art, that tnio wit, ovon 
in its commonly degraded verbal forms, " may subserve the 
highest aims of tho jK)et ; and that in fact so far from wit and 
poetry being irroconcilablo, they shade and pass into one another 
by gradations quite impercoptible." Hood i>ossesH0'l " a con- 
stitutional attraction towards the tragedies of life," and hi.s 
own experience was to all outwanl seoming indis|>utably sad. 
But his " letters to his wife, whetlier in prose or verse, were 
always those of a lover " ; he was very happy in children anil 
friends ; nnil he retained through sickness and poverty a certain 
s|iirited cheerfulness and courage which gavo him glitiijtsos into 
the joy of life. Wo have some fear that the immediately present 
generation are not ver^- familiar with his work, but tho prostnt 
edition should set that right, and in tho end " his nam ^ and 
influence will abido with us, among tho kindliest and most 
beneficent in tho literature of tho century." 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITEIUTUKE. 



^a 



I^K Tub PoKMH am> Ko^^yKTx or Hkvrv Conhtah' 

v^^i Mr. Jnhn (iray (Hiicim niul Hickutu, £1 ITm.), uiiu 
^^^1 to the oyo aH woll tut to tlio min<l. Wu <lo not know wrliotiior it 
^^^B would be Rorroct to wiy tlint it is priiitocl iti blacK letter : at anjr 
^^^B rate it is black lottery. Tlio paper is roiiph and ton^jli, a ;>a;iirr 
^^^B <le lure ; and you might think from tlui look of the pmgu that 
^^^1 yon were reading an olil volume that had lieen sent to Meura. 
^^^H Vullnr and Hubjeutod to Home cloanMini; proooBs. In the toxtual 
^^^H Hide of the work, Mr. Oray oxhibitu extreme, and, wo think, 
^^^H oxuoiinivo, austerity. Hi*i aj)ptiat\t» nitietu in of the Nini|>l>"<t, 
^^^B nnd it is Holdoui that ho diHtrni^ti the reader's nttontioii fpxn tho 
*' poetry, except to point out a htcnna and suppi<«t iii'i 

tilling it. It is duo to Mr. Gray to stiito that his con 
usually convincing. Ho always, we think, recovers the siinse, ami 
often, we feid sure, the eloping wonl or words. Hut, hono.itly, 
bo might have done more. His parcimonious method lands him 
in inconsistencies. Thus, for example, on p. 78, he sayi of 
the lino—" Give pardon oake (sweete sonle) to my slow eyes," 
" ' The Apologio for Pootrie ' has ' cries,' which, though it has 
never been challenged, is clearly in error." 

How, then, can Mr. Oroy allow a sonnet like tliat " To 
the Liidie Clinton " to pass without comment? '• llohelil," 
" held," " foretold," " held " — a charming batch of rhvnios 
for the quatrains ! Take, again, the sonnet " To Our Itlcs.scd 
Lady," which commences — 

In that (<) tjuppiic of Queonnfi) thy hjrrth was tnf 
From giiylt, which others do of );r«re liereave. 
Now, this is certainly ungrammatical, anil it is a fact that 
in the MSS. of Sidney, Donne, and other old wTiters " doo " 
and " doth " are continually interchanged. We might reason- 
ably look to Mr. Gray for enlightenment on this point. 

Constable is oni of tho.so poets who obtain from their contom- 
]iorarios far more praiao than thov are ever likely to receive from 
posterity. After all the fine things said about him, hi- shines, 
not us a fixed star, but as a satellite in the sky of which Sir 
Philip Sidney is the sun. The epithets " vain and anui- 
torious," which Milton flung at the " Arcadia." suit his i)oems 
well. His sonnets may l)o divided, according to their inten- 
tion, into three categories— the " amatorious " (strictly eo 
called), the complimentary, and the sacred, though judged by 
the result thoy are, with certain not very marked exceptions, all 
" amatorious." Naturally, the incongruity of this " amatorious- 
ness " is most felt with respect to the third category, the 
*' Spirituall Sonnettcs " : but, if this initial objection bo waivo<l, 
the concluling sonnet "To St. Mary Magdalen " has an obvious 
beauty, and even appropriateness. 

It would seem from Mr. Tutin's biblingrapliy to Crashaw's 
"C.MiMi-.N Dko Nostro " (W. Andrews, Ss. Cd.), that trust- 
worthy editions of Crashaw are not easily procurable. The 
richest and best collection of his poems, that by the llev. A. 15. 
Orosart, was printetl for jirivate circulation, and even Mr. 
Tutin, on a previoiis occasion, cschewo<l a large publicity. 
From a purely selfish standpoint, it might have been rood 
for him had ho continued to oKserve this modest attitude. 
Ho ap|)(>ars, however, to have been actuated by a Inuil.Tblo 
desire to render an amiable writer better known to the re.id ing 
public. "Our poet," he says, " has never in this nineteenth 
03ntury lieen appreciated according to his merits by the lover 
of poetry in general." Now that Mr. Tutin has put this 
opportunity in his way at a reasonable charge, the " lover 
of pootrv in general " will have only himself to thank if ho 
tails to apjireciate Crashaw even as Mr. Tutin appreciates him. 
It seems to ns a great pity that an edition of a " poet's poet." 
as Mr. Tutin, after duo rollection, calls Crashaw, shoidd be 
>indortakon by any but a i>oot. There ari> many worthy 
porsous who derive a vast amount of enjoyment from the jHTUsal 
of good poetry who would yet be in sore strait.'' if they sought 
to a.scertain its springs. This kind gooth not forth but by 
weariness and vigils, and perhaps some faint touch of the 
hallowed fire. It does not seem prol>able that Mr. Tutin has 
ever undergone this discipline. We are in accord with him 
in hoping that " the day is not distant when a complete and ^ 



I 



f Cnahsw iriJI be f««tlMM>ming (or tJw 



and 1 

print, haa Iwun r' <ara. M*' 

Volume IV. of his -. .. .rka " (te.) 

whether tho cultured author, who lia« ao 
ua in hit own duli;,'hlful lloooll 
contributions to the " Life of 
in thin volume. .\ 
Cardinal Manniii ', 



ir, An- 



lit 

..of 

d Co. M 



ill 



rMMtly aoaMbelei* 

inU m'iet inUcviliag 

" is aeon at hta beet 

i 

• I. 



oliUtfttw. 

 r^M'itfi*!^ 

of ciaxon Saints " are vigorously ami vymiiathi : .<] 

only miss tho highest plaijes uf narrative poo-..,, ... .,..w ,. .uk 
dramatic. It would bu hursh to daa* Mr. Aubrey da Vm« 
uniongst those who write with easo and yet tbv fault* <>( " Mi^ 
Curids " are ro|wato<l and exagcurat«<l ill IxurAIL, Volume V. 

of tl ••" :■   ,, 

alwii .,f 

pluasu uliich lic'lil-i lAic'.L lliv : ' 

and the "Arch ttf Titv^." ^j 

chronicle" in : ii : 

A T<M ocean wara*. 

AO'l » voice lr<>in the fc)rf»t ;:!ooin«, 
AikI « voice from oM t"::ir>!f« .\r.| kindly (ram, 
Aad a mice from i ),« | 

Mr. Aubrey do Vore haa 1 S tho i ii><t eeneration, 

and to a great extent his thou Uiem: bnt 

his poetry has some measure of ■ii :. ,u» caltore, 

and a lofty ideal. We ahonld welcome • clafinitivo Mtection 
from his works. 

It was Messrs. Macmillati who discorered Hr. 
Brock aa an illustrator, but wo have never ' 
whether his clevcnie.«i nxt-'iidi-d beyoml n 1 

'•■ces.'ors. M' 



Chwlaa 

' SUI* 

k of 

 '-■■ :.t, 

 D.I 



imitating tho ett'eets of 

a special talent for dr 

Puton. themselves \ 

advised in asking h; 

In this congenial atmosphere he seems to have ;. 

Mr. Hugh Thomson's manner, and shows a i..,..., .,,;..,..„» 

originality. Ho haa certainly produced a suiBciontly attrac- 



Andrew Lang's introduction 
and fairly brief. Ho dwelb 
of the poem to the norela, 

laiiehter at cort^in " •«Tip«^or 



if the greatest romantie 



tivo volume, for which Jlr. 
is appropriately Iight-heartc<l 
principally ui>on tho relation 
and happily closes his kindly 
mo<iern critics, who have • 
with the refioction that  
is likely to bid the devil 
narrations in the literaturo of : 

Dr. W. £. Mead's SsLsriioxs raoji Sir TuonAa Maumt's 
"MoRTB D'Akthir" (Nutt, 4s. 6<l. n.) has no very special 
features to distingiiisli it from other " higher s?ho<il 
The editor seems to havo stuilied 
of care, but, as we find in so niu 
conclusions are servnl ii; 
explains that in t!i" not 
authorities " t 
humility may Im 
result of such perpetual an<l <i 

unconvincing. The end migLi : 

havo th.>ught, by lists uf authorities ; and, in any 
writing ui>on a subject it is well at least to 



editions. 

th a frreat dnal 

1 America, tl» 

. miss fire. He 

rt>forcnc«e to 

< laudable 

: but the 

 aixl 

... ..i.ouM 

when 
the 



appearance of having mastoroil it for oneself. The introdajtion 
covers a good deal of int«'! • • • id indiooa 

are fall, and the text is : t'la. Thm 

whole worl  t'y - rr 

If the : rKiti.-> :s to be studied and ofaaartrad, no 

doubt every one should read r. ^.o'.! in quarto, at a secretaire 
of tbo Louia .'^I'izi' lerioil, bv tl • \':.,':\ of « w.ii t*{:er. No half 

4— J 



44 



LITERATURE. 



[Juuuary 15, 1898. 



will do, big ocl«r(>a ilo Ittit p«1t»r with tho ripht, «n<l 
if w» eannnt liaro our quftrto wo may wolt l>e frankly comfort- 
ablo and me the channing Lin or Sami'bl Jounhox (Dent, 
roU.. la. <Sd. each). 

•• BoawvII •' ii in the " Toniplo Claiwic*," and in tho name 
•9rie« wehave Thr Fkgm'ii Hkvohtiox bv Thomas Caklylk 
(Pent, 1». 6d. per Tolum<>). Tlicro is a very good reprtxhiction 
oC tho portrait by WatU. The Wavrrlbt Novels (Dent, 
la. 6d. cloth, •/». l.'athor)aro»HUt«'dbyMr. C'lomi«ntShort«r, nti//w 
Jmmu hAoriliu^. who prvfixps a brief bibliographical intrmluction 
to Midi rohinio. Carlylo tlionght " Wnverloy " by far tho lust 
of the norels, and a dwisivo proof that Scott would have written 
Biieh better if he hat! taken more timo and more troublo. In 
the light of this opinion it is curious to look again at tho open- 
ing chapters of " Wavorley " and to find onosolf well on in tho 
ninth chapter before the real story begins. 

If Adolcsoens Loo, Esq., of the Dailij Tflcirnyh had written 
a book we may bo suns his tasto would hnvo suggested some such 
binding, paper, and print for his misternioco a% is given to 
the hapleaa Frienhship's Gariaxd (Smith. Elder, 4s. fid.). 
" Gulliver's Travels," tho most cynical attack on humanity that 
the world has ever seen, is now well recognized as a Christmas 
gift-book for children : Matthew Arnold, who preached in 
" Friendphip's Garland," as alw-ays and everywhere, against 
Philistinism, \a here presented with every circumstance of 
Philistine vulgarity. 

Thk Lvrio Poems of Johs Keats (Dent, 2s. 6d.) are, on 
the other hand, charmingly arrayed. The typo is clear and fine 
though amall, and the pajK-r is all it should be. The ornaments 
are peihaps superfluous, and one might have dispensed with the 
atammering utterances of Mr. Ernest Rhys"s introduction, but 
the book aa a whole is pretty and pleasant to read, and the 
ejitor has atoned for his prefatory vagueness by the excellent 
notes prefixed to the poems. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 



Cambridge. Doscrilnvl and Illu.strntod : TlcinLr ••• Shiirf 
History of the Town and ITniversity. By Thomas Dinham 
Atkinson. With an Intro<luction by .Tolin Willi.s (!Inrk, 
HoKJ-itrarv of the Univei-sity. 01 v fljin., xxxvii. ^ .">2S jip. 
London, 1897. Macmillan and Co.: Cambridge. 

Macmillan and Bowes. 21 - n. 

Tliis admirable history is specially desipnod to bring into 
doe prominence the t^^wn of Cambridge, and to dispel the 
common notion of it« being " a more appanage of the Dni- 
versity." It was Stourbridge Fair, indeed, to which Mr. J. AV. 
Clark, " by a slight exercise of the imagination," attributes the 
origin of the whole matter : — 

Id every monuter; there was a master of the onviees, and in every 
eathe<lrml nchool there wan s master who taught the ficholan. Cnnceiro 
(Rwh a pervon on hi* travels, ami cnminK to Pambridf^ at a time when 
the town was foil of stningeni sttraeted by the Great Fair. Xot unwilling 
to torn an boaest penny, be offer* a eoarse of lecture* : tliry fin<l ready 
lictaaacs ; and when they are over be i* entreated to come luck next 
jear himaelf, or to send a subrtitute : anil so the instruction, be^n at 
haphaxard, goes on ; . . . . the neighb<iurin|{ mona'tcne*. always 
riady to take op a popular mnrement, aiuooiate thcin«i'Irr« with the 
dasJK for • wider inslnetion than their own school* ran provide .... 

oaa teacher i« no looKcr sofieient for the crowd of learner* 

Fiaallyt •ome of the local sebolar* )>erome th'-mo'lvcii «iiR!cii'ntIy well 
tafia iiiiiil to art at teacher* . . . grs'lually an i nf tho usual 

type is arrived at, the place icain* reputation a* . . and the little 

body of Toluntem ia aaluted a« Vnirtrntat rr^ra. 

Tliough never a fortified town. Cambridge held a strong pf>si- 
tion as iho only point of cimmunication, by its bridge, Iwtwoen 
the Eastern counties and the Midlands, and was of great 
importance aa a trading centre. Tho groat monasteries of the 
Fenland were her neighbours, tho Cam brought in " an inox- 
haostible supply of provender and fuel," and tho Fair was 
reckoned the largest in Europe. Dofoo tells us that in the 
Doddery at Stourbridge woro " sold 100,000 ]i<iunils worth of 
woolleu manofactoraa in less than a week's timo"; while in 



later days the Sliakespeare Gang, Dr. Farmer, George Stoevens, 
Malone, and one or two ivthors tilled the critics' row of tho Fair 
theatre every evening, and " »oenied to enjoy the play as nnicli 
aa the youngest persons present." 

Mr. Atkinson accordingly devotes half his volume ti> a most 
careful and illuminating summary of the social and architectural' 
growth of the town. It was u lloyal demesne, " frequently 
given as a dower to the tjueon," and its earliest struggles, like- 
those of most English towns, wore for local government. 
Municipal raatt<'rs came largely under tho control of tho guiUV 
merchant, establisht-il in I'iOl, which — in Cambridge— was not 
apparently supplanted by craft guilds, but maintained its activity 
till gradually merged into the "Four and Twenty," or Town 
Council. The anti-cloriciil religious guildn (of which one wa* 
begun that " kindliness should be cherished more and more, and- 
discord be driven out," and another founded Corpus College)i 
sun'ived to later days, and their destruction by " the all- 
devouring " Henry VIII. calls forth tho one expression of fooling 
in which tho author has indulged himself throughout tho book. 

Tlie town played a part in national events, though not sn 
conspicuously as Oxford, during tho Civil War. Cromwell had 
obtained the freedom of Cambridge from a Royalist mayor during 
a good supper, and secured tho Porliamentnry seat by causing 

.\ good <|uantity of wine to bo brought into the town-hou*e (witb. 
Rome confectionary stufT), which was liberally fllleil out and as liberallit 
taken off, to the warming of moat of their noddles, and his frit'uds spread 
themnelve* among the company, and whisjiered into their earn, " woulil 
not this man makes hrave burgen for tlie onsuinj; Parliament ':" 

We have some cliarming pictures, by the way, of parochial 
scandals, political or social clubs, and the coffoe-hoube next to 
Emmanunl College, where " none but tho free, generous, ildnm- 
naire, and] gay are re<iu08ted to attend," but, except by starting 
the Volunteer movement, Cambridge town has not of late yearn 
been among " the makers of history." 

Tlie University, whose origin remains a matter of sjiecula- 
tion, first appears in these pages as " a thorn in tho side of tho- 
burgesses," 16 townsmen having been executed after tho 
town and gown row of 1201 : but its regulor history, taken up at 
tho point when tho colleges were founded for teachers " tc\ 
counteract the growing influence of tlio Religious Houses," ia 
narrated with proper dignity and fulness. Following Messrs. 
Willis and Clark's " Architectural History of the University and 
Colleges of Cambridge," Mr. Atkinson points out that the 
earlier colleges were copied from manor-houses and the later, 
beginning with Magdalene, from monasteries ; and traces with 
admirable lucidity the growth of every building, academic or 
collegiate. Most dramatic was the foundation of Trinity library 
by the master. Dr. Harrow, who iirged tho University to build 
a magnificent and stately theatre "at least exceeding that at 
Oxford " for public speeches, " but sage wmtion prevailed ond 
the matter, at that timo, was wholly laid aside." 

Dr. Barrow wa.* piquci at this pusillanimity, and declared that ho 
would go straight to his college and lay out the foundation* of a 
building to enlarge hi* back court, and close it with a stately library, 
which abould be more magniflcent and costly than what he had proposett 
to them .... And he was as good a* his word, for that very 
afternoon be, with his ganleni'rs and servants, staked out the very 
foundation upon which the building now stands. 

The early social life of the University is olso put before 
us, when the boy students of 14 or 15 did their master's 
errands or wore his old clothes, and filled their ]K>ckot8 by 
ploughing or begging : when, again, each Fellow or liachelor 
shared his rooms with a few pu]>ils who studied in tiny cubicles,, 
while in the groat chamber mIixmI 

A bedsteail for the use of the avnior, and trundle l>cdi, which could 
be placed umlcr it during the day, for the •rbolars. 

We are nearing civilization when Mr. James Bonnell visited 
St. Cathoniio's, and was kept 

At a long dinner of ill-dressed meat (unde- the rose) and a formality 
of lieiog served by gowned waiting men, little dirty-jiswed sixars, witb 
greasy, idd-faahioncd ginsse*, and tn^orhi-rs that woulil hold no sauce. 

Mr. Atkinson's work throughout deserves the highest praise 
He has spared no pains in the collection of material, and tolls 
his story methodically, with groat cleaiiioss and simplicity. We 



January la, 1898]. 



LITERATUEE. 



io 



u'ui'o almost Bturtlml, iiiileod, by tho (juiotnoH* with Hhirli he 
ilomoltshux our thruo |>ot traditioim ciiiicorniii)' rytliagom*'* 
Scliool, tlio (into of Wisdom, anil Hobson'ii ('oiitltiit. Th» 
ihttaila of urniiigt'iiu'iit, in which Ciiialiridgo inoii will nx-nunizo 
till) iiillueiiuu of Mr. Iloburt IIohtvh'h tnttu und l>ililio(;rai>hi<-al 
oiithuHiiiHin, uro Hiiif^ularly |iorfoot ; tho titlo-|>aeu, tabloa o£ con- 
tentM, liiitfi, and iudoxo.s aro very full and uluar. 

Tho illustratiunii form an imimrtant foatiu-o of tho l>ook, anil 
[ have boon excellently chuaon and reprcHluood. Tho 29 old 
platiia from Storor ond Lo Keux aro evidently in ; ' li- 
tion, atid thuir intorost Um boon nnich incnuiBud l> .y 

dovico of printing tho dato on each. Tho horiildry ami l)l.i/.uiiinf{ 
hu8 boon admirably drawn by Mr. W. 11. St. John llo|>o ; and 
many illnstrntion8,ini:lu>tin}; rodurod block-idiins of each college, 
xliadod to show tho growth of tho biiildings, aro l)orrowed from 
MossrH. Willis and Clark's " Architoctiiral History." Sir. (i. M. 
Ilrimolow Ims done somo clover drawings of tho cjuito mo<lcrn 
r-idlogos ; and tho author is himsolf re8])on8iblo for 11) moat 
iMl'octivo illustrations, somo of '• old bita " lately destroyed, in 
ivliich tho architect's correctness is well brought out by strong 
linos. IVrliniis tho most striking of those are tho Library 
Oatalogno-room, King's-iuirmlo, and The Falcon-yard. 

Next to moving among those beautiful <dd buildings, with 
their lino historic associations, wo dulight in reading of them : 
Init the rogrot ari.sos that so many have been recklessly demolished 
or oven more wantonlv " rcstorwl." 



London Riverside Ohtirches. By A. E. DanicU. 

7,' • ."))'iii., .\ii. i .'iis pp. Wi'si minster, 1807.' Constable. 6- 

A possible value for tho compilation before us has boon 
suggested by tho lato disaster in tho City. Mr. Daniell's 
cliaiiters are notliing but a laborious list of tho contents and 
appearance of certain churches. If St. Uilos'a, Crijtplogate, had 
sutl'ered more severely than it has, such a reoonl of the monu- 
nioiits to bo seen there in this year might have had its uses for 
tho antiquarian. For St. Giles's takes tho place of u much older 
building on tho same spot, and has already sutforod from tho 
lavages of tiro about tlxroo centuries and a-lialf ago. Within it 
lie buried John Koxo of "Tho Martyrs," Sir Martin Frobislnr, and 
.Milton, and its register records tho mirriago of Oliver Cromwell 
to KlizabL'th liourchior. 

.\.s it is we can find little excuse for this publication. Here 
and there you come upon an epitaph which rewards discovery, but 
the illustrations are in nearly every case so badly drawn that it 
would have lieen better to omit them. St. Mary's, Kothorhitho, 
provides one of tho most interesting of the chapters, liccauso the 
bald cataloeoo of its contents is almost sullicient to enlist atten- 
tion, however they are presented. It was tho church of sea-faring 
men, where Lemuel Oullivor, no doubt, did his devotions, and 
whore a fino ship in full sail (on tho west wall of tho north aisle) 
records tlie life and death of Cajitain Antliony Wo<h1. In tho 
■hurohyard is tho monument to Princo Lee Boo, the charitable 
Tellew Islander who rescued the East India Company's ship 
Antelope, and was brought back by a grateful captain to 
ilio of smallpox in Paradise-row at the early age of twenty. 
Kast of tlie tablet, which repeats these facts within the Church, 
'■< a monument whoso epitaph deserves quotation : — 

In comnnMiiorntion of Mr. Roger Twecnly. 

Wlio livinj; wa.>i Ijniilsim-n's CoanncUor, Seamen's Glory, 

Seliisiii's scourge nml Truth's living «tory. 

His soul ft Ship, with Craees fully ladeil, 

'l"hroii);li surges deep did plow, ami safely waded. 

With Principles of Faith his ballnDc'il .Mind 

Did steildy sail "gainst IMasts of boist'rous wind 

Of Doetrine falce, which furiously ilid blow 

Like rowling waves, to toss him fo and fro. 

This sayling Ship did precious Wares distribute 

In every Port, an the acknowledg'd Trilnito 

Of Christ his King, Love's Crane did weigh 

The Council, contribution he ilid pay. 

At Kothcrheath hee did at length arrive, 

And to their jioore his Tribute fully gire ; 

Ami in this Port he doth at .\nchor stay 

Siopefully expecting Resurrect ion's Day. 



I 



rd of < 



lit«K:k. 3d 

publiabvd 
Itaf* tBMoy 



somi' 

i-.itioo In 1: 

th.' ii-ac|. r l.y ■•. 

material which oblainn iioithiT th« t 

uient it deaervM. Thuru are l»gn<itM - 

may bu able to cut Hticks, but bo s 

binding them togvtb«r. 

London Sig^s anii 

K.H.A. U nil iimny Hi 
Index. I»iiduii, W»7. 

Mr. Noriiiaii huti, m to^s Moric, o 
•omo yoara ago, ■uccvedod in priMluoitii! .> 
authors would have aniioyvd ua witl. 
inturoating subject ho takes up ia «li 
are not too niiiuh troublo<l bv 
limit* which are iw> oft<>n i-..- 



midst to rominiiuahow miicli moi i was 

tlio aspect of ourtmallor city. It ij. •' -'. 

when those paintod boards and cam i 

and tilled up the streets, were awepL uv 

liamcnt, very few such relic* would hi. . .. 

signs which had been carvo<l in stone <-i \y u 

actual i)art of the building they adonieil, we: 
thing save " restoration." 

It is only at the beginning of this . . i ttiry that m, 
ing the houses in a street became like ^mi^ 

The necessary change has involved ... able loM. i . 

tuiiately, wo aro not yet So bereft of imagination a* to b« 

oblige.1 to numl or our atroeU or avenues •* well. In tb« oM 

days the actual houses preserved thest<iry of tlieir lives ami <wcu- 

pations in much tlie same way as S4> many of our streets do now. 

The streeU, too, often took their names from famous 

" ensigns " (aa they are calle<l in France) of 

in their course. In some of our older sqna'o^ j 

still find the old name-plate on a private 

coat of arms which marke<l its owTitT5ht:' 

of such a custom to City i 

obvious. At I'l, Lombard-str' , 

an exceeding bushy tail (which Mr. Normon has not drawn, 

although ho mentions it), and the inscription, " H ^^ jij.'i • in 

the top corners. It is of tho same onlor as the '■ still 

in the front shop of Messrs. Childs in Klewt-slrwt, « 

oak, on a green-stained ground, with a sun and a fi\ 

motto "Aiiisi mon ftmo." At No. a7,a little furll  

golden bottle hangs above tke <loorwav of 

linking house. Stock's Ilank (now I 

Horse in Lombanl -street) and Williu: 

Crown) are two other examples of houses who kept -'luiining 

cashes " as early as lrt"7. 

In other trades the occupolion of tho inhabitants mry be 
more nearly suggested, as by tho Hibio and Crown which vwtA 
to be at the corner of DisUtf-lane, St. Paul's, and was the in. rk 
of Charles Kivington when he Uxik on the business from 
Richard Chiswell, •' the metropolitan booksidler of Eui-lar.d " 
Mr. Norman is wr<ing in sr\ 
remains. He will find it s\- 
where the Rivii 
Chemists usid ; 

sidored an antid.'lu u> all |>..is<.iis, ai 
of the h^rii nls', owing tn its mritv .\ 
ing b. 
Mr. N 
the 



hourvs 

'<i may 

th« 

fseo 



gnacsque monsters w^o apparently  
over moilicval England ii we are t« take the . 
a faithful reconl of events. It is in the ini.- 
se<Iuctive examples still remain. Blue Boars and V<ii '> 
still preserve in name alone the attractions of a time • ' 
street was gay with painted monsters inviting wwiry traMllcr* 



46 



LITERATURE. 



[Jr.nuary 15, 1898. 



to abdlar. Th»t queer old publication, tho " Vade Mocum for 
Malt worms, " ia filled with hints of tho fascinating resorts 
of our forefathen. Bfr. Norman might have gratified his 
readers with its titlo-pago, which seta forth how this 
*• Ruido t4» g.hHl follows " gives a list of " tho props (or prin- 
cipal customers) of each house, in a mothiHl so plain tlint any 
Thiraty Person (of the meanest capacity) may easily find the 
nMTMt way from one house t4> another. Illustrated with projior 
cuts." Here may yoo discover tho rarities of the Goose and 
Gridiron, which are :— " 1. Tho odd sign (probably a parody 
»>f tho former Swan and Harp). 2. Tho pillar which supports 
the chimtiey. 3. Tho skittle ground upon tho top of tlio hoUEO. 
4. T: .«rse running through tho chimney. f>. The hnnd- 

aoin> iinnah." Wliy is there no lioobe and CJridiron 

nam i Krery oiii- will riMiifiiihor tho Mitro in " Tho High"; 
botthareis another Mitre, In-tweon Hntton-gartlen and Ely- 
place, in London, which i>oints tiia traveller to what is con- 
•idared the most complete relic of the foiirteenth century in the 
eapital,theCha|iel of St. Etheldreda, attached to the residence of 
the Bishops of Ely, where "time-honoured Lancaster " breathed 
his laat among flowers so plentiful that Bishop Cox, in luTG, 
could tripulate for •: ' ' is of roses every yeiir, from the 

aune ganlen, wht :. .:pclle<l him to let it to Sir 

Ohriatophor Hnttou. W'u iuar ihat tho rent for thu snmo piece 
of ground is neither at so low a value, nor paid in such romantic 
tenna, aa the •' one red rose, ten loads of hay, and £'10 yearly 
which the Lonl Chancellor luul to disburse. We are gla<l to 
find that the Bishops of Ely, though their town house has 
been changed, preserve the mitre on tho door at 37, L'over- 
•traet, which was carve<l for them there in 1772. 

We have only been able thus to indicate n few of the multi- 
farious interests which are arousc<l when such a subject as this 
of soulpturwl signs is fairly treated. There is scope for the re- 
vival by iiKKlorn architects of a picturesque and useful fashion. 
It is not necessarj- to indicate financial wealth by a circle 
of petrified shareholders (since gone to Brighton, we 
believe), nor to pri>claim a literary (K'cupation by a " Pot and 
Feathers " ; but there is much that can be gracefully indicated 
of the personality and tastes of the householder which is also a 
distinct addition to the beauty and interest of his dwelling. We 
have but to remember such a house as that of Jacques Coeur or 
of Florimcjud lloliertet to see tho value that these " signs and 
inscriptions " may have both for tho artist and the historian. 
And if it be argue«l tliat wo are a far less doiiionstrative nation 
than the French, and care nothing to proclaim our private 
fancies or pursuits, the long series of carvings drawn from 
London alone by Mr. Norman may l>e iM>inte<l to as admirable 
examples of tho right blend of architectural fitness with indi- 
vidual peculiarities. 

Mr. Norman's chapters were evidently written at various 
timea and have appeare<l in various forms. While ho keeps to 
hie main subject they fonn an interesting whole. But we do not 
think it was necessary to include n.ero archaeological gossip of 
a quite different kind, only to fill up a few more pages in a book 
which is quite satisfactory without them. 



THEOLOGY. 



A Critical and Ezeeetical Commentary on the 
Epistles to the Phllipplans and to Philemon. liv 
M. B. Vincent, D.D. IVmt 8vo., xhi. 2(11 jii>. KdiuburKb. 
I*?, T. and T. Clarlt. 8,6 

This new instalment of the "International Critical Cum- 
lllM>tat7 " is distinguished by tho same care and thoroughness 
M the otber published volumes of the series. Dr. Vincent has 
devoted special pains to the paraphrases which are jirefixed 
to each section of tho notes. They are not so terse as those of 
Bishop Lightfoot, ami seem occaMJoiially to miss some point 
which the Bishop has seiio<l, but are, on tho whole, most accu- 
rate and skilful. Indeed, in ]>oint of learning and scholarship, 
Dr. Vincent's work compares favourably with that of the 



older scholar. The author strikes us as being, if possible, too 
cautious in his discussion of the date of Philippians, which 
Lightfoot deciilodly i)lace8 early in tho K-oman captivity. As 
Dr. Vincent truly observes, " the tone of the letter, so far 
as it relates to [St. I'aul] himself, seems to indicate fresh im- 
pressions rather than those received after a long and tedious con- 
finement " (p. XXV.). Tho strong point of tho Commentary is 
great sobriety and thoroughness in exegesis, and a 
clear sense of the limits within which detached possoges 
can be used as " proof texts " in points of doctrine. 
The notes on the chief passage of dogmatic importance (ii. 5 foil.) 
are oxcoUont. This remark includes tho excursus on pp. 78 foil. 
Dr. Vincont seems to discuss tho difiicult expression /io/j^i) 
with less than his usual clearness, but his observations on iavriv 
tKivuaty are admirable. " Any attempt," ho says, " to commit 
Paul to o precise theological Rtatoiiient of the limitations of 
Clirist's humanity involves tho roa<ler in a hopeless maze." Tho 
most satisfactory definition of the term lah't-iaiv is found, ho 
thinks, " in the succeeding details which describe the incidents 
of Christ's humanity, and with these exegesis is compelled 
to stop. The word does not indicate a surrender of deity,. 
nor a paralysis of deity, nor a cliongo of personality, nor 
a break in the continuity of solf-consciousnoss. " 

Speaking generally, tho commentary on the text is a model 
of simple ond lucid exposition. Good examples of Dr. Vin- 
cent's method and stylo are the notes on Phil. i. 10 (^on/iiSCtiv), 
i. 27 (jTiVris), iii. 3 {<rapK), iv. 3 (/Ji/SXiov siui/j), iv. 7 (#poivi.i<m) with 
its apt quotation from Tennyson, I'hilem. 7 {avairijravTat). lu 
tho intr<xluction to Philemon there is an interesting passage on 
slavery. We observe, however, that Dr. Vincent differs from 
Lightfoot and Evans in his interpretation of tho disputed pas- 
sage 1 Cor. vii. 21. 

The Christ of History and of Experience. By David 
W. Forrest, M.A. Svo., xx. + 47y pp. Kdinbinyb, ISSd. 

T. and T. Claris. 10,6 

Tho moat interesting portion of those thoughtful and 
admirably-written lectures is devoted to the discussion of a 
problem which, as the author observes, has not been always 
fairly faced by the Church— viz., How far the faith of 
Christendom in the solo mudiatorsliip of Christ is " reconcilabli* 
with tho undoubted fact that a moral character of peculiar ex- 
cellence and attractiveness is often possessed by those who reject 
tho historic faith of tho Church." Tho general survey of 
the doctrine of the Incarnation contained in the first seven 
lectures is preparatoiy to the discussion of this question in the 
two concluding lectures. 

One aspect of the writer's llaiijttptohhm is the question. 
What is the true relation between tho historical and the spirituiil 
in Chri.stianity ? Tho modern impatience of any dogmatic and 
histf)rical basis in religion is supposed to find philosophic 
justification in tho fact that religion is essentially a state of 
direct and conscious communion with Deity, a state which ia 
necessarily independent of historical events, and postulates very 
little in tho way of intellectual assent to dogmatic propositions. 
Mr. Forrest maintains that the Gospels constitute a necefsary 
link between the historical Jesus and the Church's interpreta- 
tion of Him. " A man feels in reading them that ho is con- 
fronted by a life that has been really lived. ... It is not 
on the aiilliority of the Church tliat he believes in the unique 
personality of Jesus as a fact in history : ho sees it for himself. 
It 18 borne in upon hiui directly from the pages of the Gospels. 
What the Church does is to help him to understand the fact, 
to realize its contents." It is, perhaps, characteristic <.f 
tho noo-Hegulian school of thinkers, whom the writer has in 
mind, that it is apt to under-estimate the extent to which nn 
ordinary man's religious belief, and even his character, is 
dependent on his mental attitude in regard to past events. Mr. 
Forrest remarks that " jiatriotism, for example, rests up<in 
history," and certainly the growth of faith, regartled as a 
moral quality, depends upon a double process of verification : 
a man must verify in his own experience the religious truth 



January 15, 1898.] 



LlTEllATURE. 



which he han luanicd on tho authority o( a hiKtorio biMly, uul, 
on tho othur hand, hu wants to aiiHuro himiiflif that tho truth ho 
haR nowly apprtthondtnl it corroborated by the ox|i«)rienee of 
roli);ious inon in foriiior ajjos. In othor worda, hiii cri'cxl como* 
to him in ttio furni of a hintorio tra<1ition, and flndu its <'<iiifiriiin- 
tion in nn ox|iorienc'o which history show;! to bo univeraal and 
not moroly [Hirsonal ami fiurtioulur. Tlio true sohitioTi of tlio 
diflicnity wJiich Mr. Korrnitt, stiitos so ole.irly and ti 
viz., tho fact tliat rejection of historic (^'liristim ■n 

" oompatitilo with a moral character wliich in strength and 
nttractivoncsM fru(|uently Hurpassoa tho ordinary Christian typo " 
is already hinted at, lio thinks, in tho I'araldu of tho 
Last Judgment (St. Mntt. xxv. 31). Mr. Forrest rightly tots aside 
tho interpretation which regards " tho nations " horo addruaroil 
as Christian beliovors, and hoIdH that the jiarablo points to tho 
poNsibility of an unconscious or inarticulate faith in Christ 
ipialifying tho soul to recoivo tho blessings and rewards promi.swl 
to those who consciously accept Hini. " Tho (jucHtion," ho 
says, " is simply as to whether there m.ay not bo oven in a 
Christian lan<l a true, though unconscious, relation of tho -innl 
to the redeeming Lord ; or, in short, whether in so: 'lie 

alternative may not ussumo such a form tliat an >■/</ • f- 

tion of ChrLst may bo in truth a real acceptance uf Hun." 
Tho thought horo indiuatod ia not new. In a moniorublo 
sermon of Dr. Pu«oy (■' Tho responsibility of intellect in 
matters of foith ") it receives elo<|uent expression, and in a note 
appi-ndod to tho locturea Mr. Forrest ijuotos an interest- 
in;: iJiiHsago from Dr. Hort's letters which ^ubstantially antici- 
pates his own position. I!ut it nuiy bo said tiuit tho point raised 
lias never iK^on discus80<I with greater caution, delicacy, and 
fairness than in the present work. 

In his treatment of current theological 'lueBtions nothing 
could bo more admirable than tho writer's method, tone, and 
tompor. The loctiu'o on tho f>ignificanco of tho Resurrection, and 
tho oxcollent passage on tho Konotic Chriatology are specially 
worthy of mention. Tho lecture on tho method of Chri.st's self- 
manifestation contains nothing that is vory now, but much that 
is most forcibly and warily stated. It is scarcely necessary, 
however, to specify particular pa-tsii :.;e8 in a book which througn- 
out exhibits literary and theological powers of a high order, and 
which abounds in' observations and criticisms which could only 
have boon pennoil by a masculine anil fearlesn, but reverent, 



thinker. 



Chauncy Maples, Bishop of Likoma. Hy His Sister. 

SK.5||ln., viii. 1 !():{ pp. l>(>iuUiii. ISitT. Longmaus. 7,6 

Chauncy Maples was a hero and fought very nobly in the 
liigh places of the Christian. His sister's unvarnished tale 
makes that ])oint (piite clear. And ho was a human kind of 
missionary bishop whoso burning dosiro for tho ci>nvorsion of 
tho heathen did not consume his belief that there w.as, too, a 
chanco ovon for Kuropoans. He was moreover oxceiitionally 
versatile in his accomplishments and interests, and in tlio selec- 
tions from his letters wo can soo a vivid picture of this largo- 
hoartod man, sitting contentedly in a hut far removed from the 
haunts of civilization, and chatting to his friends in Kngland 
about his violin, his favourite poetry, and his hobby for rare 
ferns, all on one page, and then a<;ain about his onthusiiism for 
"oology, his rcgrot that mathematical subjects are too much for 
liini, and his satisfaction upon tho completion of his Yoo 
vocabulary. Ho becamo a fair shot, a good cook, a capable 
organ-tunor, and a useful carpenter. This sketch of his life, 
introducing copious extracts from his charming letters and 
journals, and supplemented by notes and memories by workers 
for Africa and Africans, and with portraits and maps, will 
entertain boys, stimulate the energies of mission workers, 
and impart valuable information to the student of African 
travel. 



SCIENCE. 



The Sun's Place in Nature. Hv Sir Norman Lockver, 
K.C.B., P.R.S. OJxOiin., xvi.+;«<) pp. l^mdon .ind New 
York, lS!t7. Macmillan, 12- 

Thi.-; work, although containing the results of 
original investigations of some imjxirtance, cannot be 
said to ix)ssess any scientific authority. The accent of the 
pleader is too clearly and too constantly audible through- 



out it« ingefi. It in a book written with a imquiM*. It 



iiiUL'li ditbi'iilty in t 

iiiultitudeof "•I'fii-i '1 

t mi nit of rea 

it includes, i :.' 

faniilinr ; but it ii 

oux 

I iiimental postulate of the meteoritic hv\v • 

ia that the small rocky masM>ti, which, amid 

commotion, not infrequently cnuh down 'n 

8urface, conntitute the real and only I 
the worlds of H|«ce. The idea w 
Tait in 1871, and I/>nl K<»lvin gav> 
notoriety. TI ' apjicared 

great that " net •• lieadn of 

themselves to tu by ignited gaseotu • 

liroteeding from the coIlisionH of - 

Schiaparelli had then recently demon*'! 
of a genetic tie 
stans ; and nebuUe I 
jK'rsoiiated comets ; heno' 

To procure its formal rati:. -.; , 

was the enteq)riso undertaken by Sir Norman I. 

1887. It failed. The light-nn '  ' • ' 

lislied broke down when cIo.>- 

Sir William ; ' 

vatory by Pi  

the South Kensington cxi)erimentor ^;^ 

nected with his theory only " through O...... 

industry and resource devoted to running up tlie un- 
.stable e<lifice had endeari-d it to him; and, to ' 
detriment of science, he refnoed to abide I 
decision that it must no h  

Sir Norman I xx'kyer ; • :-- 

thesis an elaborate scheme of sidereal development 

the merit is due to him of havv-' ' • ''■•■ ♦''■-■ '  

bate the " celestial sjni-ies " al 

the descendin ' lies of a •• t 

profe.sses to u .ite the wa.xiii 

amid the "disseininatitl orbs" of t 

are bodies as yet in the 8>irtrmiii;i 

effects of collisions eked out by eh 

reaching complete vaporization, a Lj'^mi; 

and the acme of heat. On the other v 

co<iling and irrevocably 

and red, our own being nti; 

There are, indeed, fatal objections to tiie : i 

order of evolution — objections which we ■•■i: 

stop to enumerate. None, however, that 

them has been so far projwsetl, and nonf 

fully constructeil on jiuch strait prir. 

lavish inventiveness of the Supreme IntcUtct -j.*;..;!.^ 

in nature. 

Meanwhile, signs are not w.mting tl 
and unprejudiced study of the -i.,-. tin ,if • 
lead to curious disclosures. .A 
from a piece . *" ' 

Professor K;r 
argon and heliiiiii ; a: 
of a spontaneous meti 
at Arefjuipa, June 18, 1897, a hi i 

which may jx>ssibly turn out to Ix' «. 

known line in the spectra of those r^ 

"bright -line stars." If this be so, a new hi-ihk -i- iii.i_> 



48 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



be wit'  ---icTP of actnni capture by artificial distillation 
fn>n> :is of tlie largesse showennl u]Hin us from 

space. A further and most >  r in tlie 

investigation of " brij;lit-lini> m '\cr, Imm'u 

ojH'ned by Professor Pickering's recent detection of a 
j.v.vi.in.lv unknown sequence of hydrogen-rays in tlieir 
! lie«l spectra; while a detached band, a little 

bviLiw UK' meteoric l)eam, for which a carbon-origin is 
claimed bj' Sir Norman Ixx-kyer, has Ix-en exultingly 
) y Professor Rydberg at the head of the missing 

• i , tl "series of hydrogen. The collocation, evidently 

of the highest theoretical interest, is still sub judice. 
Ti . I- -'■♦-effluenc-e in question, however, is demonstrably 
->m any carbon-emanation. 
\N c • iiolude this brief notice without some 

comment unliecoming references to the venemtwl 

-h astro-physical science by which the book 

;^..-.. is disfigured. Although these attacks recoil 

ujxin their author, we should fjiil in an obdous duty by 
<• " to protest against them. The accusation of 
1 II fonnulatetl in the ensuing sentence is simi)ly 

1 Sir Xorman Ix)ckyer complains that Sir 

\'' Huggins, as President of the British Association 

in 1891, "apparently from quite independent inquiry 
announced my main contention — namely, that there is an 
evolution of celestial forms, and that nelniUe and stars do 
belong to the sjiine order of celestial bodies." We had 
supposed that the copyright in this idea had expired some 
time l>efore the delivery of the Cnrdift" address. Precisely 
one century before that event, Herschel put forward an 
explicit theory, later more fully elaborated, of the growth 
of stars from nebula. Popularized by Is'ichol, touched 
with poetical mysticism by Tennyson, it became, and 
remains, jiart of the common consciousness of educated 
mankind. 

The FTinrioT-a "f ao^logv. Bv Sir Archibald Geikie, 

F.R S., llif GcoUiKital Sui-vcv of (iri'ut 

!''M'  ! . M., 207 pp. London tiiid \'cw Ycirk, 

1W7. Macmillan. 6. - net. 



Ii, t. 
the l>u- 



• f a life of incessant activity and pri)duction, 
il of the National Cieologic;il .Survey has 
j.y use of hi.1 opi)<)rtnnities. His latest work 



is .1 . i-f in point. Having l«(>n anpointi^d first " \\ illiams " 
H'lliiiH I'nivui-sity last spring, and 



l.'-tj 

hv. ;• 



t till' .T.'li 

^ts <if all crecsls frum far and 

I : "'•t ho cast about for a subject 

ie to 8o mixetl an audionco of specialists. 

I i. most judinious, and " The Founders 

I not only an interesting and perfectly safe 

"W that th" lectures are over and done with, 

t';.uy ~t rea<lable b<K)k. 

I .;o» Sir Archibald Geikie pre- 

' ' ily exposition of the devious ways 

I mo to bo what it is. The older 

» arcely touches, but beginning from 

century ho tracos tho ijrowth of its 

..|. .■■ the days of Darwin and Lyell. This 

I . 'i only of some seventy or cichty years, 

ill.- r.-nfn.) i...., .... und tlio inost weighty events 

.'les the wars of tlio VuKanihts 

of the use "f fossils as .itrati- 

!ion of ice as a powerful carrying 

• ■thor epimKles of tho first order. 

'■' ff)r the final rejection of 

iiists " in favour of tho 

. and the collection of facta. 

Ifntt^n, Oiivior, and William 

•. are liiiko'l in f. ' th each step in tho 

.tioe. To these, and . it is needless to say 

f nil justice is done. Itut t tlier and insists uj)on 

thi merits of early work  ..illy known. More 

especially are ''•—"■ ••■' '' •' Soulavie shown, 

for thp first tr . to have as i;o<kI 

a right B» ai... ^, ...^.. , „ .... ......urs of geo^'y. 



lr.,i..,^i M.p account of tho pationt, accnrate, admirable, and all 
1 ' • n lul)0\irs of those men must l>o refjartled ns the most 

di .... ...^ feature of Sir Archibald Geikie's new book, and as a 

notilo vindication of sterling worth. 

Tho writer's skill in p\itting somewhat dry details together 
so as to make an attractive wholo has never been better dis- 
playe«l than in this volume. His geology is, of course, of tho 
soundest ; it is also of the simplest and cloarost- a rarer perfec- 
tion—and tho manner in which no brings the [lersonal I'lmraetcr- 
istics of his heroes to bear upon their mutho<ls of dealing with 
tho problems uikiii which they were engaged is beyonci praise. 
I'ortraits would have l)Oon in |)Iiice and useful in this work, but, 
failing these, there are throughout brief telling touches that 
exhibit the men themselves in a vivid way ns men rather than as 
discoverers. Wo are atl'onled glimpses of them in their habit as 
they lived, and we are tho bettor able to understand their mo<le3 
of thought, their prejudices, and thoir limitations. The descrip- 
tions of Von Buoh, Werner, Desmarest, and <lo Saussuro once 
roa<l will never be forgotten. 

In 1848 and 184'.* tho lato Sir Andrew Ramsay publiBho<l two 
inaufrural lectures, entitled " Passages in tno Historv of 
Geology." These pamphlets are now rarely to bo met with — 
they aro not even mentioned by Sir A. Ueikio — but they wore 
excellent, and if reprinto<l would form a very suitable companion 
to the work lieforo us, since they cover the earlier jioriods 
jmrposely omitted in tho present publication. The work of 
geologists still with us is wisely not dealt with by Sir Archibald. 
To tins there is one exce|ition. Dr. Clifton Sorby is men- 
tionetl as a pioneer in petrography, and we are sure no one 
will grudge him the honour of being reckoned, oven in his life- 
time, as one of the " Founders of Geology." 



WoKnKni'UL Tools, by Edith Carrington (Boll, la. f>d.), is 
published for tho Humanitarian League, and describes 
tho weapons or means by which various animals obtain 
their food or act in their own defence. The style of it is 
light and easy, and an occasional anecdote helps to sustain tho 
interest. But it lacks arrangement, or, rather, tho arrangeimnt 
is Jiot a goo<l one. For example, to cla.ss under one heading 
" Crawlers and Leapers," and to pass in the same chapter from 
snakes and blindwornis to jerboas, frogs, crickets, beetles, and 
fleas is surely not the Isjst way to convoy an idea of nature's 
methods. It would have been letter to take, say, tho head, arm, 
or foot, and trace it through tho coiii]mrative series, and to show 
how the unity of type is maintained in snito of external diver- 
gences. A]>art from this defect, tho book can be recommended 
as suitable for youthful readers. 

In Thr M*cHiNEnY or the Universe (S.P.C.K., 28.) 
Professor Dolbear, of Tufts College, Mass., handles the con- 
ceptions of force, energy, matter, and tho like as one having 
authority. The object of the book is to bring out tho con- 
nexion between matter and ether, and to show that what wo 
call atoms may <« nothing more than (juivering vortex rings 
in a limitless ocean of something which is omnipresent, struc- 
tureless, homogeneous, frictionless ; and to whicli such words 
as density, elasticity, and " heatability " are by their nature 
inapplicable. It is too early yet to pronounce authoritatively 
on this speculation, to which Lord Kelvin (then Sir William 
Thomson) first gave rise, but it is evident tliat the old idea 
of atoms as inert, hard, round masses must bo <liscardod. 
On the other hand, it is more likely that every atom is at 
all times intluenciug all space, and that the other, of which 
matter on this hypothesis is but a differontiated form, is the one 
and only " sulsitanco " — if this is the correct woni which has 
any existence. Time may modify the conclusion to which we aro 
drifting, but those who desire to know how far it is justifiable at 
present will do well to rood this little book. 

The Stoiiy of Gekm Life, by H. W. Conn (Newnes, ia.S— 
tho latest addition of tho "Library of Useful Stories — 
maintains the character ol its ]>rodece88or8. It deals with 
bacteria in their varied asi>ects as iiromotois of decomposition, 
fermentation, organic change, and disease. It would be absurd 
to exjHJct in a iMiok of this kind a discussion of matters of con- 
troversy regarding tho life changes in those organisms, and 
kin<lrod topics, but as an introduction to the world of tho 
infinitely small, it is eminently suited for lay readers. The 
prominence given to tho investigation of bacteria since I'astour 
led the way is one of tho features of our age, and that the sul)- 
ject is not one of mere siKSCuIative imiMirtaiice has been abunrl- 
antly proved during tho last few years. Mr. Conn gives a <luo 
share of attention to tho antitoxine treatment, and in fact it 
would 1« djflicult, if not iinjKigaiblcto point out any way in 
which tho book could bo improve<l without adding largely to its 
bulk. 



Jaimar^' i:», 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



4U 



DESMOND WAR. 

(l)lK(iK I'OU MAj IKKhANU, l.'>8().) 



Fall gently, I'itying rains ! Come slowly, spring ! 
Ah slower, slower yet ! No notes of glee ! 
\() minstrelsy I Nay not one bird must sing 
His (•Imilengc to the season. Sf', n s.-c I 

Lo, where she lies, 

Dead, witli wde ojH'n eyes, 

Inshcltererl from tiie skies, 

A'one, unnmrk'd, she lies ! 
Then sorrow flow ; 
And ye, dull hearts, that brook to see her so, 

<ro I go ! go ! go I 
Depait dull hearts, and leave us to our woe ! 

Droj) forest, drop your sad accusing tears. 
Send your soft rills adown the silent glades, 
Wliere yet the jicnsive yew its branches rears. 
\Vhere yet no axe iiollutes tlie decent shades. 

Show forth her hitter woe. 

Denounce her furious foe, 

Her piteous story sliow. 

That all may know. 
Then quickly call 
"^'our young leaves. J}id them from their stations tall. 

Fall ! fall ! fall ! fall ! 
Till of their green they weave her funeral imll. 

And you, ye waves who guard that western 8loi)e, 
Show no white crowns. This is no time to wear 
The livery of Hope. We have no hope. 
Hlackness and leaden grays befit despair. 

Koll past that open grave, 

And let thy billows Inve 

Her whom they could not save. 
Then open wide 
"V'our western arms to where the rnin-clouds bide, 

And hide, hide, hide, 
Let none discern the sjwt where she has died. 

E.MILV LAWLESS. 



Hinono m\> Boohs. 



KEYS TO THE UNIVERSE. 

Over one of the outer portals of the Alhambro is 
t^ngraved, as the traveller will remember, a large, enigmatic 
key. I had reason to believe, at one time, that it was the 
key unlocking the Treasure-house of King Yahya and the 
subterranean palace of his enchanteil daughter ; and I 
even communicated this view, at considerable length, to 
the readers of the Journal dfs Debate. But I have wa.xed 
mystical, like the rest of us, of late, and so I now think 
that the key on the horse-shoe jwrtal has nothing to do 



with triwures or inrantan, and ii limply a •yroholic " K*y 
to the Iniveme." 

In our MaUd day« bookit an v«Ty oft«i " K « 

Universe"; and it u on thin pretext that I am lo 

""■"' II t hew {JAgen. Wr oin all 

"<"" . ^it that the reatling of 

l>articular book, or »et of bookit, would act an an 
Sesame ailmitting us to the terraceM an 1 f 

thought whence nil things human and di... 

discernible, ma|>-like and clear, at our feet. For 
the hooks have l)et»n lMM)ks on •  !ier» bouk* 

on jMlitical economy ; for I'eti a, th« book 

was Homer in Greek, which he kept by liim and could not 
read. For the writer of these lines, I am ashamed to «ay 
that the key to the universe resided at one time in a 
treatise on thorough bass, perhaps owing to an insu|ierable 
difficulty in grasping win r' - ' * vn» 

extremely desirable or al. i what- 

ever the books, I think it is certain that no reader of them 
ever found that they opene<l any such d 
Indeed, it seems probable that if Ixjoks • 
to the universe, or to the smallest pigeon-hole of the 
universe, it is probably the books which 1 ' lieen 

expected to do anything of the kind, an. 1 .se of 

which we have suspected it only long aft«>r. For we have 
a way of looking, so to speak, for the universe on the 
wrong side, as we look sometimes, in a shutterwl room, 
for a window on the side where there is only dead wall ; 
and we do not always recognize the universe when we get 
a glimpse of it. And yet that uits the universe. ]>erhap« 
the only universe (all the rest vanity and delusion) we 
shall ever really enter in the spirit, that land of Cr- V- 
ayne into which we were admitted by some line of i>.» ; ; . . 
some despised boys' book of adventure. 

From which statement it may be gathered that I tend 
to believe that the only universe we can ever really know 
is the universe which we know not throuuh pmf<»««>« of 
induction or deduction, but through • 
joyment or weary longing or bitter grief, i ,. >,., >.... 
whose key we each of us seek for is a subjective uni\ 
comiwsed of those elements of our own experience v 
are nearest akin to oursel\r«. TM^ J- i.li«.i.r.> .,, T -r. 
to explain. 

It struck me the other day, at the mention of a well- 
known firm of s. ' ' ' 
friend of mine, t 

key to the universe. Unformulated to himself, my friend 
feels that what .Messrs. Blank and <' ' • . , 

might explain, the problems of life .. 
mind, are the most far-reaching, the secret of the worW's 
how and why. To his temjier of mind. But not to 
the temper of mind of some other i)erson, who may have 
the same sort of feeling for, say, the nerve-doctor, or the 
mystic theologian, or the dealer in • • • .. Indeed, it 
is in this exclusively individual qua lies the in- 

terest and utility of these various views ; each in<i 
key to the universe being in fact a key to his petr-'umiio. 

But before developing this tlieine. .ilIo« me to open a 



50 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



parentheeis to state that the kpy to the universe is not by 
any means the key, ntvcssarily, to any imrticuhir thing 
which ue, indjviilually, require to know for practical jiur- 
jioses. In that sense every teacher is jierpetunlly turning 
a key which is beyond the grasp of his ]>u]>il; ami ever}' 
successful roan of business, official, soldier, sailor, or 
candle-stick maker is doing the same, surrounded by 
hojieless mystery, before the eyes of his unsuccessful 
comi)etitors ; let alone (and here the key seems almost a 
literal reality) the fortunate man or woman of the world, 
before whom all doors ojien by unfathomable agency I 
But such persons are not those who worry about the key 
to the universe, or about the universe at all. Xaj", it is not 
the key to the universe which is being puzzled about by the 
fond mother and the humble, unrecjuited lover, much as 
they may wonder about the nature of certain keys (and such 
wonder is surely- among the most jiatiietic things in the 
world). "How does that quite uninteresting school friend, 
that booby with his silly jokes, get to the soul of my boy — 
the soul which is closed to me ? " or " how (alas !) can the 
frivolous fingers of such a woman turn the locks in my 
hero's breast ? " Those are the keys, not of the universe, 
but of what concerns us much more closely, the keys of 
other jx>ople'8 hearts. But 'tis a subject almost too 
melancholy to touch upon. Besides, it involves one of 
the chief aspects of the j)roblem of evil, to wit : Wiy love 
and confidence are so oddly distributed in the world, and 
why the people who could are so rarely allowed to help 
each otheralong. This comes under the heading of the 
universe (by which means I close my imrenthesis) and the 
key of the section is held in turns, by [Mother Church, 
by the late Schopenhauer, and by . 

The key to the universe has, per ee, nothing neces- 
sarily tragic about it. It is interesting, as I remarked, not 
because it produces dramatic commotions, but liecnuse it is 
one of the best indications afforded of the most deep down 
and essential f>eculiaritips of individual character — jiecu- 
liarities which the uniformities of education usually 
overlay, and the accidents of life chaotically jumble. 
Now the stuflFof which an individual character consists, 
its real inherent sjwntancous organic tissue, is, so to 
si)eak, a sample of one of the forces of nature. For, as 
many as there are such varieties of human stuff, each with 
its own inevitable modes of absorbing, rejecting, of 
decomposing, and sometimes of exploding — so many (but 
' '■ ' il by each other) are the contingencies and 
> _ I ions of human existence. Now, in my sense of 
the word, the key to the universe, conceived by A as in 
'' ' ' of B, is tin* indi' " " '. disintorested, 

•i (and therefore ii -Is, curiosities, 

and biases of A. Take for instance the persons to whom 
sever:" ' " liion of all the others) 

the k' keeping of Carlyle, or 

Browning, or Benan, or Kuskin, or Tolstoi, or Ibsen. . . And 
'.' ' "    r these great names, 

irding the ojnnion 
that in literature, as in all else, appreciation, rather than 
criticifm, is one of the chief keys Ui the universe. 

VEKNON LEE. 



FROM THE ELYSIAN FIELDS. 



AUTHIK HALLAM am) EDWARD KIStS. 

E. K.— Wor»hii>fiil Master Hnllam, I salute you. If I have 
over sc«ine<l to match myself with yv.w in the article of jiosthu- 
nious fame on onrtli, I pray yon panlnn me. 

A. H. — la this real or alToctcd mwlosty, Mr. King ? Yi>iir 
tone soiiiuls ironioal, and you wore not wont to take so mean a 
view of your merits. The subject (as y^u have often said) of tlio 
greatest elegy in the English language must take higher rank in 
Elysium than 

E. K. — Nay, hold there, ray friend ! Be not too sure that it 
M the greatest, — at least if tlio noble are the great. Mr. Milton's 
" Lycidas " hath but now been adjudged a lower place. 

A. H. — You amaze me ! By whom ? 

E. K.— By one whoso awards are accepted by many of thi> 
Few and by all of the Many. It is fho saying of the great and 
venerable Mr. Gladstone that I cite. I have it from the lato- 
arrived Shade of a news-writer, and thus it runs : — 

Hb<1 he gone [that i», hail you, Sir, gone] to Oxfonl, he would uot.'or 
wouM not at thati)eriod or io tLnt iimnaer, have known TrnnyKin ; and 
the world niifiht not liavi- bta-n in poitwusfon of " In Menioriim," 
mirely the noblest monument (not excepting " Lycidas '')that ever w«» 
erected by one human being to another. 
Do you approve that judgment, Mr. Hallam ? 

A. H. — Why shotdd I hesitate to do so ? I have never pre- 
tended that the ashes were worthy of the urn. But assuredly it 
is of more massive proportions, of a richer adornment, of a moro 
cunning workmanship than yours. 

E. K.— You say nothing of simplicity. 

A. H.— Ko, Mr. King. So far, I liave forborne my own 
advantage. It is so great that it would Ito ungenerous to insist 
upon it. 

E. K.-Ha ! 

A. H. — Have yoti forgotten the censure passed upon Mr. 
Milton's " Lycidas " by the greatest critic of the succce<ling 
age :— 

In this poem there is no nature, fur there \» no truth ; there is no 
art, for there is nothing new. It« form is that of a pastoral- easy, 
vulgar, and therefore disgusting ; whatever images it can supply are 
long ago exhausted, and its inherent improbability always forces 
dissatisfaction in tlie mind. 
Surely you know the author of that reprehension ? 

E. K. — I do, and I have often pleased myself in w.mdering 
with what bushel Dr. Johnson would have measured Mr. 
Tennyson's com. But continue. 

A. H.— 

When Cowley tells of Harvey that they studieil together it is easy to 
suppose how much he must miss the companion of hit labours and thn 
partner uf his discoveries, but what image of tenderness can be excitcil 
by these lines — 

Wo drove afield ami both together heard 
What time the gray tly winils her sultry horn, 
Battening our Hocks with the fresh dews of night. 

We know that they never drove afield and that they had no flocks to 
batten, and though it be allowe<I the representation may be allegnrieal. 
the true meaning is so uncertain and remote that it is never sought 
because it cannot bo known when it is found. 

E. K.— Can it not ? Then I would fain know what the good 
Doctor would say to this : — 

If i^leep and Death lie truly one 
And every spirit's fiddeil bloom 
Thro' all its intervital gloom 
In some long trance should slumber on, 

L'nconscious of the sliding hour. 

Barn of the iKxIy might it last 

And silent traces of the past 
De all the colour of the flower. 

Bo then were nothing lost to man, 

So that still garden of the souls 

In many a tlguri'd leaf enrolls 
Ttie total worbl since life began. 

Would your great critic have thought it wortli while to souk tho 



January 15, 189d.J 



LITEKATURE. 



meaning of that aa something which ho wouhl rocogniae whao b* 
found it ? 

A. }(. Oiiu inuro qiintntioii iiiiii I Imvo iloiio : - 

Among tho llnckn lunl co{jh«m ami Itoweni apjiear the b^atbpn d*iti*a, 
Jovo and I'hu'bua, Noptuna ami .Knliiii, with n long train of i. 
oal iumKcry luch ai a rullige »a«ily Kupplira. Nulhing ran l 
knowleilga or Iru rxorciiu' invention than to trll bow ' 
Inat hia lompnninn and miiat now fi-id hi» llocka alune «i 
of hia nkill in piping, and how ono go*! anka n!-"*)" ,.„« 

become of Kycidua, nml how nnithiT god can tell. .'Vca 

will cxcito no nynipathy ; be who thua prniav* will c . . . .. 

£. K. — For Hynipathy that, Sir, is as may be. Mr. Milton 
sang to assuage hiii own grief, not to move tho cnncom of 
others. Itiit for honour I know not how ho could bnvu conferred 
innro tiian by bestowing iininnrtality on iin oIis(-iiru fullow- 
Ntudont. And after all, Mr. HalUiii, ho connnud liinisolf more 
devotedly to his unworthy subject thon your clogist did to you. 
'J'ho pastoral iinagory and mythical allegory were in the |K>«tic 
fashion of tho time a fashion not more frigidly arliticial than 
that feigning of sylphs and gnomes which this same critic so 
vastly admiroil in tho verso of Mr. Pope. Tho poet of 
" Lycidas," amid all tho conceits of his imagination, thought 
oidy of worthily bewailing me. Ho did not mix up his lamenta- 
tions with a stirabout of theology and a mingle-mangle of 
philosophic disputation. Vou smile, .Sir. May I know thucauiie 
of your merriment / 

A. H. —Vou soom unaware, Mr. King, of the extraordinary 
blemish in " LycidaB " which has always provoked the sorrowful 
surprise of posterity. 

E. K.— And which is i 

A. H. — Well, not unconnected with theology. 

E. K. — You must impart yourself more plainly to mo, Sir. 

A. H. — Has it never, then, occurre<l to you that Mr. Milton 
fell asleep after composing about 100 lines of his elegy, dreamt 
that ho was writing a Martin Marprelate tract, and, half awake, 
interpolated a passage from it in tho text of '• Lycidas " '! How 
else to account for tho sudden ap|)oarance of St. Peter in tho 
wake of C'omus 'i What does " tho pilot of tlie Ualiltban lake " 
do in that particular galley ? 

K. K.— Sir, I was destined for holy orders in tho Church of 
England. 

A. H.— And tliat is why the first Bishop of Rome regretto<l 
your loss to tho Anglican Communion, denounced the greed and 
corruption of many of its clergy, and lamente<l the ravages made 
upon their flocks by " the grim wolf with privy paw," or, in 
other words, by that Catholic Church which ho was divinely 
commissioned to found ? 

K. K.— Nay, my friend, bo reasonable. Air. Alilton, as you 
know, did not believe in the Petrino succession of the Bishops 
of Homo. 

A. H. — He might, however, have selected an Apostle of a 
less disput<ible iiatxn as tho patron saint of a Protestant Church. 
Consider, besides, the incongruity of tho whole opisoilo, tho in- 
decent violence of such an intrusion of wrangling sectaries 
into the hushed and vigil-keeping chapel of the dead. As for tho 
reverence of it, will you hear L)r. Johnson once more ? 

E. K. — Ves, if onhi once. 

A. H.— Ho has no more to say on " Lycidas " than what I am 
now about to repeat : — • 

This poem |ho declares] has yet a grosser fault. With tbeao trilting 
Qctions are mingled tho most awful and sacred truths, auch na ought 
never to be pollute<l with such irreverent conibinntiona. The shepherd, 
likewiae, ia now a. feeder of sheep and aft«Twards an eccle»ia»liral 
[wstor, the superintendent of a Christian (lock. Snob equivocations are 
always unskdful ; but here they «n< indecent and at least approach to 
impiety, of which, however, I believe tho writer not to have teen 
conscious. 

E. K.— It is my turn to smile, 5Ir. Hallam. Yon should have 
stopped before you came to that passage. It is vastly diverting. 
Episcopacy itself was " awful and sacred "' to tliat bigoted High 
Churchman, and it was " indecent and approaching to im- 
piety " even to hint that tho Anglican pricsthooil fell short of 
Apostolic perfection. 

A. H. — Dr. Johnson's occlesiiistieal prejudices may have 



aaniwl him too far, tot who no 

there for arouaing tlicin at 
a moat \i 
.< iliataiiiv 



from the entranco of tliti i tit* "rait an 

to that royatc-rious " twinh . -R'n* at tl.^ .. .. u»i#- 

handed engine ia really ull that i« WantaMl. 

E. K. — A ooe-liair' ' o? 

A. U.— Ay, Mr. r pruning-luttfa. Who would not 

wish to |:are away ao lanK u lui murbiil an •scrMcenoe from ao 
lofty and so atataly a tmo t 

E. K.-8houi ' 'at 

you do not '. u'a 

" Lyciilaa " 1 

A. U.— Indeed yon would. Bat to, hold it, aa I do, for coa 
of the noblest of elegiac |Hioma is not to doem that it baa Dover 
baen and could never bo turpaaaed. Ur. Teanyaon Itaa aarpaaaad 
it. 

E. K.— Tiaaa well that ho hn »'- H"- - : i -:- - i. -. 

much nobler a hero titan the un» 
he had to celebrate. 

A. U. — Irony again, Mr. King. Yet I do not think tbat I 
have been more extollo«l than you. Yea, yea ; 1 know what you 
would say— I was •' tho master bowman " who " would claava 
the mark " when the other young archon luul to I « content with 
scoring an occasional " outer " or, when they diaptayad unuaual 
dexterity, an " inner ring." 



E. K.— But continue, I pray you. Thua it ran. di 



1 ,» n..* >^ 



A williag ear 
We lent him. Who but boag to hear 
The rapt oration Hewing frae. 

From point to point, with power and grace, 
.\nd music in the Itouiida of law, 
To those conrlusiona when we saw 
The (iod within him light bis face 

And seem t.' -'Jglow 

In azure ' iM ; 

And over i'  r..ij iye» 

The bar of .Mi !n. : Angelo. 
\'ou must have Im'io ^ L;ood oonverser, Mr. tlallani, and a 
comely youth. 

A. H.— That is tlie flattering eatimate of a friand. Bat what 
do you say to this ? — 

For I.ycitlas ia dead, dead ere bis prima, 
Viiiiu); l.ycidaa, and hath not left hi< peer. 

Not left his peer, Mr. King. And it who writes that ! 

E. K. — Y'ou do not seem to knuv , ~ lat you have baan 

more magnificently extolle<l since the death of yoor famooa 
eulogist tlian you ever were even by that eulogist himself. Ay, 
and by as memorable a man. Do you remember Mr. Gladatona r 

A. U. — Well. He was my schoolmate. 

E. K. — Who afterwanls became illoatriona. Yon ai« awara 
of that ? 

A. H.— Not a Shade among all the millioua who have lately 
joined us but is familiar with his name. 

E. K. — Hear, then, what the illustrioua man aaya of you :— 

It ia difficult for roe now to conceive bow during (iMivymn b* bota 
with me, since not only was I inferior to him in knowlad(e aad diakctie 
ability, but my mind was " rabineil, cribbed, confionl " by aa mtoiataaea 
which I aKribe to my having been Icought up io what were then tenDrd 
evaagalieal ideas. This be must have found sorrly rexing l« bis latf* and 
expansive tone of mind ; bat bia charity cove(e<l a moltitade of aiaa. 
These, it would seem, are reminiacancaa of your aehool days f 

A. H.— They are— 

For we we«e norsed upon tin ntf-aaaie bill, 
K«l the same flocks by 

K. K.— Nay, Sir, our hill waa a different and a higiiar oo*. 
Mr. Milton and I were not schoolmates but follow-oo H aag i a n a. 

A. H.— The years, however, of the schoolboy in my day and 
the undergraduate in yours were much the same. 



52 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



B. K.— True, bnt I had no " \»rg« Mid expanaiv* ton« of 
mind " to diapUy to the grMtoct poat of my ago. Hon- olii were 
jr<m wban jroa ooold thiia oondeaoem) tn the greatest stat««tnan 
of yoon t 

A. H. — I «uppoM I must have beon alniiit 15. 

K. K. — And your di«cip|p, O (iamaliel ? 

A. H.— My 8choolf(>Uow waa two yeara older. 

E. K. — Older ? Nay, nuroly younger. 

A. H. — To the l>e»t of my recollection CSlndstone was 17. 

K. K.— Then it i« this stripling of 17 who sa\-s of the Iwy of 
15 that the explanation of his indulgent furbearanco was " to be 
found in that genuine breadth of hia which was so comprehensive 
that he oould tolerate eren the intolerant," and " that it wan a 
•aiallM' feat than this to tolerate inferiority " — the inferiority 
of »h*t afterward!) prove<l to l>e one of the most sul)tlu and 
powwfnl minds of the age ! Were you conscious of this disparity 
b a t w— u himaelf and you ? 

A. H.— Mr. King ! 

B. K.— Xay, give me leave, Mr. Hallam. You urged but 
now that the eulogies bestowed upon mj* unw<irlhy self were 
•odi aa to equal, if not to exceed, the honours accumulated upon 
you. Upon you who could " contrive to draw profit from the 
oommerce of other inferior minds, nay, of some which were, 
pariiaps, inferior" to— Mr. Gladstone's own. And your illustrious 
pMMgyrist is careful to say that be interjects those last wortis that 
they may help to relievo him from the suspicion of an affected 
humility, which he freely atlmita that " the strain of his present 
remarks may appear to suggest." I would Ihj glad to know. Sir, 
whether to you they suggest undue humility, real or affected, or 
wiMtbw you regard them merely as the just tribute paid by 
inferior to superior worth. 

A. H. — I know not. Sir, with what purpose you thus seek to 
embarrass me. I am no more answerable for the extravagances, 
if you are pleased to think them so, of my eulogist than are you 
for tbose of yours. 

K. K. — Nor am I holding you answerable for them, Mr. 
Hallam. I am inviting your assistance to distinguish between 
the fanciful and the re:il. It seems to be admitted that yon were 
not a heaven-bom mathematician. We hear of " the dilHcuIties, 
almost the agony, " which you encountere<l in dealing with trigo- 
nometry, and it appears from a confession of your own that 
yon " tormented yourself with Euclid for five years at inter- 
vale," without establishing any permanent footing in the region 
of geometrical reasoning. Am 1 to believe that your command- 
ini; intellect only enabled you after prolonged and desperate 
struggle to effect the (Hissage of the " Assei' Bridge " ? 

A. H.— It may be so. I certainly had no skill in the 
mathematics. 

E. K. — So much, no douljt, mov be securely inferred. But 
how to reconcile the lack of a faculty which is no prodigy of the 
human mind, and which we were iuie<l to whip our thickest- 
witte<t children for not possessing, with those extraordinary 
mental gifts which Mr. Gladstone recalls with awe ? 

A. H.— I am in noway bound to attempt the reoonciliation. 

B. K. — Surely, yes, if you accept the eulogy. 

A. H.— Accept it ? How can I reject it ? Do you 
reptidtste rour own apotheosis ? You cannot ; any more than I 
cai my own. Yet it would be doubtful justice to charge 

yo-. loving that when you die<l, with a Milton surviving 

you, yon " ha»l not left your peer." We hove beon told of 
Lycidaa, that " he knew Himself to sing and build the lofty 
rhyme." Do you think that if you ha<l live<l you would have 
oclipsed the poetic glory of your encomiast or even have shone 
with an equal radiance ? 

E. K.— I have never pretende<I to think so. I do not suppose 
that the poet himself thought so. That the world liiis neither 
thought nor will ever think so I am very sure. Hut the 
venerable man, your latest admirer, would manifestly have the 
world believe that in you it lost a greater man than himself. Is 
be right in so believing ? 

A. H.— Who knows ? We are inheritor* of unfulfilled 
twiown, Mr. King. 



E. K. — Not so, or not in your case, at any rate. Yon have 
been allowoti to realise an ample share of your inheritance on 
credit. 

A. H. — How can wo tell, transplanted before our time to 
theae passionless and unfruitful fields, what hidden germs of 
power might have lieen awaiting impregnation within im from 
the touch of life ? What know wo, in this dim and windless land 
of asphvHlel an<l amaranth, how the mind may grow in tstature in 
the up|)ar world, quickened by the sap of ambition, braced by 
the breezes of struggle, bathed in the broad sunshine of success? 
After all, Sir, it is itossible that you might have been a more 
majestic Milton, ;and I a more inspired Tennyson, a more 
eloquent Gladstone. 

E. K.— Possible ? Yes. But likely ? 

A H. — Is it so very unlikely ? 

E. K. — I begin to understand your difliculties at Cambridge. 
There is evidently one branch of the mathematics which you have 
failed to master. 

A. H.— The theory of equations ? 

E. K.— The calcuhis of probabilities. That is, if you have 
compared the number of illustrious men in the whole of history 
with the number of promising youths in a single generation, and 
yet do not jierceive how infinitesimal is the chance that one of 
the latter will grow into one of the former. But I won<ler that 
Mr. Gladstone, who, although the alumnus of a classical Uni- 
v^ersity, was a preniiated student of mathematics, should have so 
ill-computed the hazard of his predictions. 

A. H. — They can, at any rate, never be falsifie<l now. 

E. K. — You are right, Mr. Hallam, anil wo may give each 
other joy. Wo are indeed hajipy in our early cloaths— yours in 
your 23rd and mine m my 26th year. The nnnies of our eulogists 
and the fame of their eulogies are imperishable : and in them 
we are far more assured of immortality than if we had lived. 



FICTION. 

 

Anton Czechow, Motley Storie.s (PJiBstryJe Razskazy). 
lOtb Edition. St. I'et.rsbui-K, 1S>7. 

The public of book-buyers is so small in Russia that a tenth 
edition is a very rare phenomenon. Classics like Gogol and 
Turgenjew creep slowly up to their decade in the course of 
years, and that astonishingly popidarbook, Buckle's " History of 
Civilization " has broken the reeonl with a fourteenth edition. 
But, considering the serious character of those who buy lx)oks in 
Russia, it is strange that a volume of so light a texture as 
this of Czochow's should have had such a success. The book, 
however, has been greatly changed and improved since it first 
saw the light as a collection of the author's fugitive pieces. It 
started life as a broad and portly vohimo of very uneven work- 
manship, is8ue<l from the print! ng-oflices of one of the Moscow 
comic papers. For several e<litions now it has boon o slim octavo, 
issuc<l by the firm at the head of which stands M. Suworin, 
publisher of the Soroe V'rrmija, and patron of countless rising 
young writers. The collection has been carefully wcode<l ond 
many of the worst pieces remove<l. 

' ' I'jcstr}- je Razskazy ' ' represents the first period of Czochow's 
work, when as a medical student at Moscow I'niversity ho eked 
out his allowance by contributions to O.iholhi ('7ii;M) and other 
porioilicals. The deteriorating influence of the comic paper is 
to bo trace<l even in this purged edition of his early work ; it 
betrays itself inforood conclusions, sudden, unexpocto<l climaxes, 
and in the brutality of much of the humour. The Russians, 
having some share of the nervous sensibility common to all 
humanity, ore not actually amused by the sight ol <leath ond 
suffering in real life, bnt on |iaper the public which patronizes 
Oikulki and such publications \h infinitely tickled by them. This 
accounts for such inonst«'r-births as " Oh, the public ! " the fun 
of which lies in the brutal stupidity of a tickot collector, who 
three times wakes up an invalid when ho has dos<-(l himself with 
morphia to gain somo rest from his nair ; and " Surgery, ' 
where the smile of the reader is solicite<l at the i)ain -.indergono 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



l)y the parinh clork, owiiip to the ini-npai-'ity of the •iirK<""n- 
bnrhor n,B a ilentiHt. C/.i'ihow wmild hnvii <lniio Inittor to t'liini- 
iiato tlioHO BurvivinK traon« nf Iiih early troiiiiii^ from tho book. 

A Kiimian critic Inis oompariHl Cz<H-how'ii [>oint uf riow with 
that of a young Irvly in a jiroviiicial town gaping out of a win<low 
ami exclaiming, " Oh, thoro'M tho milk man ! Oh, there'* the 
iiro ongino I Oh, there's Toby running aft^tr a cat ! " Anil it 
must ho cnnfoH80<l that Czochow in h\» Htorien it not obviouiity 
conoonio<l with proBonting a oon«oc>itive philosophy of life or 
criticism of his timoH. Ho cannot hoiist of any " tendency." 
Moreover, tlie pomonn of his narrative have a way of walking on 
from nowhere at the beginning uf n story ami ilisapptmritig into 
fpaco at the end. They meet accidentally in railway carriages 
or on the road; thuy loom up suddenly out of the dnrkncss by the 
wat.<hors' tiro anti pass away from their chance companions never 
to be soon again. Y'ot for all the fugitive habits of his characters 
and panoramic nature of his pictures one may detect certain 
miderlying thoughts which give a unity to his work. Thorn 
thoughts are, perhaps, loss easy to be seen by a Russian than 
by a foreigner, for they are only a new asfioct of the stolid 
I)0»simisn\ which lies at the basj of most UiisHJan artistic 
creation, and of the natures of the Russians themsolvcM. This 
pessimism in C'zocliow takes the form of a humorous wonder at 
tho unconcern of destiny for individual interests, the inapplica- 
bility of hiuuau institutions t3 human nature, the stupid 
itiH-Misibdity of thj m-vn in the street. 

''The Evil-doer " is one of the best-told stories in the 
volume and one most obviously referable to this point of view. 
Denis, the little hairy, wild muzik (or muxhik) stands befere the 
magistrate charged with having stolon an iron nut from tlie rail- 
way line, thereby endangering tho lives of the public. It 
aii|)oar8 that ho wanted it as a plinnmot for his fishing lino. 
The defendant w'ith lii.s perpetual " What? "' and his discursive 
appeals to natural history' makes tlio magistrate wonder at his 
stupidity ; the peasant is for his jiart astonished at tho ignor- 
ance of a Judge who does not comprehend tlio necessity of a plum- 
mot for fishing with live-bait and dojs not appreciate tho advan- 
tages of a nut over a nail for the purpose. When iho Judge ex- 
plains the state of the law to him and tho application of penal 
servitude to tho ofl'enco on the charge-sheet, Denis replies, occord- 
ing to all the formulie of tho peasantry, " Of course, your 
Honour knows best. . . . We aro ' dark ' people, . . . 
how can wo toll !" He regards tho whole proceeding as an in- 
scrutable formality proceeding from that part of destiny known 
as law ; nor does ho in tho least grasp the consecutivoness of 
events when ho is ordered to tho jail, but is marchc<l off luuler 
tho impression that he is an innocent scape-goat for the irregu- 
larity of his brother's tax-payments. 

" The Drama " and " Small Fry " would be two of tho Wst 
in tho hook were it not that tho trail of (>.i!:oIki is over them 
both. Tho first of them describes how an eminent litterateur is 
taken unawares by a lady who insists on reoding him her five-act 
play. One reads on carelessly, enjoying the humorous study of 
the listener's state of mind and tho jwirotly of modern Russian 
Tendonz drama, till suddenly at the end—" He seized a heavy 
paperweight from the tjiblo and struck her with all his force on 
the head. ... I have killed her, he cried, as tho servants ran 
in. . . . The jurj- acquitted him." Such an ending might 
have boon admissible in mere burlescpie, but as a climax of light 
comedy it is terribly Russian. 

Tlic general level of " Pjestryjo Razskazy " is not up to that 
of " In tho Twilight," " Gloomy People," or " Ward No. 6," 
but moat of the stories in it ore worth reading, ond it is certainly 
the most popular of Czochow's works in Russia. It seems to bo 
the only one of his l>ook» from which any translations have 
appeared in English. Two stories from it came out last year in 
Temjile Biir. 

Perpetua : a Tale of Nimes in A.D. 213. Bv the 
Rev. S. Baring-Qould, M.A. 78 x 5iin., 200 pp. New York, 
1807. Button. 

It is curious that, so far, we have had no successful 
" classic " romance in the English language. Lockhart 



attomptetl tho t ' 

l*om[w ii " and \. 

m"' l-t in fonejr dr«M. " li 

noit! 'oess, for Demn Vtmr't 



I.Mt Day* at 

' " 31,  ■•■ply 

aun 



hardly take* a plooo in tho ltt«raiur» •■( fiction. V. !(| 

havo imagined that tbo writer in -"-'). f « pu.t«>i««|i>v »•«•'« 
could find no porio<l more apt f' |-<m« tliaii th« iUmiic* 

timoa of tho Roman Do<-a<li'i ^rbaiM, ta too ramoto 

and grand and afar forthn e lOOMtMiiir ot m awful 

Hoi. ' ifKl 

tlx ,« 

and ruiu tui : UittlMateiMl iImI 

Republicnti 1: •imom*, fnr, aft«r 

all, OSS' ottori, ami wo uai^ r.i- 

nounco t nan* " without con. ^ , tti* 

austere viitions of Do t^uincoy, without tliu thrill of Ooiuml 
Romautu, without tho thought of t!<>' i<. . • ji , . >.t .\..moeney 
which Buccooding generation* of ni<' ^v9 not 

mode ridiculous. Hut all th*«o unnaion.i a: ' *h* 

tragic dramatist than for tho writer of roman !>» 

like the poot, ainij ' ' ui tbo 

jMitrtA eoiuieripti i« otu tho 

storyteller's pen. 

But theco objections do not apply to the lat<5r limm ; to tbo 
amazing ago when Roman oa and 

ideals were mingle<l; when s" 1 limplo 

Roman deities, while others taiko<l an ud 

whisi>ercd of Isis ; when the sound of the i..,, hk 

music of tho Liturgy went up together. Pat«r wo* ny 

the vision of that time, but though he bos given u-i ix.^Minito 
scenes ho did not write the desired romance. And yet, as wo 
have said, surely no days wure more \' ' -  ^ij,,, (])(.,(,, there 
was never a timo combining so mu: <-, fantastic, and 

beautiful elements. In Franco the Uiiuij has been doae. for 
" Aphrodite," by At. Pierre Louys, appmach<>ii rery nearly to 
perfection : the sights, the sounds, tho d the life of 

Alexandria have been conjured into thox- I*K**' ^^ 

in England — we have " Perpetua " and books like " Perpetua "; 
ineflicient martyrdoms, " thou " and " thee '' .liulii.'im, " bjr 
tho heavenly twins," and " Mohercule " impr md io- 

formation about tlie " iluum ririjuri ilieciuio." .in.i • . i w •■• i " 
sins doubly ; the author has not only made his |«riod tir> 
but he has chosen the wonderful Nimes for his M:ono. and .Nnm • 
henceforth is as common as Nottingham. Ono thinks of ihu 
shining air and the shining rocks of Provence, of tlie ln» 
coloured hills, where tho weeds by the wny ar*- »w«H>t-' 
herbs, of tho ever-violet sky, and wo are « ^• 

Gould's heatliens and Cliri-stians, dressnl :  »— 

room of The Sii/H uf the Cro^. '1 :ir 

tlie inventor of romance; " Provence .. '* 

may still be the inspiration uf a great story. 



The Camp of Refuge. Hy Charles BSacfarl&ne. F.'litod 
l)v Q. Laurence Qonune. 7;..'>iin.. i:i7 pp. Wcstiiiini.i«T. 
1S07. Archibald Constable At Co. 8 



This voir 
novels that i 
Gommo, is an ui^ 
present fashion 

leading us. Hist 

for students, are at '. 

accessible : and the <■■ 

in a uniform series wi>iilti i)e tii.'i' 

tive principle of fcKi-tinn aii'; 

Nothing of tho sort is t'> bo look 

volumes of which, •icc^nlin? t" ' 

" acconlancc with an-. 

aim at dealing with tl.- 

interest of the sub 

scutative story." 

intcndcil for " ' 

in what wav 

will .■...„„,,.■. 

SO' 

tha- 



»I 

■■e 

■':e 

is 

•••• 

d 

m 

c- 

ti, 

■. lie 

itt 

ih the 
"I liierefpc- 
tha sariee i» 

••r-'-~.'ind 
■n 



54 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



\ " ' . ' '  ■■■•  'lirt Norman 

( "ti ill tlio 

(;. <> bIiowii in 

11!. !' ; 11' " Ciiin]> 

. ' ' —, llijht of till! 

S i\ l\v another 

t . a Scott nor a 

I ,o» in " Ht'fowanJ tho Wnko '" 

I and full of tlip stir nn<l spirit of 
T forlnno hud nono of thi< pifts, drninntic. 

r .-. which ATM re<|uisit4> for making; horoic 

)ii»torio !«t:iitt> htf. tiiul historic porsonngo* of byKcno days 
fiminx of IkvIv and Mood, whom tramplini; of foct and c-lashiiip 
of swords w<» hoar through the printe«l words : and his dismal 
par>«>«. mostly narrative, may be 8earche<l in vain for any opic or 
r. .-•ie which can iitir tho pulses of tho younRoat roadisr. 

■j ary school history which givos the incidents of 

ij ' --■ - '  '■ '■■n-<lozen vivid lines has 

11. than this lifeless novel, 

n ,.ij,... I.. 1)0 cnrofnl and accurate 

!\ ■< who want information u|>on 

a; _ 'ata without haviiiu to make too 

■trannotu research. 



A Prince of Mischance. 
^81 pp. Ixmdon, ISI". 



Hy Tom Gallon. 8x5*ii)., 
Hutcliinson. 6- 



In more than rne respeot this novel is out of the ordinarj- 
run. It is a study of at leaat five weak charactcTs : its motive 
is the morbid affection^we can call it iiothinp rise— of an elder 
for a jronnper sister. The pirls are discovered 'growing up in an 
obecure home by the sea with their nncle the professor, their 
austere aunt, and the professor's pupil, Arthur Paddison, or 
Paddy. Fate casts amonp these simple folk a fascinating 
stranger in the person of a Greek Prince, Otho Grenadius, whoso 
]<■"" rsonality seriously disturbs their peace of mind and, 

a r will easily conjecture, has a most untoward influ- 

ence Oil their after lives. Evelyn, indeed, is supported through 
all her trials by her love for the irresponsive Lucy, and in the 
final dilemma it is this which prompts her desjiorato resolve. 
This also it is which alienates the reader's sympathy. Tho plot 
is interesting in spite of a curions'lack of incident and in spite, 
or perhaps because, of tho amazing flalibinoss of the characters. 
Of the chief personages only the Prince is lovable, for ho is a 
natural man, though not a nice one. Among the minor clia- 
raetera are several cleverly drawn — honest little Barbara, who 
■J.' backbone into Pwldy ; Mr. Cyril Denton, with his 

c. IB belief in the blessedness of other jx'ojile's work ; 

and I'liildy's easy-going mother — and the reader's passing irrita- 
tion at tho limpness of the majority is soothed hy the bright 
and simple English, tho humour, and tho restraint with which 
their storv is told. 



Deborah of Tod's. Bv Mrs. Henry de la Pasture. 
71 X 5in.. :«KJ pp. Ixndon. 1807. Smith, BIder. 6- 

One cannot say that there is any great originality in tho 
idea of this novel. " Tod's " is tho name of a Devonshire farm. 
•ecludod. almost inaccessible, only to lie approaclic*! by thread- 
ing a maze of extinct watercourses, callc<1 lanes, and Deborah is 
the young mistress of the farm. She marries an elderly ofTicer, 
an officer of the " padded " type, and languishes in London in 
the midst of " smart " society. That is practically all the 
anthnr has to say, and, as we have remarke<l, it is an old story 
enough. One wonders how it is that novelists will not take the 
adriee of a ' ' :>-, who adriaed them to secure at all hazArda 

the p*lm ot  y. 

But in t  : : y days of machine-made fiction, one is glad 
to 6nd a n'-^  i .• Ii -how* the smallest traces of design. Tho 
niter tncnpaoity of  velistn is not. perhaps, generally 

reen|;nize<1 : wo mak' .a, and talk of " goml <lia|oguc " 

and " bright pages " without expecting to find traces of a plan, 
of an artistic design doliljerately worko<l out. To put tho matter 
in the briefest form, wc do not regard or criticize the novel as a 
work of art. If we find a safRciency of amusing chatter, and if 
the incidents are not absolutely absurd, we close our book in a 
bumour, and tajr we bare read a good novel. 



Mrs. do la Pasture is tlierefore to be praised in that she has 
had an ideal before her in tho writing of her liook. Tho scheme 
is trito, and tho execution, though skilful and competunt 
in its way, is far from brilliant, and from tho first page to 
tho last one may search in vain for ndmirablo or ringing 
phrases. Yet a certain effect has boon prcxiucod, and in spito 
of " tho rich red oartli. luxuriant vegetation, and emerald 
]>asturos of Devonshire," in spite of such ancient consecrated 
epithets, the author does contrive to give us an impression of 
tho lonoly farm upon the lonely hills, of tho scont of the crimson 
ploughlands. and of tho deep blossoming orchards. And tho 
contrasts of the book arc thoroughly realized ; we feel with 
Deborah when she breathes the faint and musty air of the 
London hose , rcineni boring tho bravo winds of Devonshire : the 
country life is barely indicated, and yet, with Doburah, we long 
for the p(.>ople on tho hills, amidst tho' fatuities and ineptitudes 
of men and women who wish to be " smart." It is a book of 
considerable promise, and if the author would study the groat 
secret of stylo she might do excellent work. 



THE MORRISON AUTOGRAPHS. 



Tlie death of Mr. Alfro<l Morrison, at the age of 76, at Font- 
hill, on the 22nd ult., is a very serious loss to literary students, 
for, with a generosity peculiarly rare among collectors of 
" documents," his vast collection was ever open to the serious 
inquirer. The later volumes of tho " Dictionary of National 
Biography " testify to this fact, to say nothing of many substan- 
tive memoirs of various celebrities and periods. Mr. Morrison's 
accumulation has been described as ono of manu.scripls, and as 
such it is catalogued in tho appendix to tho ninth ro|)ort of tho 
Historical Manuscripts Commission (1884) : but the compiler of 
that admirable summary or resumt', Mr. .lolin Cordy .IealiroB<in, 
wisely points out that, from the autographic character of tho 
collection, it would 1)0 more properly spoken of as .an assem- 
blage of epistles. In building this, " the most remarkable 
gathering of historic autographs over formed by a single private 
collector in Great Britain," Mr. Morrison entered the field in 
every respect well-cquipiK>d. Ho possessed wide knowledge, 
admirable taste, and a well-filled purse. 

It is impossible in a short notice to give an a<lequato idea 
of the extent of tho Morrison collection. It is bowildoringly 
rich in historic documents relating to English history during the 
16th, 17th. and 18th centuries, and it is almost as rich in politi- 
cal and other letters and documents concerning events in Franco, 
Germany, Spain, and Italy of about tho same period. Some of 
thes(! are arranced in volumes, others are unbound and arranged 
alphabetically in folios, and it is no exaggeration to say that 
every reigning sovereicn, every distinguished politician, Court 
personage, and individual celebrate<l either on account of his 
learning or eminence during those throo centuries is hero repre- 
sented by more or less important loiters. A moro list of their 
names would occupy several numbers of LUirature. Tho letters 
of some of tho literary characters of tho last centurj- are of tho 
greatest interest. One of tho earliest is from Daniel Defoe t<» 
Rolxjrt Harley, dato<l from Edinburgh, Nov. 2, 1700. 

I am (he »«y«] every <l«y a member of yc (Jcnprall A/iaeml>Iy and I 
confpss I make  vrry od.l fl|?uro licre. . . . Pnnlon my vanity, Kir. 
I tiike iiiKin mr more moHriity when I nrRUo with th« HiKlit Itcverend 
fatbeni of thi« Church. aDil if I puss for much more of an Oracle araonc 
tbem thui I merit. Tis owing to th»t secret mnnagenicnt for which I 
suppoM my MiMion hithrr i« .lp(ii((nf<l. Anri you. Sir, Pnnlon me I do 
not lioasi roy nuiTrnii, thry arc a hanlencil, refractory, and terrible people. 

One of tho documents, datwl November 10, 1712, is a deed, 
signed at the Fountain Tnvom, in tho Strand, of sale and 
assignment by .Joseph ..\ddiaon and Richard Steele of " all that 
their full and solo right and title of in and to ono moiety or full 
half share of the oopys " of tho first seven volumes of the 
Sp-ftalor to .Tacob Tousoii, jun. (i.e., tho nephew and partner 
of old Jacob Toiison, Drydoii's publisher), of London, book- 
seller, in consideration of £675 paid by tho said .Jacob Tonson to 
the said Joseph .\ddison. of St. James's, Westminster, and 
Richard Steele, of St. Giles-in-the-Ficlds, esquires. Another 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



Utoriiry a(;riioniont ih RuriniiN an iihowiiif; i 
nutlicirs ; it i« dated May t>. ITiVt, and i < 

Hinollott on tho ono iMxrt, ami Dndnloy, Hiviti);Uiii, ntid Stralisn 
on tho other, whoroov Smullctt iimlertook to writo Ixiforo 
Aii){uiit 1, 1751, " A Now Coiloution of Voynnon and TravoU," 
I from tho host hookii on tliu^o Riit>iiH;ts nxtaiit, to Imi |>rint>w| in 
sovcn v(dntne» diiodociino, ( • "inthew' ' 

nlioots or thoriiahoiits, for II i ( of ono : 

nor HluHit, to ho |i.iid on tho .l.umi \ ^ii oaoh vnlnini- irj i iM.r, 
datod Nov. Hi, I7r>-1, to Dr. Macaulay, Smolh'tl huvh. •• N.i.r 
wiia I «o mucli harrassoil with duns b-h now." From a iloianioiit, 
<latod KpI). 16. 1757, wo lonrn tliat Kdiiiiiml Hiirko roroivi'd frmn 
1{. anil .1. Do<lploy tho sum of 20 j^iiinoa* " for a copy of a Wi^rk 
on tho Sid)lirno and Itoniitifiil, it hoing nndnrMtood that if the 
Haid MafsrM. Dodaloy shall print a thinl edition of tho Hai<l work 
thoy shall ]iay tho author tlio further sum of ton guineas, in oi>n- 
sidi'ration of thu entire property of tho said ropy." A receipt, 
dated May 2C, 1791, is for thn sum of il.OOO jmid to KdiMUiid 
Hurko liy Dodaloy as his share of tho profits arising from tho s:ilo 
of " Hoflootions on tho Hovolution in France." 

Of tho several letters from Thomas (Jray, tho poet, tho most 
interestinir i--* an undated one (but written about 17.">!>) to tho 
Hov. Mr. Itrown. I'rosidont of Pembroke Hall, Cambrid^;o :— 

You will reroivo to-morrow Ciirsctncu* [liy W. Mmoi), thi- 
fiicnd ami bioKmpher of Oray] pipioK hot, I hope, lieforc any 
lK)(ly plso has it. ObKervo, it in I that »eai\ it, for M. 
] Mason) nmkpit m) prcaontii to any one whatever, an<l, morrovrr, 
you ar<> (Icsirc'd to leml it to noboily, that wo may noil the mon- of 
them ; for money, not fame. Is the ilpclarvil purimw of all we <lo. I 
holievr you will think it (a« I ilo) (frt-atly improvi'il ; tho la»t rhorua nnil 
tho lineH that intiojuco it are to me ono of the beat thing* I liavi- ever 
lenil, ami surely superior to anything he ever wrote. 

Tho letters of Voltaire preserved in the Morrison collection 
would fill a goodly volume. Ono of tho earliest and most 
curious of these is in Knglish, and was apparently written in tho 
third docado of tho last century : it ha.s no date, and is addressed 
to .lohn Itrinsdon, Esq., Durham 's-yard, Charing-cross. It 
<'<innnonco8 : — 

1 wish you good health, a (luiek sale of your hurgunily, much latin 
nnil greek to one of your children, mueh law, much of Cooke and 
Littleton, to the other, quiet and joy to MLitress Briniulen, money 
to all. 

\nd conchidoa :— " I am sincoroly and heartily your most 
humble, most obedient, ran\Wint; friend, Voltaire." In another 
letter, to M. du Koquot at Calais, and dated .rune 14, IT'JT, is an 
introduction from Voltaire for " I'illuBtro monsieur Swift qui va 
a Varis dans lo dessoin d'y passer un mois ou deux." There are 
also ."{S drafts in Voltaire's liandwriting of minutes for letter 
to tho King of Prussia, 17.'i6-l"72 ; and throe curious M.S. 
note-books of literary memoranda in his handwriting. Two 
other letters from this celebrated philosopher may be mentioned 
:is having special interest to Englishmen. One is dated Moy 10, 
\7'iS, and is addresse<l to Miuis. D'Argontal : — 

.le bfnis actucllement le» anglais qui out brulo votre maiion ; 
puisanz vous i^tre pay6, et eux Otro eonfomlai. 

The other is undated, ond in it Voltaire denies that he is the 
author of a manuscript — 

<|ui a, je rroia, iwur titre 'ApiM-l a toutes les nations de I'Europe 
du jujfcment les Anglais. — 

Ganick and Hums are both represented by letters to and 
from them. Ono by tho former, addressed to Or.Hoadley, 1772, 
contains an epitaph of eight vorsos which the actor wrote for 
Hogarth at his widow's request. Ono of those addressed to 
<janick is a complaint from Kitty Clive, the actress, dated 
Oct. 14, 1705 :— 

Viiur (linlike of mc is n« extraordmary as the reason you gnve 
Mr. Stem for It ... . You give Mrs. Clbber 600 huncler<l poundes 
for playing sixty nights, and three to me for playing a honlenl and 
eighty, out of whieh I ran make it appear it coasts me a hunderd on 
necessary's for the stage. 

The letters of. from, and concerning a much more celebrated 
person than Kitty Clive— Sarah Duchess of Marllx>rough— 
deserve a brief notice. In ono of those she declares. '• I lind it 
a pernotual war in this world ti> defend one's self against knaves 
and fools " ; in another an<l equally c'laractenstic epistle, she 
refers to the valuo of certain jewels in resjiect to which she 
seems to s\is]n^ct an attempt at over-reaching her to tho exttnit 
of a few jiounils : and in a thii-d she complains with vehemence 
and bitterness of tho disrespect and nnkindness shown her l>j- her 
daughters. There is also a long and CTirious letter from .Varon 
Hill to David Mallet, December 24, 1744, for which the gre.it 
Sarah would have had a bitter revenge: it relates to the pn-posal 
for a life of tho great Duke of Marlborough, and the " parcimony 



f whoM I>aoh«M " 

Th.rn am wh.ln I. .. 



-Iv aii'l 



bi 



if'illy 



fiwlii ihu 
tion anil ' 



year 



c^h. 

s of tho onrllor part of the 



1 lluiik >uuthey Htl! 
Rwditate an attack on the r^ 
after any f 
can't in il, 

Another, »rut>n '>n .i 
2nd day .Ird month it 
I • I I ii,,,, I 1.., , ,..   



Mr. Morrison was 
and other places. To tl. 
l.">r«0, held 181>.'i-tt4. his cilction ol 
wide interest, including, as if did. h' 
venuto Cellini, I.innardo da V 
eminent artists and y«frona • 
turies. The f 
serious inter< 
welcome than tip 
to remain intact, n 
letter and diK'Unioi,'. .- 
vnlumes, the first "f w 

a very limiteil nundwr el , 

circulation. 



ii'd QuMrUHf. I 
l-paar I nwilUt sly 
u« QnmltHp. It 



Hnicrican Xcttcv. 



It may interest the friends  
found comfort and profitable a- 
writings about tho sea-j 
Interest of America in 
analogous satisfaction to tl 
tho United States. In the > 
Theodore Roosevelt, Assistant Secretary of t 
comments upon this new work. Mid finds in . 
the policy of annexing Hawaii, as well S" 
increasing the efficiency of the Navy by ' 
training more men to handle them, 
writton oriwid alKiir 
been so elToctive to 

convictions, or to shaku tlio "pinKiii* ot : 
been opposed to it, as the arguments  
o»iH'cially those in this latest volume, v. 
of es.says that have lately apjioared m ' 
sauce for the geese seems to be sauce : 
IH?ople of any nation to read Captain ' 
ships promises to bo equivalent to an 
dearth of funds, .\nother work of spcri.u : 
Roosevelt's and Captain Malmn's (mint of \ 
Speara's " History of our Nary from '■■■ 
Day " fScribner's). In thn four vnli; 
' • inconvcii' 

ly for an 
[tMiodiy )>ointo<l ou;  
tion of wliat Captain M 

The question of j r." : • • ~ i i 
continues to bo discu.-.,--ed, .111 ! th- i;^.. 
nominal, and an actual, pric« for r^ 
obvious, there is no immediate pro«i)oci <'. « 



bar* 



ere s)i;t« ana 
that haa baMi 



^cllcm' pnros 
ity of harinic a 
r new book is 
.Ir. Tba I-ti. 



56 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



'•«*• '•'!« the laughable siilo of tho present OMthod 

by  .iter whose eatnbli)il>nu>iit iiiolndoe a large 

're. Hp has latolj' piiMixliod a lMx>k by a p^^piilnr 
-' ''O. On tho countiTH i>( his book-store thiB bmik 
M-;- i:~ nuirkeil by rani. " Piiblishor's pric<>. $1.50 : Our price, 
SI. HI." It is an impr«>.s«ivu oxnmplo of a house iliviilwl against 
itaelf, thnuch tho ScriptureH aro not fulfilled by tlie fall of it. 

Mark Tirain's " Followint; tho Equator," whidi might have 
" Keoasaity is the mother of invention " for its motto, i.s well 
reco; " " " lisod, both for the fun there is in it, and 

•a a . I'l. It is pleasant t^ record that Mr. 

Clemeus seems U> l>u iimking gixMl progress in his undertaking to 
p\y in fall the debt« of the bankrtipt publishing house of C. L. 
Webstar and Co., with which he was connected. The ossets of 
that firm realised 28 por cent. »f its liabilities. Koarly all the 
creditors offered release of all debts on payment of 50 per cent. 
of their face ralue. Payment to that extent Mr. Clemens mode 
last year. Ho has since paid !S> per cent, more, or 75 per cent. 
in all. so that his release from all obligations seems to be almost 
in sight. lA'tter8<rom Vienna, where he is spending tho winter, 
represent him as meeting tha vicissitudes of life with a cheerful 
spirit and having a good time, tho more so as tho Viennese seem 
to have discovered him, and appear to find him excellent 
company. In reply to a telegram from America inquiring as to 
a rumour of his death, he is said to have wired " Reports of my 
death grossly ezagceratc<1 . " 

Announcement is made tliat tho library of the late Charles 
Deane, of Boston, notable for its Americana, will be broken up 
and sold at auction in tho spring. Its value has been estimated 
at about $40,000. It is, naturally, especially rich in books and 
tracts relating to tho settlement and early history of Xow Eng- 
land. 

That rich prize among documents of that sort, the famous 
Bradfortl manuscript, more familiarly, though inaccurately, 
known as "The Mayflower Log," found a permanent resting 
place on December 29. On that day Governor Walcott, of 
Massachusetts, took it from tho Treasury vaults of tho State, 
where it had been placo<l for safe keeping, and, attended by a 
guard of State oScors, carried it upstairs in tho Stato House to 
the Stato library. There, the manuscript being opened to the 
page of the compact signed in the cabin of the Mayflower, it was 
placed in a glass case, the lid close<l and locked, and the whole 
tamed over to tho care of the State librarian with strong in- 
junctions to guanl it well. Tho casa which contains tlio manu- 
script rests on a metallic stand in a safe built to receive it. 

William James Linton, the engraver, who died in Xewhaven 

on December 29, was a man of remarkable accomplishments and 

of notable achievement in several directions. His personal 

history is vario<l and interesting. Ho was born in London in 

1812. and grew up to bo known as a master of lino engraving, a 

jvvt of "omn not«>. a writer of excellent prose, a naturalist, and 

agitator, .^moiig his comrades in his 

.i. Garibaldi, and Louis lilanc. In 18.")8 

he \i n. ,,!; ■• ; .:iu) is fniiiiliar to readers, but in 

IflfiT ; .. . , - -1 1. ail aU'iw inls lived apart. In that same 

vsar Mr. Linton came to America, and eventually settled down 

It Nswliaven. where he set up the business of engraving. Besides 

bit work in that department of art he busied him.solf with many 

othe- I " H istory of Woo«l Engraving in A merica, " 

And "Hiks on that subject, cumpiiod an anthology 

aii'l i;<li'd Mr. R. H. Stoddard in making a collection 

 vrr"' T}i<> printing and engraving in most of his own 

is a Ions' list, was his own work, Yale 

I honorary decree of .-V.M. in 18!I1. and he 

was an Associate of tho National Academy of Design, and a 

member of tho American Water Colour Society, of Now York. 

There wore many pleasant notices in the newspapers of Mr. 
Oladatono's birthday. " The most remarkablu man of this cen- 
tury '' a Boston ]>a7>er calls him, and mentions with admiration 
the report that, first or last, he has bought nO.OOO lH>oks, and 
what is more avtonithing, has managed to get out of tliem what 
thsy contained. 



jfovcioti Xcttcvs. 



(JEKMANV. 

The habit of stock-taking at tho beginning of a now year 
suggests the question which is Homotiinos put to ine, Is thuro 
such a thing just now as German literatnro at all ? I coinmoiily 
take refuge on those occasions in tho tlogmatic but vague asser- 
tion that " there are forces at work." But if wo jirobe the 
problem a little deeiHjr, the cause of this temporary chaos and 
the nature of the forces which are shaping it are not so very far 
to seek. There is, first of all, tho obvious fact that social 
Germany herself is changing. Not only is the plough-share 
giving place to tho Ie<lger, and an industrial State rising on tho 
ruins of tho agricultiu-al, with all its attendant influences on 
tho life and character of the population, but the looker-on can 
clearly observe a centripetal movement towards Berlin, as tho 
single capital in Germany, which is drawing away the tides of 
energy and inspiration from tho other cities in tho empire. It 
does not tax the memory of the proverbial oldest inhabitant to 
recall the time when Berlin was a barracks set in a jilain, and 
the Jloditcrrancan stream of creative art spread from tho forests- 
of Bohemia through the King of Saxony's demesnes, westward 
to Goethe's Weimar and the Thuringian woods, then turned to 
the south towards Nureml)erg and Munich, and washed tho 
bortlers of the wine-land and merged its waters in the Rhine, but 
left untouched tho 3Iarkgravate of Brandenburg and the yellow 
cornfields east of the Elbe. The glory of theso districts has not 
departed yet, for tho becjuests of their <lukcs and landgraves 
cannot be hastily sot aside. Berlin is still tho iinurcuii ri>-he 
among tho patrons of letters, the latest phase of " that bright 
dream of commonwealths, each city a starlike seat of rival 
glory." But the shadow of the eclipse is uj^n them. Arnold 
Biicklin, for instance, the great painter, who turned in his j-outli 
to Munich for tho intelligent encouragement which he required, 
has repaired in his old age to Berlin as the centre for tho exhi- 
bition of his works ; and tho Staack Uallery, which soemetl 
appropriate to Munich in 1867, has been discovered in 1897 to bo 
inconveniently located. Art and letters are rule<l from Berlin, 
and with Sophie, Duchess of Saxe-Weimar-Eiscnach, to whom 
the "!?ophie" edition of (Soothe is inscribed, there passed away, in 
5Iarcli, 1897, perhaps the last of the long lino of reigning Princes 
who made of their provincial Courts and politics Imperial seats 
of culture. 

At the turn of the year, if only for tho purpose of marking 
time, it is well to take note of this. German life, in all its depart- 
ments, stands under the sign of the licicLiliaupMnilt. And 
Berlin, as ReichshaupMaiH, or capital of the empire, is to-<lay a 
j)hrase of less frequent occuiTeiieo than Berlin, as Wittliaupt- 
ftmlt, a capital among the cajiitals of the world. Wo of England, 
to whom the phenomenon of London is familiar, can hardly maku 
allowance for the social, moral, and literary efl'ect of so novel a 
conception. Tho change within a quarter of a century from a 
garrison town in a federal State to the [lolitical and intellectual 
chieftaincy of the Federation, and the a<lde<l sense of equality 
with cities and civilizations lieyond the borders of the empire, 
might well fire the ambition of the hurrying crowds in streets 
less scientifically laid out and less regularly scoured than those 
of the sovereign city of lierlin, aud dominate the creative faculty 
of a nation less resolute than the German. 

The national sentiment is tho stnmgest factor in German 
literature to-<Iay. Its expression at first may lag behind its 
inspiration, but, writing with full consciousness of the danger of 
sweeping judgments, I venture to believe that the forces aro 
shaping themselves to this end. The riddles of a great city, the 
large |>anidoxes of life, occu]>y almost exclusively to-day tliu 
pens of Germany's foremost writers. In a letter to these columns 
on November 13 I tried to trace tho course of this problem in tho 
mind of (ierhart Hau))tmann, the dramatist, until he left it in 
despair at the bottom of the well in the allegory of the Vcrnunkfim 
Glockc. Fulda, the dramatist, takes hold of it too, and finds tlio 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



57 



reme<ly for the nation's growing (aim in tho drvam of an en- 
lightened Mouarcliy. His jilaco in [xiotry ia that nf r "  al 
SociailHte in politictt.thu unpractical idoaliiits uinon^' >; 

and hiM " Solin diw Khalifun," the prxdiiclion of l«!t7, u'lmutMl 
tho thcmo of his " TaliMmun," of IH'Mi, that a wi«o Kin;: if thn 
jidoIiIo'h siilvntion. KniHt von Wihlonbnicti, tlio < 
Bolvos tho prolilom in anothor way, and uphoUlfi tlio IT 
jirinciplo, AV/in riiluiitiiit tuprnna Irx. Mario Janitnoliolc, tho 
aiithorosH of " Ninovo," one of tho chief novtds of tho yoor that 
Ims judt run out, strilcoa tho sanio doop noto, and preaonta in 
miniature tho travails of a nation bom to a groat inhuritancu. 
I do not protond that no other a«]>eot8 are rctloctcd. Tho back- 
waters mirror as clearly as tho forward stream, and Wilhehu 
Jensen's " Luv und Loo," for instiinco, another of tho novels of 
the year, is faithful t<> tho traditions of Keller and tho older 
school, in which, to use Mr. Ilalfour's words, " the i]uinto8sonoe 
of dulness is extracted from the didlest lives of the <lullest 
localities, and turned into a subject of artistic troatmont." 
" Luv und Leo " is tho leisurely story of some inhabitants of a 
seu port, in which the artistic truutmunt ii undeniable, and tliu 
author claims and justifies the oontidenco of his readers by 
intoroating thorn through tracts of a hundred pagos of narrative 
without on onsis of conversation, but tho gift is rare, and tho 
style is no longer mod<ii-n. Tho future of Gorman literature lies 
with the man who shall best succeed in articulating and 
spiritualizing the opic cry of new tiornmny. 



©bituar^. 



KRNEST H.VRT. 

Death lui.s removed a striking figure, and one whom tho 
medical profession in England can ill alTord to spare, in tho 
person of Mr. Ernest Hart, tho editor of tho liritifh Mfilicnl 
Junrnal. Mr. Hart was a lirst-rate organizer and administrator. 
Ho was a surgeon, a journalist, a political economist, and .m art 
collector of no mean capacity. Horn in 183G, his natural talents 
made him Captain of the City of London School in 1810. Ho 
obtainoil his medical training at Mr. Lane's School of Medicine 
in Grosvenor-ploce, where, after a brilliant student career, he 
became a teacher. Mr. Lane was foremost in founding St. 
Mary's Hospital. Mr. Hart became Surgeon and Ophthalmic 
Surgeon to tho Hospital and Lecturer on Diseases of tho Eye in its 
medical school. Ho was also Surgeon to tho West London Hos- 
pital. Atthis time ho devised a special method for the cure of some 
forms of aneurism, and ho wrote a book on " Amaurosis." He 
acted for several years as co-editor of tho Lancet, and in iSCA> he 
was appointed editor of the Uritiuli Meilical Jrunidl, a position 
he retained imtil his death. He als<i edited for some time the 
Loiiilim Medical Kecurd and tho Sanitanj lio-onl. His great 
organizing power became conspicuous by the manner in which 
tho IhUish Mi'illcal JiMinal was conducte<l, and ho was soon the 
most prominent figure in tho British Medical Association, of 
which the Journal is tho official organ. 

.\s a political economist Hart rendered great service to the 
poor by a series of articles, publislunl origin.iTly in tho F'irtnt ihfht 
lii-rii-ir during tho year l.S6;>, to expose tho defective arrangements 
for nursing tiie sick in workliouso intirmaries. Hardy's Act and 
tho Metropolitan Asylum.t l5oard wore the direct result of this 
crusade. A second series of articles in the Fnrtiii'ihtlii K-riVi'- dealt 
with tho condition of the jicasants in tho far west of Ireland, 
and contained proposals to create a peasant projirietary and to 
reclaim waste land, suggestions which were adopte<l by tho 
(iovornment and were incoriKirated in the " Mignition Clauses " 
of the Tramways Act (Ireland). His efforts to improve the con- 
dition of tho workuig classes wore unceasing. The reports on 
criminal Baby-farming in 18(>8 led to tho passnig of the Infant 
Life I'rotection Act. He was a loader in the movement for the 
Formation of Coffee Taverns in Lomhm, for Smoke .\liatement. 
and for the Regulation ami Registration of Plumbers, whilst he 
was indefatigable in seeking to promote the interests of the 
National Health Society. His fine collection of .lapanese 
bronzes and curios was sold la.st year when lie finally left Lon- 
dsn to li»e at Totteridgi-. 



nr«troiit<'<i III! 
litanturu. Hi 

pow. 



in I- 



r, »l«i ««lt« of liU «mi5P <!««<« 



after 



ds the ( inirrli, 
th<» [•ri<-<tho«vl 



I'l'llhl liOt Ul. 

Kronch call an 
withi'Ut t!- 
in tho pi: 

is to Ihi b.i 

Voltaire than upon 
poem, " Reply to tl. 
Hamers first book, h 



is *' Dumiers Chant* " of mi ; 



Comment en roiu vnjiuit im paa ctoire, lls4ai 

A U Uirmit^ ? 
II,,.,, ...,,1 ,1'un pcu lie Urre el <J'an rsr<» <le 

P«ut crier la beauU. 

ircul il a pa gumit rrtte houche adotsUe 

D'un JToif aimi fin ; 
Perlei de roriont. i 

Du plu* 

Uieii, Mailnm?, c»t partout uu bnlirne votre inn<e 

Et T0« regaril* «i doux. 
Comme on aimo un autrur rii son pla» b«I oorrBf*, 

Nou.4 I 'ndorerift *»n Tott* ! 

Bom in Paris in lfl2<>, he as a barr 

left the law for literature. ,e < f tt! 

" Life of St. Just," which was conliscated. 1 
writer a celebrity which did not siitfit-c. I-. 
election to the Chund)or. Ho had. : 
attempt in 18.57. .Meanwhile, hi- 
of It ' •." which is tho W' 

leput t rest. This work 

.same (■■iiii ,1 view as the " I.i' 
of tho Reign of Terror. The ; 

.ilM-nt 11.11 lil]f t1,.. (■'"'«»'rr. ,.,■ 



to the Chamber, and he r 
ho intcrnipted only in 1.^. 
Council. The list of his 
Repnbliqne sjus lo Directoire 
tions du Oo'nt'ral Malet," " 1> 
Premier Empire," and a " II 
lution jusqu'ik la chute d 

Finally, in I8t)2. he 
of Seine-ot-Oi.'.. 
when Mmr. .V,i 
M. Galdemar, v 
visit to the ho' 
upon M. Ham< ! . 
b<i'n <lemolish(Ml. I 
writers in speaking . 
'• Monsieur." M. .Sardou's 
had full piny, and the di"-iiri;r 



«« a r«pr«w>nt«tiv« 



1 



rii^it 

acain 



Senator Hamel had 
reoalle<l himself * ' 
s<'an'h in the I': 
and by his prop,. .... .,, , 

erectetl for them. This, 
fitting climax of a si;._ 
Republioan car««r. 



' as a 
able 



58 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



CoiTceponbcncc. 



TENNYSON'S LAST POEM. 

TO TIIK KDiroK. 

Sir, — Till" Uto Mr. Pftlgra\-e. in his Second Series of 
S»Iii ti.iiM -.i\« III his iit.t.. t.. the " Silent Voices " that this 
|M'' on his (leath-betl. Perhaps this 

i«s- the point iHjtweon Mr. Gosso 

•imI .Mr Sincerely yours, 

Wl .. . Wansfonl. Jan. J<. E. V. BARCLAY. 



DICTIONARY OF 

TO THE 



ENGLISH 

EDITOR. 



AUTHORS." 



i/,o 

It. 



Sir, — In matters of opinion I should nev ' ■•- 

« critic : but in matters of fact seli-ji: 
allowable. In your notice of my "I 
Anthors " in your is-suo of Jan. 8, your ri 

miadeeds on my ]>art. For his mention oi •. ^ i^a^ 

discoverwl, I am genuinely obliceil to him : any one who has 
compiled a work ot the kind wilfundorstand how difficult it is to 
Inep it entirely free from misprints, for that is what nearly all 
the " errors '" amount t«. In 'evonil instances, however, 1 feel 
bound to protect : -;. To put my case briefly : — 

1. RoMetti'a ' ii " was printed, as I state, 
in IS43, at the priv ; ot K> . I'oiidori (I wTite with the book 
before me). 

2. Scott's " K>!. vs nil Chivalry, Romance, and the Drama " 
were not, I ti > >  \t.int in l)ook form till 1888. I expressly 
state in my j.ifi.itt' tliut only sejuirate publications, and not con- 
tributions to porieKlieals or encyclopitdias, are included in my 
lists of " works." 

3. The foregoing ajiplics to Wackstono's poetical effusions, 
which were never separately published : also to R. L. Stevenson's 
" Fables," whose posthumous publication was not as a 8e{>arate 
book. 

4. I am nut altogether wrong in ascribing Scott'.s " Tales of 
« Grandfather " to 1827. Tlicy apjicared in December of that 
year. I should have given the "date as 1828 (1827). 

5. With regard to the inclusion of Percy's " Reliques," 
Henley's " Lyra Heroica," and other similar publications 
amongst their compiler's ■' works " instead of " editings," I 
woula on"- '  " :it it was not done in ignorance of the fact of 
t.'ieir not i.^inal works, but on the principle that to com- 
pile  y or collection is essentially ditTorent from 
e<li: • rson's work. 

,. . J • iiiiaprint for 1699 in the case of Addison's pen- 
sion of iC'-VM, which was awarded to him in the latter year — 
though it is true the question of his having actually received the 
money is doubtful. 

7. Your reviewer could have learnt from my preface that I 
did not profess always to mention the best eilition of an author's 
works ; I undertook to mention the earliest collected edition, 
and in most cases have adde<l the latest if completer than the 
former. 

8. With regard to the articles on living writers, your re- 
viewer seems to have overlooked the significance of the statement 
in rr- - - ' that they themselves correcteil the proofs of the 
art. 'm. 

:.-._. ■..^ .<n your courtesy to allow the public to hear the 
defendant's case as well as the plaintiff's, 
I am, Sir, yours verv tnily, 

R. FaSQUH ARSON SHARP. 

[We hope to refer in more detail to Mr. Farquharson Sharp's 
letter next week. Hut we may mention that of tliu points on 
which onr reviewer found occasion to question Mr. Sharp's 
acctiracy, 18 sre not dealt with in bis letter. ] 



QUi^ESTIO DE AQUA ET TERRA. 

TO THK KUITOK. 

Sir, — It would serve no useful purpose to continue this 
" question " further. Mr. Toynlteo says some words in my 
trmnslation are wrong, I answer they are right, he replies they 
an • ~ - ' •---• wo have an issue. I will ask any or ' ' l;cs 
Buf! "rest in this " question " to look n' .'s 

tex* ' ''>" himself whether Alagherius and .\.' ■•..m.^cus, 

<^c. ' written as 1 have them. 

i :.. r til., ir.iv I u;iH ,,l.li''i.i1 ill iny last letter to 

show Mt |iort of the l>ook, 

a trsnslat .he would wisely 

hare retirvd from the contest. Uo n<> to avoid the main 



|>oint by rid'ng off on Greek accents, and by making charges 
which are not la fiu't true. 

I take thi) earliest page of my transliition with which he finds 
fault. Page 10 ho gives as evidence of his former lussiTlion that 
there are errors in French. The French he refers to is a ipiota- 
tion from Dolanibro's learned article on Ptolemy in the llio- 
graphio I'nivorselle. I have verified my quotation— it is word 
for word the sjime as Delamlire, 1 U'g any of your readers, who 
wish to decide lietwcen us, to refer to the article from which 
I quotetl. 

I take the next page referred to as containing errors in 
Italian— p. 11. If any one will comimre my i|uutation witli the 
original he will see that my quotation is correct. 

If this is so, Mr. Toyulioo has proved by his own writing 
either that hu i.s unatilu to read French or Italian, or that he has 
stated that which ho must have known to lie untrue, .\ftor thus 
showing the value of hi.i two first incorrect and reckless asser- 
tions, which could scarcely have been made, if knowingly made, 
without a motive, 1 shall not pursue him further, or treat his 
other statements as worthy of consideration. I can afford to 
give him his Greek accents if he can make anything out of them : 
they are sulijects with which his mind seems [leculiarly fitted to 
deal. A. celebrated Cambridge professor used to say, if you put 
your accents on one ])agu and while the ink is wet blot it with 
the other you will get accents sufiiciently accurate for all practical 
purposes. 

I was rather alarmed when I saw Mr. Toynbee was about to 
bring out some terrible fresh cliarge towartl the end of his last 
letter, whicti he had " refrained " from mentioning before. 
When I found, however, it is only that some one else has trans- 
lated the " Quoistio " into Italian, I felt relieved. 
I am, Sir, yours very truly, 

CHARLES HAMILTON BROMBY. 

The Temple. 

A PSYCHOLOGICAL CHESTNUT. 

TO THIi EUl n^H. 

Sir, — Mr. Andrew Lang had good jiersonal reason to exult 
over the clever exposure by your reviewer of the " Teutonic 
slavey " yarn to which a few lines were devoted in a book 
reviewed iu vour columns, " The Subconscious Self," by Dr. 
Waldstein. Hut, " in any case," as your reviewer has so justly 
observed, " it would not l)e very remarkable that a cliild's 
memory should retain sounds which slio frequently heard, and 
which she may often have tried to imitate." Whv, then, is there 
so m\ich rejoicing over the exposure of one poor little yarn when 
it is hinted in the same breath that the theory which the yarn 
was supposed to support is pretty obvious ? The impression of 
sucli sounds as the spoken words of a foreign and unknown 
tongue, inasmuch as they do not convey to the brain of a child 
any " idea.s," but do nei-ertheless give occupation to the brain 
of the child, would in the phraseology of Or. Waldstein and 
others be termed a " sutxionscious '' impression, because the 
impression, althougli made through an organ of sense, does not 
become the subject of complete (or associative) consciousness. 

Poor Coleridge, who, by the way, was himself an illustra- 
tion of the truth of the commonplace, ond by no means 
mysterious, pronouncement that " certain drugs " are for a time 
" stimulants of the higher mental faculties," was not scientific 
in his mothiKls and was never a very trustworthy person. The 
same, however, can hardly be said of Goethe. Anotlier anecdote 
in the same book is as follows : — 

Uocthe tell* bis friend Kiemer an ioti-reatinK instance of tbi* kind 
(Ooetbc's Conversations with Eckermann) ■—" I know of a cane where an 
old man of tlie lower rla.<ses, on bis deathlied, wiui beard suddi'iily to re- 
cite several Greek passages in tho most elogaot Oreck. As it was gene- 
rally known tliat be understood not a word of Greek, this occurn^nco was 
considere<l miraculous, and was at once eiploitnl by abrcwil wags at the 
'ex|)ensc of tbe more credulous. Unfortunately for tbein, however, it was 
presently discovered that in bis boyhood be was roiu)ielle<l to memorize 
and to declaim Greek sentences, serving in tbis way as an inspiring in- 
fluence to a bigb-bum duUanl. lie bad thus, it would appear, aniuireil 
a smattering of Greek phraseology in a purely mechnninil manner, with- 
out over understanding a word of it. Not until be lay at tbc point of 
death, some fifty years later, did those meaningless worili come up again 
out of bis memory and force themselves into utterance." 

If it is necessary to Hup[>ort by anecdote a proposition of 
the truth of which every school master receives daily demonstra- 
tion, surely Goethe's yam is tho more prominent of tho two, 
and its existence is an amusing commentary on Mr. Lang's 
statement that " for precisely 80 years professors have lieen 
allowed to prove their theories by a vague anecdote of tho 
imaginative Coleridge's." 

X. 



January 15, 1898.J 



LITERATURE. 



69 



ll\0tC8. 



will b« 
ill ftlMi 



In next week's Literature " Among my liouk$ 
'written by Mr. Stanley Lano-Poole. Tlio numlior 
contain an original poem by Mr. 8tc'i)hi<n rhillipii. 

« « • « 

" Industrial Domocraoy," the now work jn»t iaauoU by Mr. 
i and Mrs. Sydney Webb, has in one respect nlroody moile a reonrtl 
in publiHiiing annals. JJo ocunomio work of similar mn^nitudo 
has, within living memory, been issued sinuiltaiiooti.nly in 
tJermany and this country. The woll-known firm of Diutz, of 
Stuttgart, hits had the enterprise to purchase the (iermaii i-opy- 
right for a sum— rumour statoa— of some magnitiidu. The whole 
thousand pages of this work have Iwcn translated from the 
proofs under the suporviNioii of the authors, and the first volume 
of the Gorman edition waa actually placed on sale in the book- 
sellers' whops a month before Messrs. Longmans had the English 
edition ready. 

»  »  

It is perhaps fignitloant rathtr of a modification of policy 
among the Social Democrats than of any change of feeling 
towards England that Gorman publishers are just now display- 
ing unusual enterprise in translating Knglish works on social 
problems. The "Fabian Essivs in Socialism," after having 
ap|H'arod in fragments in various German periodicals, has now 
been published by a Leipzig firm. A Gottingen Urm(Vandonhock 
and Huprecht) has had collected and translatoil a selection of 
articles and essays by leading Englishmen of socialistic sym- 
pathies, including the Bishop of Durham, the loto William 
-Morris, Mr. and Mrs. Sydney Webb, Mr. Hyndman, Mr. Ilclfort 
IJax, Mr. Sidney IJall (of St. John's College, Oxfoiil), Mr. John 
Burns, and Mr. Bernard Shaw— a somewhat strangely-assorted 

com2)any. 

* * * 

Although as Head Master of Harrow School -\lr. Welldon 
lias not much time to devote to literature, ho has just sent to 
the press the MS. of his new work, to bo called " The Hope of 
Immortality." This book has had a somewhat curious history. 
Mr. Welldon originally undertook the writing of it as a popular 
exiMisition of the doctrine of Immortality at the request of 
Messrs. Seeley, and just at the time that tho work neared com- 
pletion tho University of Cambridge appointed Mr. Welldon to 
tho Hulsoan Lectureship. Tho substance of the book— tho 
argumentative part— ho is now giving as the Hulsean Lectures. 
This course will end during the present month, and the book 
will be published by Messrs. Seeley early in tho spring. 
« « « « 

The Master of Balliol has remained at Oxford during tho 
Christmas vacation. Mr. Caird is engaged in arranging the 
correspondenco and jiapors of tho late R-otessor Wallace, with a 
view to their early publication. 

• • « • 

Dr. Andrew Wilson, whose association as a lecturer with the 
Combe Trust in Scotland and tho Gilchrist Trust in England is 
well known, has in tho press and almost rGa<ly for publication by 
Messrs. Jarrold and Sons a little brochure entitle<l " Some 
Heminisconces of a Lecturer." All sorts ond conditions of pro- 
fessional men, from " society clowns " to "globetrotters," 
have chronicled their experiences, but we lioliove Dr. Wilson is 
the first member of the platform fraternity to place on record 
some of his impressions. The book should prove refreshing if 
only that it gives a glimpse behind tho scones of tho life of a 
busy man who represents a modern educational movement of 
crowing power and importance. Dr. Wilson has also in Messrs. 
Harpers' hands a series of articles on "Brain and Nerve," which 
may possibly form the nucleus of a jiopular treatise on that 8ul>- 
ject after they have run through tho pages of Ilnrixr'n 
Miif/axine. 

* » # • 

The late Mr. Linton, the eminent engraver, has been de- 



■cribiHl liy many paper* u tb« fomKbr of tha Li 

tmi. This is not so. The Ltadtr wm Mt»bliabi«i •'«riy in iiuj 

by Uoorvo Hunry Lowu^ ami Edwmfd Pifott (tha Ula Kasmitwr 



'Ug 'thmakmmf, 
' rood*, CtMrln 
.id MMwy, WilU* 
>U»i. Th* dr«aMtio 
of the rsrivw* 

letter to Hosars. Lowui ' itftar an mdu- 

his Life of John Sterling u.ui .ij>jv.u-cd in tho i><i'i' r . m. 

was written hy Ifiaekurny. A novelty in the Lnvltr « 

'luncil," in which men of a'.\ 
' Anothnr fnaturii wan a 

Ito lie({ttii Ut» |«|«>r, 

■< wort? II a manner 

"TUMH raadm. 
I , , ^ un all suti'octs. 

and the atheistic :i liich nttractml ganaral 

greatly damaged tin.; , .., — It ought to hara bp«n " 
suoce«s, but it was badly o<lite<i and managed. < 

wore clever men, but lacking in ooflunon aonsu tmn iputo 

unpractical. 

 « • • 

In March next a new collection of atoriea by Mr. Htephon 

Crane is to be i ' ' •• Tha Opan I'^  

the name of tl: ture, fire of «- 

will be Mexican uiul 1U» Gru: skelcbes. 

• •   

Mr. J. Hussell-JeatTroson, K.K.C.S., the author of so many 
interesting books on Arctic and analogous subjects, i* ""•' 
engaged upon two new books. The first will be called " 
in fjorthorn Lands," and will deal with sealing, whaung, 
sliooting, fishing, and fowling in the Far Nnrtli ; and tho 
socond, entitled " From London into the Yalnial," will rvconnt 
Mr. Kussell-Jeaffreson's exjioriences of last sumnwr when, as 
surgeon to tho " Briton," ho visited tb • ilmal 

I'cninsula, and will tiN" tfll nf his owi mlya 

and tho Waigaly L! lio has ju 

further information ^i: loandliai 

in winter, as he had already done in tho summer months. On 
his return to England Mr. Jontf reaon intends to derote s^'tn- ' ' 
months to the organization of a small but, aa he hopc^ 
jxirtant Polar cxiKMlition, to develop a plan he has boan W' 
at during the last three j-eara, which is likely to hare a coi > 
able geographical result. Mr. Uusaell-Jcatrreson is also angsgcd 
by Vico-Admiral Makaroff, the Russian authority oa ice- 
breaking ships, to produce n  ' 'i work  
Admiral Makaroff is at pr. mandor • 
Baltic Squadron a;: of Kooaia's b< Msaentista. 
It was with the Adi: ~ Mr. Jeaffreaun - o llormon 

coast last summer. 

« « • • 

Since the dajs of " The La»ly or the Tiger," Mr. Frank B. 
Stockton's work has been of as much interest to English reader* 
as to Americans, and it is therefore pleasant to hear that since 
tho publication of " Tlie Great Stone of Sardis " be haa been 
working at and almost complotMl a story of conaidarable laoglh, 
to be entitled " v The novel is homoroos 

and requires a jroo<l  h to carry its daaign to a 

. u ita January iasoe, says that 
>i I st<irv for publication in ona 

oroti irs. Harjier an ; ■criodicals. It 

is at ; :. jiititlotl " Tho . ' »n<l will b« 

published simultaneously in a London weekly. 

« • • • 

The Rer. D. C. Torey, whooe careful edition of Thomaoo in 
the Aldino Series was published laat rear, and who haa joat 
iaaned a volume of " Koviowsand Saaays in English Li t a fat i u a." 
is now seeing a new edition of Oray's Xngliah Pbaias throogii 



60 



LITERATURK 



[January 15, 1898. 



Um praM. Soma new light haa bo<in thrown ii{M>n tho history of 
the taxt, aiM] oocssioiuilljr the original wonting n<8tori-(l. Mr. 
Tovey h*» (urtliqr tried t«.> tr«oe Gray's diction to ita aources, 
to illustrAto from hia contemporarioa tho tendenciea which he 
illttatntad, and, from later writ<>rs, his influence on our litera- 
ture. An edition of CJray's letters which Mr. Tovoy began some 
time »f(o for Ik>hn'8 Standard Lihrary (now Messrs. liell's) has 
prored a b »i j task. It is fult timt tho letters have never boon 
properly edited, esiwciallv as regards tho fundunu-ntal matter of 
dataa, the one point in which ^litfnrd waa carclcaa and in which 
othan hare followed him implicitly. 

• • « « 

"Maxwell Gray," who has unfortunately l>oen Buffering 
from ill-health for some time paat, will have a short story issued 
by Moasra. Harper both hero and in America, entitled 
" fUbstone Pippins," probably during tho present month. Early 
in the spring Mr. Heinemann will publish a long novel which 
the same writer is now Bnishing, named " The House of 
Hidden Treamte." It will bo romemlx>red that "Maxwell 
Gray " has already publiEho<I " Lays of the Dragon Slayer " 
and another volume of verse. She is at present preparing a now 
book of ballads and lyrical poems. 

« « • « 

Now that many novelists are said to wTito witli some 
thought of atiaptation for tho stage, it may be interesting to 
note that two novels by Mr. Julian Sturgis— namely, " Comedy 
of a Country Hotue " and " The Folly of Pen Hanington "— 
were written first ascomc<lic8 for the stage and then "adopted " 
for the reading public. Mr. Julian Sturgis is now writing a 
novel— not for the stage— which will probably bo published 
during next autumn season. 

•  « •» 

Bfessrs. White and Co. have recently published Mrs. 
Kennard's sporting novel " At tlie Tail Hounds," and this will 
probably be followed during the year by another book in tlie 
same style, to be entitled " The Morals of the Midlands." At 
present Mrs. Kennard is engaged upon a work of quite a 
different kind — a story of exciting adventure. 

•  « » 

Mr. Patchett Martin's illustrated brochure " Tennyson and 
the Isle of Wight " hiia u])poared in a new and revised edition 
(the fourth), and now forms tho first of a series of " VectU 
Literary Supplements," publislied by Messrs. Silsbury and Co., 
Shanklin, Isle of Wight. Mr. Martin also wTites tho second of 
this series, which is just out, called " Christina Kossetti— a 
Iteview and a Ueminisoence. " 

 ^  « • 

• A Ward of tho King " is to be tho title of Mrs. 
3Iacquoid'8 new novel to appear serially during this year. Tlie 
period is the reign of Francis tho First, tlio " King " of the title. 
This is the first novel with an historical background that Mrs. 
Macquoid, whose r«n is never idle, has undertaken. Wo pre- 
sume the " romantic " revival has overwhelmed even her taste 
for the study of modem life. 

• • « « 

Mr. J. E. Gore, of Dublin, is, wo understand, tho author of 
the section on Sidereal Asti-onomy in the woi-k recently publisheil 
by Messrs. Hutchinson entitled " Concise Astronomy." Mr. 
Core is at present at work upon a seriis .if articlfs f'>r both the 
Geittltman'M Alayaune and KnottUdyi . 

« • • « 

Mr. Dooglas Bladen, the editor of that useful and amusing 
work of reference " Who's Who," has complote<l the edition for 
18P8, and is now at work upon a novel which he hopes to com- 
plete by the spring. The principal figure will bo thot of Nelson, 
and tho main idea of the work will bo to present on bohalf of 
that hero a perhaps unnecessary ajxtlofjia pro rild md. 

• •  • 

Sir Norman Ix>ckyer, whose "Sun'M I'lace in Nature " is re- 
viewMl ..n nnothcr pag<-. «nd who is at present on his way to India 
»•  : Ecli|>Bo Expedition, has tinder- 

tak' '•!! on the subject for tlio Mumiti'i 

Poit. 



The JSVir Cfnttirii liericxr for January contains a somewhat 
remarkable article on " Itooksolling : a Decaying Industry," by 
Mr. Neville Kocmnn. The author laughs at the curative 
measures that have been suggested : ho is of opinion that the 
proposed re<hiction of the discount would simply moan a further 
dooreaso in the small flock of bookbuyors, and worse fortune 
for the bookseller. And Mr. lieeiiian will not hear of tho jilan 
projiosed by tho Authors' Society, that the bookseller shouhl a<ld 
second-hand books to his stock ; ho ]>oint3 out, and, it must bo 
said, with groat truth, that second-hand bookselling domnnda 
infinitely more of skill ond exporienco tlmn tlio ordinary trade 
in ne* books. Tho article " deals faithfully " with all who aro 
concorno<l in book production. There is the author, a vilo 
wretch, who contracts to write a million words in two years in 
his lust for gold. Consequently, he drops in o short while from 
infamy to obscurity, his books remain unsold, and tho unfortu- 
nate bookseller who has " stocked " him is brought to beggary, 
or, at the least, to soiling fancy articles, a fiito almost a» 

shocking. 

«  * • 

Then wo have the second villain, tho literary agent, " tho 
idle sycophant who lives on other men's brains." 

When he has got his victim safely into hid rliitches by flattering him 
that be is n little golil mine in biimon fleKh.he proceeds to make arrangr- 
mcnta with na many publishers as possible . . and one fine 

morning the author wakps up to find that be is bound to write so many 
words a day, whether he feels inclini'd or not. 

The rest is a black trail of 10 per cent, and a thousand 
woixls in a thousand minutes. Tho outhor is roducptl to sending 
round paragraphs about his velvet cycling costume to the papers, 
and we drop the curtain over the final scene, in which the 
wretched man spends the remnant of his days in getting up local 
colour at the British Museum. 

• « « « 

The publisher is a moromanly ruflian than tho literary agent. 
His worst olfoncos aro a lack of confidence in booksellers, and a 
tendency to publish books, in (juantitios. Ho has minions, how- 
ever, called readers, " who have failed to make a living at 
writing," and these scoundrels aro " full of cranks and fads." 
And when a book is published it is either not reviewed for long 
years, not till the author and publisher and all concerned aro 
old and giay, or else it is reviewed venally and corruptly. One 
English paper " is known as the homo of log-rollers. " On other 
journals the advertising canvasser is, virtually, tho chief of the 
literary stall". 

That such is the state of nfTairs U evident from the notice that 
appvared in the first number of Litrrnlnre, stating that extensive adver- 
tising did not necessarily insure favourable reviews. 
In fine, book production is worse than i)iracy on tho high seas- 
combined with baby-farming. Yet there is a vci-y simple remedy 
for all these ills. According to ^Ir. lieeman, tho liooksellers' 
Association has only to appoint an export reader, who will report 
on each book as it is published and then issue a leaflet fur tliv 
guidance of the trade. The publishers would object, but in a 
short while all would be wall, tho spoculativo nature of book- 
selling would disappear, and there would bo no more complain- 
ing ill our streets or in our magazines. 

• «  « 

Mr. W. P. Ryan, whose " Literary London : its Lights and 
Comedies '' Mr. Leonard Smithers is publishing this month, 
conducts the column of personal romarks which appears daily iu 
tho .S>iH under tho title of " Men and Things." Personal 
remarks, therefore, form the most prominent feature of thu 
volume in (piestion, authors who ndvertiso themselves and 
authors who advertise hair-washes and cocoas encountering an 
equal sliaro of .Mr. Hyan's sarcasm. 

• * » « 

Last week we (juoted a French version of " Break, l)reak, 
break." A correH{H)ndciit sends us another translation : — 

ISrisant, briaant, briaant, () mer imnienae, 

Cimtrc tes rocbera froids et gris. 
It is better, but still very far from tho original. Our curio- 
spondent thinks the French language can express the dceiier 



January 15, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



61 



motions, anil nskii whothor roligious owe Imi ever been «xpr«Med 
liotter thoii by lUciiiu in Allittlir. 

Celui iiui mft un f rein k 1» fiirMir del floU 

Suit auMi il<>« ni*ph»ntii kiT(ter le« comploti 

Soumi* avio r«ii|«"<'t a •a volniit6 nainte 

Jo iT«injt Diou, chrr Alincr, et n'«i pan il'autre crainte. 
< »no niiiy an«wor that roligioua awo ha» l)oon expro»ii«d moro 
iidmiralily in almost every papo of Enjjliih litoraturo. Tato and 
llraiiy wore moro improHsivo in thoir happier Aonionta. Lonl 
llacon Baiil very truly that no trno artiHtic Iniaiity exi»t« without 
something of strangonoKH in tho proportion, and it would \m Mo 
to nearch Racino for strangonois of any kind. 

« « •  

Anotliorcorru8i)ondont taken up tho <piostion of " tu." 
Ciiti tho writer of thiti note have forKottpii that " lii " ami " te " 
ill KriMich iirf not only uacd (invariably) in aiMrmsiiii: the Diily, but in 
.•ther coiincxioni .... to convey a Mmw of ditt»ity, ^ol^•mnity, 
iiblimity, ke. 

Ill tho days of llosauot tho second person singular was mod in 
addressing tho Deity, but at the prosoni time Froncli Homan 
*'atholios UBO " vous." Tho religious use of " tu " is jioculiar 
to tho French Protestants. But tiio writer has nii»8o<l our point. 
We notod that tho French have no " mystery language," no 
" rertiuin sullemne " consecrated and set apart for secret and 
awful serTice. Our correspondent boldly says that " tu " 
<'oiivoy8 tho name sense as " thou."' But the " tu " is U80<1 to 
sorvnnts, dogs, inferiors, as well as to intimate friends ; it is no 
moro " thoii " than a Norfolk jacket is a chasuble. In English 
•' thou " has long 1 euome obsolete and reverend, while " tu " 
is board in every French farmyard. 

• « • •» 

Tho RritUh Mi:dical Jirtinuit has an interesting article on 
Keats as a medical student. Tho reviewer who advised the poet 
to go back to his gallipots will probably bo infamous for over, 
l)iit it was well wortli giving these details of Keats's medical 
■course. Ho wa.s apprenticed to Thomas Hammond, surgeon, of 
Kdmonton, in 1810. He was, of course, regarded as a " loafer," 
;ind in 1814 master and apprentice parted, and Keats became 
11 student at tho United Hospitals of Guy and St. Thomas. In 
1816 ho was duly admitted a Licentiate of the Society of 
Apothecaries. Probably tho brutal advice to go buck to his 
j^allipots would have had dangerous results if Keats had acted 
on it. 

" My last operation," hfi once told Charles A. Trown, "was the 
opening of a man's temporal artery. I did it with the utmost nicety, but 
rodcctiiij; on wliat |>a«spd thronch my miml at the time, my dexterity 
seemed a miracle, and I never took up the lancet again." 
« •»  * 

Dickens's London is gradually disappearing, and, save for 
the associations that cling about tho spots made familiar by his 
pen, tho vanishing i rocess is matte;- for congratu'ati<Mi. It 
•certainly is in tho case of tho maze of narrow, tortuous, filthy 
streets botwoon the back of Limobouse Chiirch and tho Thames, 
whore Rogue Hidorhood had his lair and where Edwin Droo<rs 
opium don foimd its original. This area of dirt and crime is 
now being surveyed and will soon bo clearod away. Entbusiast-i 
who want to know tho exact site of " Tiio Followship Porters 
and to roalizo thy neighbourhood so graphically suggestetl in 
" Our Mutual Friend " have therefore no time to lose. 
« » * « 

The National Portrait Gallery has, among its most recent 
lulditions, acquired portr.iits of Jane and Anna Maria Porter. 
The former is still read, '• The Scottish Chiefs " holding its own 
as a capital boys' (and girls') book, and " Thaddeus of Warsaw " 
liaving boon reprinto<l as lately as 1368. The other sister was 
more lively in society, and was nioknamod " L'Allegro " as a 
contrast to Jane, whom Samuel Carter Hall called '* II 
Penseroso " : but her books are forgotten. Tlio sisters were 
well known in literary society in tho early years of tho century, 
but unfortunately thoy took themselves and their work t'K> 
seriously, and the memoirs of the time are not always compli- 
mentary to them. -Miss Mitford speaks of Jane as being s victim 
of " wounded vanity," and Laly 3Iorgan ill-naturedly called 



la 



hor " t lean, ami 

regular i , ne. " An a in a 

looking. A portrait of Hmollett ha* alao jit«t 

Oallory't collocti'." 

• 

Anotlwr N". I, ^ 'i * ' 
and it purporta to be " tho oOi 

j.  — iriW avowal u niailu on tiic linl ^^^'l- Ui»l 

..of litoratiirn in titn «»p«ct with which lh« 
t. a omifi'n- rrea t<> exphiin a 

(;. 1 in the It i« »ery r»- 

fnahing to obeorvo thu troatmant <»f  ct of •• lit*- 

rature " muler tho hoailiiig " Tho '^' Tha tMag 

i« done in tlio boat Mtock Kxcbango (tyle. Thtt*. o onc a ral ag 
18th century fiction, it is writtan :— " At ir..- ..» fl..>r.. 1« • 
demand, and thnso having •t'iries of thia pri 
offer them. Historical fiction other th«n "f l"- ' > ■• 

in lesa demand." In tho penny stories market " '. d ia 

brisk, and tho supply scarcely iw' 
amount of l)ii"!no"i im !<>«t •■wing t^' ' 
to say, " II ''oro i» i 

suroably, t .inter ha- 

will find ditiicQlty in •• unloading." 

• « • • 

At the present time, when every one ia woodaring what will 
happen next in China, wo need make no exctiaa (or refarring in 
what are perhaps the two moat useful recent books on " Tba 
Far Eastern Question." In spite of Mr. Henry Norman 'a 
" plenipotentiary " style, there is, no doubt, a groat deal to ba 
learnt from his " Pet.ples ami Politics of the Far East," which 
surveys yellow mankiml from Mnrno ti Japan. Mr. Norrran baa 
gone far and soon much, and ire otttfa naafu'. 

and entertaining. But tho >. ' an aometintes 

For example :— " Tho social life of Hhanghai it the na 
growth of its Republican institutions. It iadcmo :,. . . 
characterize*! by a tolerant goo<l-fellowahip." In 17tl6 peopio still 

talke<l like that, in spite of the Terror, but after a - ■' 

experience it is singular to find a capable writer dodncin 

fellowship " and tolerance from " Republican insti' 

Is there a more exclusive society than that of Boater 

The present French ('••■ "ratas a (;uod 

deal— from its friends. << m i obwrvatiotm 

and photographs gratefully, 1 

worthy as his sna[>8hot.s. N'e« 

same author's " The Real Japan " are, we understand, shortly 

to be published. 

• • 

Mr. Valentine Chirol's " Fai i..>^i..iii v><''-<.'ui<. now 
being reissued by Mestrs. Macmillan, may serve aa a 
corrective to t!ie democrdtiu cnthtuiasm of Mr. Norman's 
work. Mr. Chirol is an intelligent observer wh'> knAvs 
tiioroughly the countries with «' ..stion " is con- 

cemcil, and ho is able to tako a »t w of it« p-liti- 

cal bearings. One • 
Mr. Norman como t. 
— the continue<l o \ 
agree that the days _ 

that tho whole Chinese system is thoror n. And yet, a 

little while ago, wo wore trombliti" •>• . ,...cqrof ay«»llow 

deluge which was to overwhelm civ 

It is pleasant, by the way, to ieain n^nn Ht. Chird t'lat, m 
spite of the EuropeAn demand tor cheap go<xls, tho .lajian -so 
artist is still conscientious and succesaful. Thus Mr. <" ^ 
writes that " tho egg-shell |>or«ilain» of Minn. th.. 
colouring of the Kutsni ware, 
itself show that for variety of i 

. . . . the U'st day can ««il .- 

comparison with th. 



Much discussion hs'* bi-- 
version of the tetrastich I 
phrase of the quatrains o 



(t.lkt fXll.^ 



r.iUp,! of late concominu t7..> 
o for his wonderful 
I. Aa tber« ara sa... %^. 



62 



LlTEllATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



b« only thirtMn Persians in London, fow who have not vi«ite<1 
the East are likely to have heard Omar road aluiul in his native 
toagoe. A oorreapondent writes : — 

BuoM litUe time Sfo I h»<l that plea«ir«, and wan inirpri««I to Bod 
■qpaslf able, ia ntore than od« iostonrr, to identify FitxK<'rnld'ii qua- 
tiaia, aasiely fRHB ita lik«oe«« to tbe rhythm mid rndrnrv of the cpokm 
Feniao. As I do not kaow a word ot that toninie it may haw liv»n 
narely a fertDitooa coinrideaee. But the fact remaiiu tiup, that of 
three or four I was abl« to supply immriliatvly the Engliah luinipliriiM-, 
which ny Prrtian friead assared nir wax r<irrrct and ainjiularly true to 

the IMnar* «• wt 11 no Oi» Rniini) t\f t h<> nrii'itin). 



Prill 



: . wn.i siiiiu ;. \ ;.to two Iiovols, *' The 

' and " A 1 liarth," which liad con- 

^ " lss both hero and in America, tried the experiment 

.) ^' another, " Sllle. Bayard." pseudonymonsly some 

■i>. Tlie critics have opene<i her eyes by saying there is 

in " John Audloy'a " work, and tliut this young man 

may in course of time, if he takes jiains, iinxluce sonielliing 

worth while. Mrs. K. M. Davy now admits tliat it is a mistake 

to publish pseudonymously. 

«  « « 

A. story of a good " find " comes from the Border. A well- 
known golfer, who is a bibliojihile as well, hoving occasion to 
paaa a few hours in Newcastle while on a journey duo North, 
occupied his time in prowling orotmd the book Bho]is. At one of 
theae he found a box of miscellanea marked " Is. each," and 
almost the first book he picked up was the second volume of the 
first edition of Stevenson's " New Arabian Nights." That the 
first volume might not be far off was a natural Bup]M)8ition, but 
the book hunter failed to find it in the l)OX and was on the ])oiiit 
of giving up the search in desjmir, when he noticed the book he 
wanted in the hands of a man, who was a]>)mrontly getting a 
rooming's reading for nothing. The surmise tunie<l out to be 
correct, and it required a long wait of nearly an liour ere the set 
could be completetl, though the time could lianlly be regaixled as 
wasted, seeing that it resulte<l in securing a good clean copy of a 
Stevenaon first edition for the very small sum of 2s. 
« « •»  

The Berue Internaiimmlr (If Tlifolagie (Berne, Schmidt and 
Fraacke ; Oxfonl, James Parker and Co.), of which the January 
number haa just been issued, is the organ of Catholic Reunion, 
and ita promoters aim at the free federation of National 
Churches. It was started at the Old Catholic Congress at 
Loceme in 1892, and gives articles in German, French, and 
English contribute<1, not only by writers of those nationalities, 
l>iit also by Russians, Greeks, Swiss, and others. The present 
number contains some papers rood at tlie recent Old Catholic 
Congress at Vienno ; one by Bishop Weber on Gllnther's philo- 
sophy, one by Licentiate Goetu on Old Catholicism among the 
•Slavs, and one by the e<litor. Professor Michaud.on the Hussites 
and Old Catholicism. The editor also contributes a paper and a 
letter on speculations on the doctrine of the Trinity, with a 
b«aring on the colebratc<1 Fili<K,n' controversy. Chancellor 
Lias comments in English on certain statements concerning 
Henry VIIL mode by M. Etienno Lamy in the Rrvur dru Devx. 
MondtM, and >I. Papkoff and General KirdefT deal with Russian 
eooleaiattical  There are also reviews of books. But 

ttie moat int< : ilurcs of the numlicr aro a posthumous 

fngnent of D.yllu.gor's on the Waldensians, iiitroduco<l by a 
letter from his friori'l, Professor Kriedrich, and a letter by a 
n«neh abb^ • inni, Anglicanism, an<l Orientalism, 

which haa be<' I • ilieUiBliop of Salisburj-ancKJenoral 

KirfefT for comment. Their remarks ore inserted : Genoml 
Kir^eff wntea in French, the Bishop in his own language. This 
is the sixth year of ifstio, and the prusent number has Ixien 
incraaaed from 200 to 280 pages. 

• • •  

The "New Catalogue of British Literature," which last 
year was edited by Mr. Cedric Chivers, appears this year under 
the combined editorship of Mr. Chivers and Mr. Armistcad Cay. 
It alao appears in a new guise. Instead of the bound volume 



we hove the eleven monthly issues of the " Now Book List " 
fastened into a strongly made cose by means of metal clips. 
Wo commented recently on the change made in the monthly 
issue of tliis " Book List " by which the inde.\ was so]>arated 
from the catalogue and the latter was divided into headings, tho 
cimtinuouB alphalwtioal arrangement being aliandoiieil. Now 
that wo have tlio Iixlex to the whole, although still soiMirato 
from tho catalogue, wo fully recognize its merits. Tho orronge- 
ment is excelluilt, since, if tho author's name bo not known, the 
work may be found either under tho subject witli which it deals 
or under its title ; and for this purpose there is, in a<ldition to 
the '• author inde.x," a complete " subject ond title index." 
The subjects ore according to those loid down by Mr. Molvil 
Dewey in his " Decimal Systom of Classification," and includo 
not only tho ten principal heads, but all tlio various sub- 
c'lassilicationa of theso heads. The editors are to bo congratu- 
lated on the successful accomplishment of a work of great 
industry. 

»   « 

Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, M.A., delivers to-day a popular 
lecture on " Charles Dickons ond his Literary Friends," at the 
South-Wost Polytechnic Institute, Manresa-road, Chelsea. Tho 
choir will be taken ot 8 o'clock by Mr. Poultney Bigolow. 

* * «  

Mr. Robert Blatchford's " Tommy Atkins," a story intended 
to correct tho highly-coloured and of ton inaccurate military pictures 
of melodrama and fiction, has just received the commendation of 
no less competent a judge of a military novel than Sir Evelyn 
Wood. Writing to a friend, Sir Evelyn says :— " I picked up 
' Tommy Atkins ' last evening ofter an early dinner, road till 
12 midnight, and have just now finished tho most delightful book 
I hove read for many a day." 

  « » 

The Gospel Mai/cniiie is to bo amalgamated with tho lirifiiJt 
ProU.ttant. Tho announcement recalls the renuirkablo fact that 
tho Gosjxl Ma(iazine (tho title of which will still continue) was 
founded in ITCtt, when tho Wesleys were still alive, and, as Mr. 
James Ormiston, its present editor, states, "occupies tho unique 
place, in the field of religious periodical literature, of being tho 
oldest magazine published in England." 

 « # « 

The foundation a century ago of a children's magazine is 
still more remarkable than that of a religious one. This, how- 
ever, was not in England, but in France, where tho Courier dcs 
Knfani», for children from six to ten years old, was founded in 

the year 1795. 

« » « « 

Mr. F. Marion Crawford, wlio was to have returned to 
Europe in February, has been received so cordially as a lecturer 
in tho United States that Major Pond has arranged another tour 
for him through tho Southern and Middle States to tho Pacific 
Coast. This will detain him in America until the month of May. 
« «  • 

Of late years readers in the United States hove shown a 
growing interest in contemporary Continental literature, and a 
new weekly review, entitled 1/ Krho <le la Smiaiue, has just made 
its appearance in Boston. This rerue UtUrairc ti motnlaine 
will publish M. Brunetiere's impressions of America, which aro 
also to appeor, in o translated form, in McCturc's Mayazitte. 
«   » 

When so conservative a journal of criticism oa tho Nation, 
of New York, compores the sea-poems of Mr. Bliss Carman with 
the work in similar vein of Rudyanl Kipling, to tho advantage 
of Mr. Carman, it is reasonably certain that a new poot of dis- 
tinction has " arrived." In America, indeed, Mr. Carman won 
recognition several years ago, when, after attractinc attention 
in the magazines, he published his first thin volume. In 
England, though favourable notices of his work hove appeared 
here and there, ho is known to comparatively few readers. He 
has steadily adhered to his plan of publishing small volumes, all 
of which display an intense love of tho sea. Mr. Carman belongs 
to that group of young Canadian writers who have of late been 



January Ij, 1898. J 



LITERATURE. 



63 



|doitiR a (jront ileal of ii|iiritocl work, chiefly in vomo, iiuliuliiit; 
'rufusdor f'linrlog <i. I). I{<iljort8, Art-liilmlil liampiiian, Duncan 
L'iim))1>oll Scott, and \V. W. Campbell. Ho wnn iKiin in Nora 
Bootia alioutllT) yoaiH ago, nnd luliicattKl in Canada, nt Kdinliurxh 
JnivoFHity, nnd at Hni-rard. For two yearn lie arted an litvrary 
liter for the ImlciituiUnt, of New York, and he haw Bincudcvotad 
IliniRolf wholly to vurRo-writinf; and to aomo very admirable 
Btays in criticism. Mr. Carmnn liao a roving Rjiirit. and durin(( 
bo coiirso of a year ho Iivpb in Hoiton, in Now York, and in 
[Vuahington. Ho is now passing the winter in New York. 

In the making of tho two volumea ontitltxl " In Vaga- 
bondia," which havo hnd a greoter popularity than in nminlly 
attained by verse in America, Mr. Carman has joinol forieii 
with Mr. liichard Hovey, nn American poet of rare giftn ond 
high ambitions. Tho poems were not signo<l, and only roadom 
of exceptional discernment were able to distingniah the author- 
ship of each. Tho Now York rr»(«Mc,for example, after Bovoroly 
criticizing Mr. Carman for associating his work with Mr. 
Hovey's, proceeded to quote with commomlntion two of Mr. 
Ifovey's poems 1 Mr. Hovoy's best success has been in tho field 
of poetic dramii. Two of his plays, founded on the Arthurian 
legends, have boon puhlislud in recent years and warmly praist^d. 
« « « * 

The biogrophy of the Prince of \Valcs, which Mr. Orant 
llichanls hasjiad in preparation for some months, will Ix) pul>- 
lishcd on Mmulay. Tho full title of the book ia " H.R.H. the 
I'rinco of Wales : An Account of his Career, including his Birth, 
K<lucation, Travels, Marriage, and Homo Life ; and Philanthropic, 
Social, and Political Work." 



" Tho Scientific Papers of Thinnas Henry Huxley " urol)oing 
published bv Meesrs. Jfacmillan. The tmpers occupy several 
volumes and are edited by Professors M. Foster and E. Kay 



Ijankostor. Among other scientific books to bo publi»ho<l by 
Messrs. Macmillan aro " Canada's Metals, "by Professor Kolmrts- 
Austoii, C.H. ; " Chemical Analysis of Oils, F"uts, and Waxes," 
by R. Honoilikt and J. Lewkowitsch : Vol. V. of tho " System 
I'i Medicine," and a book by Mr. R. Threlfall entitled " On 
Laboratory Arts." 



Tho It. 
graph on 
Kurope. " 
It will )>• 
thlat' 

lb 

S^X^N^^nl til,- 4^>i"^i_, 
Michael. 

Tbii v,.lnm..« ,.f til 

CMyi 

war* 1 : 

the pruaont. 'I'heMt are tiio 1' 
" KroUerick the «!r>:tf " in thr f 
aiul "AT ' 

" Th. 
I 



r«t part of a mooo- 

,.-• and Tu«<ti'i >.\ 
RoaUnc 

nf^ fn* 'I: 



"W'lfvapw 



• I i I IVII .ll**! II 



<' out,.,. !>->' ,.,li 



I'nbiifif.n to 



fi 



■o<ik " The Moralit 

 ..- 1 1 >. . 



y of Marriage : and 
' Woman," will ba 



M 
other 
p<ibli  

P; . _, ' . J - , - . i.T praaa a work on 

elementary botany, to bo publishetl by Moaan. Oeorge Ball ant! 
S»)ns. 

lit. Conan Doyle has written .".  story, " ': 

fcasion," for the " Birthday N of the 

January 17. 

Tho new storv which .4nna KnthnriTV> (%t**^ haa finiabad ia 
to be calle<l " l.ost Mi T . publialMd in 

.\merica next March, \vh< niea mar %\v 

bo exjwctocl. In th will not ba laauad 

until May ; it has ti 

i/'ii/Vr'.. .!/■  ' - " - *- - • 

paix>rs by tho 1 i 

,lnhn T.t'^'ch ai;U '- ...., .--^ V ,.-;.,, . 

a ' on tlio staff o( I'unch, and an account of hia oarn 

c:i lustrator. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

A Hlntopy of Apohlteoture. 

Ity lliinislrr Fhlihir. K.I!.I.H..\., 
ami tltmijitrr J'\ FU-trhrv, 
A.ft.I.H.A. 3nl Kd.. Hi'visdi. 7(x 
4ln., XVI1.+313 pp. Lundnii. ItSIT. 
Kntufonl. 

The Influence of K^atenlal on 
Apchltectupc Uy Hiinistir F. 
Fl.lrh,,: .V.IM.D.A'. 1-Jix.Sjiii., 
i'l pp. LDndoii, ISitT. Hiiti*ford. 5«. n. 

Tho Yoap'a Art 1808. A ronclso 
, Kpitoiiu' of ivll inuKiTH reliitiTiM: to 
the ArtM of Painting, Srulptiirc. 
alul .\rrl>it»'('tnri'. and to Sclioolsof 
ItfslKii. Hy ..(. C. H.Ciirtn: 11- 
Ivi-ilmtod. iJxSln., J.vipp. lx)ndon. 
ISW. Virtue. 38. (kl. 

BIOGRAPHY. 

The Life of Napoleon III. Hv 

Anhihiiltl /•■m•^,^, l,l,.l). Willi .17 
lll\l.^lnitiiMH. Ux.'ijiii.. x. + :Hll pi>. 
London. IS'.IS. Chntto. 12». 

Christina Rossettl. .\ Bio- 
graphical anil Critical .'<tiidv. Hy 
,V<iitrn-i'c Hell. With (i Portraits 
and B KarslinileH. »x5}ln., xvi. (- 
'An pp. I/indon. ISflK. 

Ilurst and niackril, 12s. 

Joseph Apoh. Tho Storv of his 
Life. Told hy Himself, and I->lit<iI. 
with n Preface, hy 7'Ai- Coiiiilt.".-- or 
tl'iinrirk, i(\5iiM., xx.-f41« pji. 
London. 1SSI8. llntrhinson. li*. 

John BPl^-ht. (Victorian Era 
Scries. III.) Hvf. .<. I'incr.M.A. 
"i^-iin.. vi.-f 2lt> jiji. Ixindon. Ghis. 
b'uw.niid Duhlin. IS98. Illuokic.2».6(l. 

Robept FepfTusson. Ily .1. II. 

I'rosnrt. (Kanious .*^cots ScricsJ 
:A - Oin.. l(»l pp. London and Kilin- 
hnrsh. ISIS. Oliphunt. Is. I'd. 



C. H. Spupflreon's Autoblo- 

frpnphv. ConiiMN.I f i his 
liarv. lA'tlers. 
Ills 'tl'ij'r mid I 
torn. Part 1.. \ 
IS pp. London, L-^tx. l',i~.nioie. 1-. 

Peter thw Great. Hy K. H'n/iV- 



EDUCATIONAL. 

The Tll*'^»'*" ' r"Vir.r..ltI ...7 

II. 

D.S 

V.I,-. 



BOOKS FOR THE YOUNG. 

Tho Fairy Tales of Master 
Perrault. Kd.. with Voles and 
Vocal)ulary, bv U'l-"-'- ^' ■-'■ 
vmnii. M..\. (Pitt P 
ti2>;4iiii.. IWpp. Cttiii' 

I'niversity I'l. --. i -. .-.. 

Eiffht Stories fPomAndepsen. 

KiL. ^^ilIl N"f'-^ and Vis-aliularv. 
hv II "innii. .M..V. (Pitt 

Pre- lijxljln.. 22S pp. 

faini 

I iii\ci-sity IVcsR. &. 8d. 

CLASSICAL. 

Dapembop/r at SaKllo. Dlc- 

tlonniili'p drs Antlqult^s 
Orf< . \'>\n 

■Jl: lijx 

9iin.. 

l!.i :.■:■,■. Jfr. 

Pauly's Real-Encycloplidle 

dep cin.'^'-^"*^"" Aifor.- 
thumswi 

Kd. Ily (. 
volume : .- > 
9]xUjin., 1.43»pn 

Cicero Im Wandcl dec Jahp- 
hunderte. Kin Vortratc von 
//.. /.'<!, ski. Sx.Mn.. lir.'pp. Leip- 
.it,-. Is'.'T. Tcubner. i.10 Marks. 



The Ppeceptop's 

COUPSO. 1!> F-—-'' 


French 

ir. . 1 ', .' 


1 

v,_rr- 


ill. 



itln.. xli.-"! 



Minna vor 



Ixii. ' Jl PI*. C .Lii 

Ini 



Th- ■r-'-r 



A Synopsis of Roman 

tory. liar* II.. . W;;I,T. 11 1-AtitT-. 



> inf., liiU»l«wki<4. Lontluii. 
cure uad. 

FICTION. 
The Priest and the Aoti>aaa, 

i ilc«. }4«-inc IdtlUn? 

Ilr Flhrl H att«-. 

whe Itntn.irwXM.) (i| . 

" ;ip l..i>niloii, IWa. 

Ulic lYe*-. ( I. !«. Ilnprr «d. 

'f1 RnntM Fa x-*- " i' 



Tnnat. 



Th 



Our Polly. 



Jnncf-. 

Mr. I 



.ft 

K. u.»a. 

ton* of  

... „' KB^ntro. 

"r, TI>Mla_ 

tlaitoa. Shai. 

•ve Starr, la 
 ' P»i 

!la. 



liatVtt. fL>x 



64 



LITERATURE. 



[January 15, 1898. 



Wbapahar*. Ily Km ma 
8x1)111., SO pp. l>i>ml<in. 11 



II 



HO M»fVUm€% 

ttt. 

ult. 



The Man In the ' 

ii> r. ir. //. /vtr. 

LiHHlan, l*C. J.irr«>lil- 

John Ollbert, Ytttman A 

KollUhiiix* tif the f'oinintiiiwtvitUl. 
Hv U. »;. Smim. 1 . 

»v< p|i. Lumluii 11 vk. 

K^ (i.. 

Oui- 
II 
\ 

The Rook of the L i 

K Sro, 

Krllor 
don *n>*. 



>>1. bv 
Vol. f. 

t "on, 

n. 
: Uu 

ii> A. I. 
'> |ip. Lou- 



r 



La Fortune de i 

An Ki4-..I. fr"iM ! 

»r. 

K 

b^ 

8crit=^l GJ  iiiu., xvi. 

Cembrklga. tan. 

Till 

r* r  
«. 
<l 
tl 

1", 

John \ 
Fpleni! 

Ih.- W 



lit- 



3». 



t X Sin., 



i.irin-- 
XVL + 



.1.1 



ini 



.1,11. . I liirki-. ta. M. 

L,« Beau Pernand Madame 

Oe Bovet. Ki.ukml i'lu- 

(jiiamntc. Cravur. 

liRiiiin. 'ix<Jin., ; 

Mof  
/ 

<k . 

I'arU. Ui^ktiiti., Jui|iii. i'urU. ItiK 
HAcbottc. 6h. 

GEOGRAPHY. 

LeToup du Monde. JimrtMldcx 
VovAK*"* *'l *l<-'* V.»\uKP»in'. (Noll- 
vellc .S<Tie.i Sine Anntic, 1887. 
131<8{in. I'ttri". ISMT. 

Ilarli^tto. Fr. 32.50. 

Old Traoks and Newr Land- 
marks. \Viiy.;.lr .<k.I. Ill ~ ill 
Cn-:.*. .MiK'tMl.tniii. Mit\: 

l Hy V.irl/.l. ir,ill:,r. I 
9':5*n> . XV. -1 mWi pp. I,..r 

ll.r.:!.... . lU. 

Korea and Her NelKhboups. 

A N ,r-.,;iv.. ..f ■[■•:.-.■  !•. Ill, an 
A- hIcs 

«i. ■iin- 

tr K 

H \V. 

< -ith 

Jl..|- . - ..iln.. 

xvn.-rlbl-rx.-riil pp. l>indnn, 
in& .Slnimr. 24«. 

PlcT-;— --:-'^-^-;v •• :■•■•■ 
.1 



Soi 

I 

1., 
V 



Ahin<>d !hn Hnnbfil iT>f1 the 

MUwiit . III. 



ilay. Hy 

' 'I.K... 

V.'W 

-1. n. 



HISTORY. 

Cal'*"'*'*'' nl TF'i'rKiiinv Hooks 

a r  : 'n*- 

► Ml.- 

I A. 

•■- Pp. 

I de. 

Ln^ the 

■| ml 

Jrni • . .\i : : K (n^'" 

CoUw. I Oix61n., 

xUL-t^aiSpp. IS. 

ii'irray. lii. 

Islam Befop* the Turk. A 

.\«Tnli»c Vji^y. IS .!■■,,>, J, 

yunatt. I.L.I1. T pp. 

Ihiblln, lan. Uil. 

Itnifattn Nr *"'■ <■" 

9lJ(h tfm 

a«a. *' fn. 6'i*ii! 

tmiii!'  f flnb.: 

¥ l«y 

.' .iL* 

K. . . - - ._..-. 

Vuli(;Uii>ter. 2 Markn. 



Ill' 
/'r, 
up. 
Ilk.. 



M 
II 

l..'i 1^.- ....... .. 

JANUARY MAGAZINES. 
The Law Quaptoply Review. 

.•^to\.ii. iimi s.iii-. ,■-. The New 
Century Review. K.h in lilin, 
t«l. II. The Journal of Fi- 
nance. SlTiuikill, .\l.ir-li:lll. •.'.. (H. 

St. Maplln's-Le-Orand. (irif. 
mil. !i.t. Sword and Trowel. 

r.i««iii..r... i«l. The Atlantic 
Monthly. (I.i.i ami llinl. I~. ii. 

LAW. 
Hayes and Jarman's Concise 
Forms of Wills. Willi I'nu- 
lical Notes liv J. It. MiilthiuH. 
nth Kd. Xi . Ailn.. lx\-l. + i;i |)p. 
I.ond<in. l.SilR. 

Sweet and Muxwell. ili*. 

PpiM'ortents or General Re- 

tnil' ('Ions on Title. Willi Kx- 

. Nolesail.l OhxTvatiollH. 

■' I. IHtktii.i. -.'nil Kd. 

I pp. London, ISIS. 

ill* ami SoiiK, lA. &s. 

i- 1 31  ' '.V and Practice. 

H. 'ihl, M..\. .\s.<lbi<il 

li> of till' Surveyors' 

Irsni'i' 1..I1. 'ini\ VA, 7ix5in.. 

r lit + liJ8 pp. London. I8!lg, 

Wilson. S«. n. 
Dilapidations: LawnndPpao- 

tlce. liv Airrr,l r. M<i,;r. '.'nd 
K.i. Itrvis,.,! hv Si.lncv Wrilfht. 
M.A. "Jxiln., vlii.-^l.vi pp. Lon- 
don. 188K. Wilson. ,V. n. 
A Treatise on the Law rela- 
tlnsr to Debentures and 
Debenture Stock. Issued by 
Tri"' ' ' "'i I'ublie Cilupiinies, 
fit: '  .\urliorities. witb 
F. 'iHlentM. Hv I'auJ 

f". M.A. (Oxnn.l lOx 

Oiin., I+-02I pp. lyondoii, IdSW. 

KfllnKbani Wilson. 

LITERARY. 
Earle's Mlcrocosmo^rraphy. 

Kditod, with IntriKliK-tlon nnd 
Notes, bv At/rrtI S. llVxf, M.A. 
(Trin. Coll. Canili.) fl»v4Jin.. 
xlvli. + lWpp. fiunliri.lK.-. isns. 

rrii\ .I'-ity Prc-s. ;■.;. 

Bell s Reader's Shakespeare. 
The Comedies, ity Ixiriil c. 
fi'-n. < ■oniieiised. eoniicrled. and 
einplmsiz('<l for Srliool. CnlleKe, 
Parlour, and IMatfonn. Sxoiln., 
521 jio. l/inili.ii. IS'.C. 

Ilodder iinil ."^louifliton. 3.M. 8d. 

Helnrlch Heine's Lledor und 
Gedlohte. Stl.-ri..d aiul arninK<**l 
xvUli NoLcs and a Literary Intro- 
duction. Hv (\ A. iitirhhrim. 
I'b.n.. &e. Blxllln.. xxlx.+rBpp. 
London and New York, IHW7. 

Ma.inillan. 2s. M. n. 

New Catalog-uo of British 
Literature. Witb Cuniulntive 
lit. lex of Author. Subject, and 
Title. Dix'.iin. Ixindiin, IKfiT. 

{'liivers. 

A Selection of Tales from 

ShakRpenre. Hv cli-frlni ami 

.V !i Intro., 

N i.T. -M.A. 

d' in., xll. f 
154 pp. C'alii^ 

I'n. -. lH.6d, 

Wa-' -■ ' ;.nm. II. T-tf 

V, iiitt Cftaiicn*. 

A' . I' itwnrfnrr, S.J, 

v.: .'iUi AuftHKC. I>nrKo 

K. > pp. FrclbufK tni 

Hi- ... . ■:. 

Il.T.i. 1. ;i.iii .Marks., yell. 12 Mark*. 
8amnilun<r Blbllotheksurla- 

^f,; f 1I,.W^ A..V.f.l.^„ 

II 

i; 



L*-li'. 1^. 1 - •-. .- i..; , .1 . ;-. .,i, ,...._ 

MISCELLANEOUS. 
A Catalo«rui '^ oek 

<"niii*irtfl;.'f 'iiir 

i:, .,11, %>., ;..-.pp. 

< 

i 'rej4>., 12^. Rd. Tl. 

Sonte Account of r ' 



frolnfr. I'v Tliriiiihil 

S) . .'.Ml.. XI :r> pi:  



\\ alln. ImS 



Amonir the Ballops During 
the Life and Relarn of the 
Queen. Hv (!. ll,<hl,„ I'ikf. 
With Conlrlbuti.nis by .Akiioh 
Weston and otberx. 8x.^|ln., 
xxlii. • :t2H pp. I,<indon. 18UT. 

H.Mliler and StoUKhton. .Is. fid. 

Letters from Julia, <ir LlKbt 
from the Honlerland. A .Serle>4<if 
MesKa^es as to the Life lieyond the 
Omv... Heeelvetl bv .\iitoniatle 
\\*ritiTiK fnini one who hiis none 
iK-fon'. .'>) ' M>u., xviil. .I!i7 pp. 
I.4>ii<lon. l.sttH. (.rant Kh-hardK. *JH, 

Book-Prloes Current. .\ He- 
eonl of I he HriecH at which books 
have iH'en sobl at Auction, fniin 
lie.-. 'SKI to .Nov. 'il7. Vol. XI, 
xxxviii. -^021 pp. l/<indon. IXtM. 

St.K-k. 27s. tkl. n. 

Memory and l'"> rnltlvatlon. 
Hy f. ir. / , M.K., 

K.It.l'.S. (Th. .1 .>s.i<ii- 

tifle Series). ; j.p. New 

York. INIT. AiMileioM. 81, 5P. 

The Rlg-htly-Produced Voice. 
A Presentation of F'acts and Ar- 
RUint'Ut.s ill support of a New- 
Theory of Voice Production. Hy 
K. Ikirulxon I'almcr, ti|x411n., 
Viil.-H03pp, Uilidon. ISiW. 

J. Williams. 2s. Gd, 

Sunny Memoirs of an Indian 
^Vlnter. Il> Stira II. Ihinn. 
.\utlior.if "The World's lliKliwav," 
a..iAJin., 2211 lip. l.<iTiil.in. l.'<;i.H. 

Walter Scott, lis. 

The Teaps of the Heltades, 
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ISUS, .s^ampson Low. 5m, 

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The Latest FrultlstheRlpesti 
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hood." Hy J-'rcilirirk J. Uant, 
F.ll,C,S. 7jx,51ii., 1211 pp. London, 
18U8. DiKliy, Loiiif. Is. tkl. 

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Fiction? Hy Daviil UaUli. 
M.li.l'Min. 71 ^.'liii., 411 |ip, London, 
Paris, and Madrid, IK1I7. 

Hailliere. Ih. Hil. n. 

NATURAL HISTORY. 
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SiuiipHon I.,ow. Is. 8d. 

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(iuriicy and .lackson. l8, 

PHILOSOPHY. 

Aristotle's Theory of Poetry 
nnd Fine Art. With afrilical 
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in tho University of I'^UnburKb. 
2nd Va\. m-filn.. xxxi. '4lfJ pp. 
Ixindon ami New York, IKils. 

.Ma.'iiiillan. 12~. M. n. 

Principles of Political Eco- 
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M.A., II.Sc. Vol, ll„ Hook III. 

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.ind 
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•  pp. 

.New Vork and London, IhtM. 

Putnam. SI.25. 

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inerly in the ( ieni/a at Cairo, now- 
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S. S.hc.htcr. M..\., University 
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land's Cliun-b. Hv Chtirlrn liullofk, 

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DelKhton Hell. 

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Jitciatuue 



Edited by §. §. SrsUI. 



SATUUDAY, JANUARY 22. IHBH. 

CONTENTS. 



PublUhed by 7br ZimtS. 



rMK 
65 

81 

81 



Ijeading Article— Tlie "Literary" Drama 

" Atnongr my Books," by Stanl«>y I^inc-Poolo 

Poem '• K;iitli-Hi>iiiul," by Stephen PhiUipM 

Revle'ws - 

('hi'istiiia Uossc'tti W 

H.ll.H. The I'lince of Wales (B 

Joscpli Arch 68 

nictioiiiiry of Niitional nio(fniphy 60 

Till Question d'Orient Popiilaire 70 

Hlstopy- 

Mr. Arn<)I(l-Forst<>r'n History of England 71 

Victorian Km Series 71 

Tho UIho of Democracy— The Anglican Revival— John Bright .. 71 

Deoils that Won the Kinpire 73 

Ejvst Anprlia and the Great Civil War 73 

Jja UtSvolution Franeaise 74 

A Iliiiidbook of European History 74 

Spopt— 

KiuRs of the Turf 7."! 

KowtnK -KootlwiU 70, 77 

Teohnloal Apt- 
■Old V".m{ll-<h fllo.-wp'i The C'ommlrs of Swnnxoa «nd Nuntgnrw— 
WliiiliiwM The Training of a CrufUman 77, 78 

Theology- 
Driver's Inti-oduction to the Old Test^unent 78 

American Ijeetures on tho History of Relif^ions 7H 

Woinon of tho Old Tostaninnt- Knglisli Cliiirch Tin. hiiii; -Cmmic^Is 

SclcrtionH from Kariy Writers . . 71), 80 

Fiction— 
Tlio (iroat Stone of Sardt»— Margaret For»tcr-In tho Choir of 
WoMt minster Abbey 82, 83 

The Year's Hellenic Discovery 83 

At the Bookstall 86 

American Letter 88 

Foreign Letters— lUvly 87 

Obituary—" Lewis Carroll"— Mrs. Cowden Clarke— Prof. 

.\rtliur Palmer 8R, Si) 

Coppeapondenoe— A Dictionary of Rngllnh Anthers— Tho Pupils 
of Polcrl he Great (Mr. Niabct Dalnt- Ija Bomantlqne— Mlllals' Eve 
of St. AKr.os— Tho IMyohological Chestnut (Mr. Andrew Lang)— 
Tho French " Tu " fS}, DO 

Notes 00, 91, 82, 03, »», 05 

Xiist of New^ Books and Reprints 00 



THE "LITERARY" DRAMA. 



It is announced from time to time with a certain 
solemnity in the literary columns of the various news- 
papers that tliis or the other more or less popular novelist 
has decided " to abandon fiction for the present and to 
devote himself to writing for the stage." What sort of a 
welcome is accorded to him by those whose ranks he 
joins we do not hear ; but it ought in common consistency 
to be a warm one. Our dramatists ought to welcome him a< 
a new convert to their quite modern faith in the essential 
" solidarity " of the literary and dramatic arts. For quite 
modern it is. English playwrights of the last generation, 
when taxed with the lack of literary quality in their 
Vol. II. Xo. 3. 



dramatic work, were wont to reply— MmrtiniM in drlunt 
i' 1 bumblr 

them how to put literature into a play* Nov and ' 

the invitation was 

results. The new 

was an effervescence of rhetoric and c>]ii(;rBra — cluuii) 

or " ginger-ixjp," at< the ca.«e might U- " 

had 8]>ent itself the ]ilay had (unm 

Thereupon the profexsional playwright would exult with 

a not unwarranted exultation, and ' " 

amateur to admit that llic trick ^ 

looked: an admission which, in view of hi* own Hignal 

failure to i)erform it, the lit ' ... 

jwsition to witidiold. He 

by the retort, more often of course implicit tluin 

express, that if tie had failed to enrich the '" 

stage with a play of literar)- <juality, so iii 

worse was it for the English stage. His own inability to 

re-unite literature with the national drama " 

proved that their divorce was nb-olute. T 

was a retort which the professional playwright, who was 

in those days without literary ambition*, wa n.' '  ' 

with much equanimity, acquiescing in the li 

said, and showing no ]iarticular de-ire for the re-union. 

He wao quite content with the demonstrnf-  *' • ' 

understood his own business, and that it in vol . 

difficult species of skill, of which literary ability imph.-<l no 

necessary command. Whether his craft was tho (•• - - 

the worse for that and whether the making of ] 

a higher or lower art than the writing of liooks 

questions with which the dramatist of an earh'cr gm, ,..- 

tion troubled himself not at all. 

Times, however, have now greatly changed. For, 
although the relation of the ilivoreed «<> ' 
altercil, the fact, curiously enough, is ni 
by that one of the two parties from whom sach acknow- 
ledgment was least to be exjiecteil. Lit<>rature rfcognizM 
that she is not Drama ; while Drama, on the other hand, 
has persuaded herself that she is, or ought to be, Iiteratarv>. 
\M»en, for instance, the novelist of to-day essays the 
making of a play, he is usually almost too conscious th.it 
he must not rely on his literary ajititude for succ«*s. 
Mr. J. M. Barrie, having to adapt one of the r '  -.nbir 
of his romances to the stage, delil^erately anci iwly 

eliminates the romantic element which gave iw whole 
colour and character to the novel, and prp«»nt,s it with 
applause and acceptance as a faroi<"al ivimody. In other 
words, having the instinct of the i! 
sacrificed all that was most "lite;..., .... 
Minister," in order to get the dramatic residuum  
footlights " unencumlx>re«l ■. 

for the purposes of the stage, ......... : 

the other more or less popular novelists who have decided 



66 



LITERATURE. 



[Jaiuinry 22, 1898. 



"to abandon fiction for a time and devote themselves to 
writing for the stage" will adopt the same jiidiiioiis 
method. If they are skilletl in tlie invention of dialofjue 
they will not, to be sure, altoj^ether neglect a gift which 
has, of course, its dramatic value. But unlike the 
litterateur-playwri-iht of n past generation, they will 
anderetand that the modem yilny does not depend for its 
snccess on dialogue, hut on plot, constniction, character- 
ization, and, above all, dramatic action — or, in other words, 
upon ingredients not of a literary, bnt (largely, at any rate) 
of a non-literary kind. That is to say — and the circum- 
stance is one on which literature maj- justly jiride itself 
— the literary man ajiiiears to be mastering the secret of 
his fiulure on the stnp' nt t!)e very moment when the 
professional dramatist seems to he losing' sicrht of the 
secret of his success. 

For nothing, as we all know, will s.itisl'v the 
professional dramatist of the present day but to obtain 
acceptance for his work as " literature." The acclumation 
of his audiences, the accumulation of his royalties, leave 
him apparently a dis}ipi)ointed and discontented man. 
Sui j^itsu gaxtdere theatri is not enough for him? 
ne--' he share the private satisfaction expressed in 

th'- 111 

niihi pinudo 
Ipae domi, simul ac nummos contvmplor in arcA. 
Notoriety far beyond that of the successful author and 
almost equal to that of the popular nctor ; prosperity, 
fruitful enough, in some instances, to provide him in a 
few years with the fortune which it takes most authors a 
lifetime of labour and self-denial to amass ; conditions of 
work which leave him practically free to choose his place 
of abode and his hoars of labour for himself — all these he 
enjoys, yet with all these he is not happy. He cannot 
sleep o' nights, liecause, forsooth, his profoundly interest- 
ing and highly remunerative craft, at once the most 
pleasurable and the most profitable in which men can 
engage, is not admitted to rank as an important branch 
of literature. Dramatic or undramatic, powerful or feeble, 
am tedious, his plays, he feels certain, must be 

— 1 y are — literary. Like the description of Queen 

Elizabeth's side-saddle, which the actors so mthlesslj' cut 
out of Mr. Puffs tragedy, these works have only to he 
printe<l for their merits to appear. And printed they have 
been accordingly by more than one of the leading drama- 
tist* of the day, in a series of handy and elegant volumes, 
sometimes with an introductidn from the jK'n of some 
well-known dramatic critic. 

And the result ? Well, the result has hocii in almost 
every instance disastrous — a more i«infully conclusive 
demonstration of the unhappy divorce above-mentioned 
than W' '' "' ' • exjiected. ^foreover, it has 

been - is; for it is just the most 

effective of the piaj-s, for theatrical i)urpose8, which have 
pp, ^ — -t signally lacking in literary (luality. Few 
exj can be more instructive to the imf»artial 

student tlian a careful ]ierusal of one of these " books of 
the play," when the r»articular play is one at which he has 
previously assisted, and with which he ha.s ba-u heartily 
amtxsed as a spectator. He turns to the best rememl^ered 



" jwints ■' in the dialogue, to the lines which his 
fivourite actor or actress delivered with such ivrre and 
brilliancy, and how astonishingly crude and bald do they 
seem on the printed l>age I What novelist of repute, 
he asks himself, would " |)nss " them in sucli a form ? 
How was it j)ossil)le, he wonders, for the dramatist tiius to 
turn out his epigrams " in the rough " instead of cutting 
and i>olishing them, as it should have been a delight to do, 
till they glittered to the eye of the critical intelligence like 
the diamonds which they — sometimes — are ? The answer, 
of course, is that the dramatist understoo<l his dramatic- 
business, that his dialogue is addressed not to the eye of 
the critical intelligence, but to the ear of the average 
understanding ; and that to make his wit and eloquence 
"carry " across the sUiils to the pit — or even reach the stalls 
themselves, for that matter — it was absolutely necessary to 
use the speech to wliii'h stalls and pit, with but slight 
and superficial differences of grammar and vocabulary, are 
alike accustomed. How widely and aftier how long and steady 
a process of deviation this speech has now dejiarted, even 
in the mouths of educated Englishmen and Englishwomen, 
from the language of literature — from that language to 
which they would themselves at once revert if they sat 
down to write anything but the most familiar of letters j 
from the only language, in short, which will lend itself in 
the smallest degree to the charm of literary expression — 
is a jjoint too obvious to need insisting on. The severance 
lietween the written and the spoken form is wider in 
England to-day than in any other EuroiK'an country : so 
much so that a foreigner who has awjuirwl our language 
through our literature is at once recognized as a foreigner 
by his outlandisli attention to the structure of the English 
sentence. It is jKJssible that the process of severance may 
have completed itself; but at any rate there is no proba- 
bility of a reaction. We are not likely to go Imck to the 
dramatic diction of the forties and fifties — of the Bulwer 
T^ytton comedy, which we think we reject on the sole 
ground of its artificiality of sentiment, but which is really 
quite as far removed from us by the sententiousness of its 
style ; and the stage, which has brokea finally with the jwetic 
drama, and will now l>e "realistic" or nothing, is limiting 
itself more and more exclusively to the use of a "language 
of real life" which, whatever its value and power for 
dramatic i)uri)oses, is becoming more and more incapable of 
receiving the impress of tliose qualities which make litera- 
ture what it is. Yet this is the moment when our 
dramatists, to whom the <'s.'entially unliterary " language 
of real life" is the very bread of their subsistence and the 
master-tool of their handicraft, have with one accord 
resolved to be " literary " or die I 



1Rcvic\V8, 



Christina Rossettl. A HioKiaphical and Critiiul Stnily. 
By Mackenzie Boll. i>> :>i\u., xvi. • '.M pp. Ix.ihIom, ihijh. 

Hurst and Blackett. 12/- 

In the long list of those women wiio have contriliuted 
with success to English verse, two names stimd out so 
jirc-eminently that the liasty critic is justified in saying 
that, in the broad sense, we have had but two female 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



Q7 



eta — Elizabeth Barrett Browiiinjj and ChriHtina Hoiisetti. 
^t is a curiouH tircuinstanco that, although the ' 
"lese (lied thirty-three years before the latter. 
Authorized liioj,'ini)hy of each hius apfn-ared thiH winter 
]ni08t siniultiiiKonsly. But while we were kept too long 
rithout a record of MrH. Browning, the time seemH hardly 
ipe for the memoir of Mitts ]{oH8etti. Her In ' 

iveH U8 the impression of l>eing extremely w 
poned, and he has ^ixireil no jmins in earryinj,' out lh« 
ask. He was the friend of tiie iwet, and enjoyn the 
conKdonce of the last-surviving member of her family; 
hut he appears to have hud litth^ exjierience in literary 
eomiHJsition, and to be painfully timid in aewpting 
critical responsibility. Now, one of the first re(pureinents 
of a biographer is eounige lie must know how to " put 
down his foot"; he nuist be strong enough to defy the 
relatives and companions ol his subject ; he must be able 
to take a line of his own, and stick to it with detennina- 
tion. Of this kind of force j\Ir. Bell seems entirely 
destitute. He is blown along by every wind of doetrine, 
and the result is an enormous book of 304 jtnges, in 
which his ex(juisiter theme is downed in a deluge of the 
unessential. 

When Descartes was asked whether the clattering of 
wooden shoes in the streets of Amsterdam did not disturb 
his meditations, he said, " No more than would the 
babble of a rivulet." Christina Kossetti lived thus in the 
central roar of London, unconcerned by it, unsubjugnted. 
The futilities of middle-class existence in a great town, 
the foiniulas, the vulgarities of society, the influence of 
the ])o\verful minds with which she came in contact 
passed over her without distracting her from her silent, 
central aim. She lived for two great purposes, which 
were closely intertwined — for the service of (Jod, and for 
the practice of her art. Whatever disturbed this two-fold 
dedication was put aside. Twice, as her biographer 
relates, she was offered marriage, and twice was conscious 
of an attractiveness in the proposal. Each time — no 
' loubt with tears, but uncjuestionably with a holy joy — 
she determined not to risk a union with one who might 
conic between her and the double lode-star of religion 
and poetry. Hers was the conventual spirit, but developed 
ill a nature so strong that it required no walls or bars. 
Tremulous and shrinking as she seemed, she was built in 
the most obstinate mould of martyrs. 

This character, then, so unique in oiu* easy-going 
age, this heroic blend of the impjissioned |X)et with the 
I'cstatic nun, is one which might be expected to cai)tivate 
anil inspire an artist in biography. But .Mr. 15ell, good 
honest man, is not an artist in anytliing. He is bound 
hand and foot, in the first place, captive to the terrible 
-Mr. W. yi. Kossetti, that giant of mediocrity, grinding 
liis family annals to dust in the dark. Posterity will 
surely have some very harsh things to say of Mr. Sv. M. 
Kossetti, whose ghost will receive them with the same 
bewildered surprise as George III. did the reproaches of 
his enemies in "The Vision of Judgment." For Mr. W. 
M. Kossetti is a perfectly honest man, guileless and bland. 
He corrected Shelley's grammar, he told the world many 
jirivatc details of his brother's illnesses, he publishetl in a 
I'at volume all the inferior verses his sister, exquisite artist 
that she was, had determined never to print; and in all 
these and many other similar cases he believetl that he 
was acting '• for the best," as tactless jieople say. It is a 
terrible thing to be a perfectly honest man when you have 
absolutely no critical judgment whatever, nor the rudi- 
ments of a sense of projwrtion. 

If we are severe on poor Mr. W. M. Kossetti it is 



Ix'cai 



>-«o(ne (kultM of tliia Ivmk M^m lar 



iiitere«t, tiiut in her youth (Jttriittina n 
and that " Bobiniton Cnuoe" won "nor > - 
him that we owe the hideotu in; 
i.hthftlmie hro! ' ' "from* 



about the 



d. It JH t- 



if. m« fiv 



1 



with lJ»i» kind of Htnt<in<-nt. To .Mr. W. M. ]; 

fact is a fact, and all facUt are of e<|unl valu<-. .« i,.,. 

aiwtit a "knobbed tKxlkin" i» a« precioux. neitli<-r mon- 

nor leiw, than the most i 1 

soul of a mystic. If Mr. 1' 

he would have accepted all thi- ji-jum- i 

him by Mr. W. M. Kosiwtti, and woui . . 

rejected whatever did not 8cr\e his purpow. 

visibly shudders under the eye of t' •• -■• •  • 

and down goes the whole material, 

elalwi id all. 

^\ i)e ti-mpteH trt f?n iTiin«t)ce to 

this Ijijok. It contains a gi' .' of 

Christina Kossetti (and they ;u' h > 

will be very glad to receive. Mr. Bell's good I. 

suspicion, and his enthusiasm for his 

excessive nor ill-directetl. We do not t 

sense very acutely ' d in him, an 

with this jKJet, wIm '^-sses are so : 

her failures so complete, no little of this quahiy is n-'piired. 

But Mr. Bell deserves full credit for ■'■■■ ;-.>-'.„. 

matter. He is the first student of the wti; 

Kossetti who has observe<l the singular ii oi 

"Time Flies" in the order of h«»r Ivioku. '• ■■n" 

is an unattractive little volii- 

.S.P.C.K. in their leiLst syiiq . . - 

pious reflections, in prose and verse, for every day in the 

year. Several of the jK)em8, esjiecially tl-  ' -^nhle 

rondeau beginning " If love is not worth 1 ive 

found their way into till ,. • > , 

said that this book is i 

l«'0[)le. The /orm«< is 

seems to be a mere ni' 

our heiuiy thanks for h.aving discovered that "Time 

Flie.s " is full of delicious little scraps of aut ' •  '  

most of them, indeed, extremely " mild " — sn 

be the coni" ' 'f a turtle-<l<i'. 

but most < -tic. often mc 'tid 

full of a hue sort of invisible wit. < »i 

the kind of things that Walter Pater, a k . 

spirit, used to say, when he unbent. 

Christina Kossetti was bom in Ixmdon oii '*' 

of December, 1830, being the youncest of the 
children of the Italian jinf ' ' 

No one could, in such intel! 

live a life more jxTsistently se«piestered. That sne 
travelled to Brighton, and again a.« far a« Fronie, an- 
events of positive importance. In 18GI and again io 
18G5 she went abroad, and reached Italy; but if she 
enjoyed much, she saw little on these travels. She wa* 
attacktxl by serious illness in 1ST' 
recoverwl, she lieeame muff* wedded 
cloistral life in Bl At last i 

themselves into an I-. a from her 1. 

and Iwck again. Later she suffered greatly once man, 
and on the 2J)th of Deeembi-r, 1S94, she »a* released 
from long weariness and jiein. In such a life there is 
little scope for the biographer, unless he is poetewed of 

6-8 



«s 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



unui<iiAl Rift.* of proiwrtion and insight ; and Mr. Kell is 
not aidtxl in his exi-ellent intentions by a harvest of 
letters, for Christina I{o#setti, curiously enouph, turns out 
to have lieen a very jvwr and tame corresjxjndent. 

Afier all. though we tuni with curiosity to Mr. Bell's 
paffw, and though we are glad to iios.<5es« many things 
which thi.x volume for the first time gives us, a biograplu* 
of CIiri>tina lioesetti is not essential to a comprehension 
of her place in literature. She live.-s b}' certain verses 
which a single small book would contain, and in that 
confined space she lives magnificently. If we regard, not 
bulk nor width of subject nor variety of style, but 
transcendent excellence in what a writer does best, 
Christina Rossetti takes her place in the first rank of the 
poets of the ^'ictorian age. Tennyson, whose j)oetical 
judgment.* were seldom at fault, " expressiHl," his son tells 
us, "profound resjiect for Christina Hossetti, as a tnie 
artist." She was, indeed, one of the truest that this 
century has seen, and it is inconceivable that a time can 
ever come when her starry melodies are rejieated to 
unre,«ponding ears. She is, indeed, the standing exception 
to that gent-nil rule, from which Mrs. Browning herself 
is r pt, that women take insuflScient jwins to be 

fim- i concise. In her great l}Tics, such as "Passing 

away, saith the World," "At Home," "A Birthday," or 
" A Better Resurrection," not a word is out of place, not 
a cadence neglected, and the brief poem rises with a 
crescendo of jmssion. This is what all lyrical poets are 
called to do, but alas ! how few are chosen ! 



H.R.H. The Prince ofWales. An jirnonnt of his career, 
inchuling his liirlli, iihicntion, travels, inarriaffe ami home life, 
and philanthropic, social, and political ^v()l'k. l)| - lljiii. l!*ll 
adon. 1898. ~ - - - 



Lond 



Qrant Richards. 10;6 



^^ 



Considerable interest and curiosity were aroused 
recently by the announcement tliat a life of the Prince of 
Wales was about to make its appearance, and it became 
the duty of LiUrnture to contradict certain unfounded 
statements as to the identity of the anonymous author of 
the book. We have now to welcome the account of the 
Prince's career which gave rise to these speculative asser- 
tions, and we are happy in being able to do so without 
resene. The author shows througiiout the skill which 
one expects of an accomplished writer. The book is 
brightly written, it is interesting from the beginning to 
the end, and it contains an amount of information about 
his Royal Highness which is quite suqirising in so small 
a comjMss. 

P'ew things are more diflficnlt than to write a biography 
of a distinguished living person which shall he at once 
truthful, adcHjuate, unim])eachable in the article of good 
taste, and yet not dull. Every reader of this life of the Prince 
of Walee will admit that this difliiculty has been faced and 
snooeMfully overcome. It is often said that his Royal High- 
new is one of the hardest worked men in the kingdom; and 
if there be any who are inclined to doubt the accuracy of 
the statement they may be referred for confirmation of it 
to this book. Here is proof sufficient to satisfy the most 
flceptical of the incessant claims Uf)on the Prince's time, 
and the arduous nature of his duties. The newsjwjKTs 
liave nuule us all more or less familiar with his Royal 
Highness's jmblic career, but his domestic life is naturally 
a tiling a]iart. Our author gives us pleasant and welcome 
glim[i«M>s of the Prince at home, intersrjersing them with 
many an inU-resting anecdote. The illustrations are 
numerous and well-chosen, the frontispiece being a 
}iortrait of the Prince from the full-length painting by Mr. 



Archilmld Stuart Wortley, wliich is generally considered 
to be the best likeness of him ever done, while throughout 
the book there are numerous portraits of his Royal 
Highness at various stages in his career, from bis infancy 
until the ))reseiit time. IVIany jiortraits are also given of 
the Princess who so early liecame the bride of the Heir to 
the Throne, who has shared his exalted station with 
dignity and grace not to lie suq)assed, and who has 
captured and retained the affection of the land of lier 
adoption by her womanly sweetness and charm. 

We have not space to make more than one <iuotation 
from this book, but we cannot resist the teinptation to 
reproduce the following paragraph, which will help the 
reader to understand better than any description could do 
the way in which the author has treated his suliject : — 

It netnl hardly be said that the first portion of the Prince 
and Princess of VValos's marrie<l life was overshadowed by the 
war between Denmark and I'mssia. Tlie yming Princess was 
naturally strongly jiatriotic in her syiupikthiei. At breakfast 
one morning a foolish equerry reml out a telegram which 
announced a success of the Austro-l'russiun forces, whereupon 
hor Royal Highness burst into tears, and the Prince, it is said, 
thoroughly lost his temper for once, and rateil his equerry ns 
roundly as his ancestor, Henry VIII. might have done. An 
amusing story went the ro\nul of the clubs alwut this time. It 
was said that a Royal visitor at Windsor aske^l Princess Beatrice 
what she would like for a present. The child stood in doubt, 
and begged tlio Princess of Wales to advise her. The result of 
a whispereil conversation between the two was that the little 
Princess declared aloud that she would like to have Bismarck's 
head on a charger ! 

The concluding chapters of the Iwok deal with the 
life of the Prince at Sandringliam and in London, his 
personal characteristics, and his interest in sjwrt. They 
have been written with tact and discretion, and, while 
full of information of a kind adapted to satisfy the 
legitimate curiosity of the public with respect to the 
tastes and surroundings of our future King, they never 
once transgress the limits prescribed by good breeding 
and good sense. It is not the least merit of this life of 
the Prince of Wales that it tells its story in a simple and 
straightforw.ard way, and without a trace of sycopliancy. 
In appearance the volume is very attractive, being well 
printed and handsomely bound. 



Joseph Arch. Edited, with a Preface, bv the Countess 
ofWarwick. 84 x5Jin., 4()0 pp. London. ISlis. 

Hutchinson. 12;- 

This considerable volume is Mr. Arch's autobiogmphy, 
prepared for the press by Ijidy Warwick, whose ajiprecia- 
tive preface ])ays a graceful and suitable compliment to a 
Warwickshire man. Candour obliges us to add that the 
autobiography is at least as ap]ireciative as the ]>reface, 
and that this is the chief fault of the book. At tlie same 
time, Mr. Arch has done a great deal in which he may 
legitimately take pride. He began life as a lalx)urer, in 
the cottage of his ancestors ; lie has devoted his life to the 
interests of his class, and has worked for them, not in- 
effectively, l>oth in the country and in Parliament ; and he: 
is fully entitled to look back upon a well-sjient life as he 
jia.s.ses the evening of his days in his old home. There is 
great interest, therefore, in .Mr. Arch's own account of him- 
self an<l his achievements, the most iin|)ortant of which, 
un(piestionably, was the formation of the Agricultural 
I^abourers' I'nion in 1872. If the condition of our farm 
laljourcrs has definitely and decich^dly improved in con- 
sequence of the action of this Union, Mr. Arch will le 



I 

I 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



«» 



genfrnlly adinittoil to Imvo done sgrpat and a |Mtri<>tic 
work; for notliing tan \w more jMitriotic than to lalx)iir 
for tlm wcll-hciiig of a class on wlioni the futiin- ph^-hujui- 
of our race so lar},'cly (lt'])i>nils. 

But the worst of it is that, the moment we leave the 
shelter of a safe genenil tnith such as this, we find our- 
selves not only on dehateahle f,'n>und, hut on jjroiind that 
lina b(>cn hotly eontroverted for niiiny years. Nothing' is 
more (lirti( iilt than to ascertain the i)recise j>osition of the 
nj,'ricnltunil lahourer either to-day, or 25, or .50, or 1(K) 
years ago ; nothing can be mucii less conclusive than the 
articles and thehooks that have been written alx)ut him. His 
circumstancea vary with oacli county ; his domestic budget 
in Norfolk by no means represents the income and exju-n- 
diture of a Wiltshir a Somerset lalM)urer. If his con- 
dition is better now than it used to be — and there are some 
who deny it — it is not absolutely certain that the Tnion 
has brought about the amelioration. What is certain is 
that in the general advance of the standard of comfort the 
agricultural labourer has lagged behind, iierhaps willinglv, 
jierhajjs compulsorily, anil that the ingniined conservatism 
of his natun- has not been revolutionizetl by a mere 
advance of wages. He has a vote ; but no one knows how 
or with what ulterior objects he uses it. He apiwars to be 
poor, but often has surprising private resources ; he is igno- 
rant, but has a great deal of knowledge ; in short, he 
is a jirosaic analogue of the fnmiie inconif/rise. It is 
easy, therefore, to assign to Mr. Arch too much or too 
little inthicnce over the ill-understood change that is 
slowly taking i)]ace. As for Mr. Arch's liook — though age 
is apt to be garrulous, especially in the case of a self-made 
man — we may say, without unliindness, that it would have 
been none the worse for a little more com] tress ion, and 
that the author gets rather out of his depth in writing of 
ditticult economic questions. The liest i)art of the b<x)k 
is that which sticks moat closely to the main subject — to 
the condition of Mr. Arch's own class, and to his own 
efforts on their behalf. Mr. Arch, by the way, though a 
labourer himself, had advantages of a somewhat unusual 
kind. His father, to whom he ow«l miich, livetl in his 
own freehold cottage, and his mother — *' mother, teacher, 
councillor, guide, and familiar friend " — was a woman 
whose strength of mind would have made her remarkable 
in any rank of life. The Arch family seem to have been, 
as Mr. Arch says, " Dissenters by nature," and to have 
cherished a strong natural anta;^onism to the constituted 
authorities of the jmrish of Harford, though it does not 
appear that these authorities, either lay or clerical, were 
more oi)i)ressive than was usually the case seventy years 
ago. All the same, we will not defend them ; they cannot 
be defended on any mixlern theory of society ; we would 
rather commend tlie Arch family for their inde))endenoe. 
Such, however, was the atmosphere in which Mr. Ariji's 
earlier life was spent — an atmosphere of contnisted ])overty 
and wealth, in which the j)oor were e.\i)ecte<l to be 
at once subsenient and contented. Mr. Arch describes 
with much bitterness the unha))j)y but inevitable lot of 
the Warwickshire labourers of his time, and the discon- 
tent and misery which made them ]>lastic material for his 
agitation — we use the wonl agitation in no lind sense. 
lUit thev wanted a leader, and found one in the man who 
ci'rtainly had courage to lead and a tongue to jH>rsuade. 

It was in February, 1872, that the Union was started, 
and from small beginnings it soon spread throu<jh War- 
wickshire, Hucks, Norfolk, Dorset, Worcestershire, and 
Gloucestershire, and became an organization with which 
lx)th farmers and landlords hml to reckon. Mr. Fawcett 



Mr. < 



I were nmone it* ear!t» 
iv, It exjiitit 1 



the ! 

this w<' u HI li 

sion of the In 



nmn^i ..^ 

the HtifUKth of con 



I u( tbi 



Dictionary of Natlona 
Lee. Vol. 1,111. iSiiiiiii 
Ixncliin, ima. 



 I I 



Umith, 



.S..lr.. y 

16/- a. 



Mr. Auberon Herbert, I^ord Edmond Fitzmaurice, and ' had to deal 



Hio^ 

from the name of .smith to that ot " 

comjinss we have the lives of A<liii 

both by Mr. Leslie Ste]>hen ; Smollett and !<■ 

liord .Sunderland, by Mr. .S-ccomU-; I>ml S. 

.1. M. Hici; ; Southey. by Dr. HichanI <i,  

VaIuv ~ neTf by 1' ' ' 

in c on. Till 

many ."^mitiis, .Stmersets, .S)mervill 

and other names which figure men' ... . 

the national annals must contribute tou 

these four hundre<lanil ' ' ' 

There may Ix' some d- 

of this or that not 

toweupy. Thus, ~ 

of Aarons, of whom one, an associate and imitator 

Oates, is exhau.'itively dealt with in someth: 

columns ; whilst an allegeti pirat<' who oi: 

said to have playe<l a j>art in i" 

his countn.', though he figureil ; 

furnislunl materials for an inditVerent Ikhik, is 

with a column and two-thirds. Half the -i«.> 

have sufficed for this shady pair; but it i 

that some one or other in the future in-- 

chapter and verse in regard to both of f : 

for us to complain of t' 

reference. Indee<l, tl 

enonnous cumulative value of this i 

when complete, will have nothing 

any lanj,'uage. The historian, tht- 

literature, science, or the arts, who 

ajtpreciate the thoroughness with •. 

and their contributors have worl 

years i>ast. are in duty bound ; 

mony to that effect. 

The clear atmosphere and dry light wl 
been taught to expect in Mr. Stephen's bi<i 
conspicuous in his treatment of \ ' 
article is symjwthetic and eeneni' 
another column or two 

a detaileil analysis of " i.. 

relations of the author to previong and . 

writers in Britain and on the Continent Mr. 

plenty to say. and it would jwnsibly have t.i 

yond the proj- 

to trace the 

economists have dublied ••  

trast it with the heresies . 

nineteenth century. Yet the 

would have warranted such mi 

necessary sjmce might have been • 

But as a nde the e<litor has v. 

l>aees amongst the men and «■ 



of Titu« 

 - two 
. be 



^ of 



aiy 

ha* 



ere. 



yo 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



In the domain of historical biography, a \oIamc 

ill'" "" " " '^ r, Somors, and Somerset 

c<' .■. and tlie iirti.les on 

S. 1 Sunderland, to which we have already 

dr.:. :. ..:;. iition, do much in combination to illumine the 
dosing decades of the seventeenth century. The life of 
the second Earl of Sunderland was one of extraordinnry 
intrigue, effrontery, brilliance, and disijrace. A jiolitical 
Uunixx>n of his day describeil him as 

A Proteus, ever acting in disguise ; 
A fiiiislipd statesiiuu), iutricat«ly wis« ; 
A second Machiavol, who soar'd abuvo 
Tho littlo tvcs t)f gratitude ujid lovo. 

Admirably brought up by his mother (Dorothy Sidney), 
hi- ' i bad start in life by marrying the profligate 
Ai '•■. witli whom it was impossible for him to be 

ai: ate and an intriguer. The 

Voi _ IS to i>ay assiduous court to 

the King's mistresses. They entertained tlie Duchess 
of Cleveland at Althorp ; and when de Keroualle's star was 
in the ascendant they were equally hospitable to her, 
and lost '•< sums" to her at basset. Sunderland 

himself, an . ud insinuating, ingenious in counsel 

but fatally unscrupulous, ran the whole gamut of shifty 
intrigue, from the meanest venality to the most lavish 
ostentation, from Protestantism to Popery, and back to 
Protestantism, bribing himself into office, plotting against 
every master whom he seni'd, and, when exjiosed and 
di- liimself into office again by abject and 

tnn -y. The Princess Anne wrote of the 

earl and iiis wife, in a letter to her sister Mary, on the eve 
of the Kevolution : — 

Sure there nevtr was a couple so well matched as her and 
her fziiod husbnnd : fdr slio is tlio greatest jado that ever lived, 
so he is the subu-llciit, workinest villain on the face of tho earth. 

Yet so great wns Sunderland's skill in statecraft that he 
plaj'ed a ] i«rt in effecting the constitutional 

changes of . d rendered conspicuous senice both to 

William and to Anne. There is no more startling paradox 
in English history tlian that which is presented by the 
character of the wise and otherwise worthless Robert 
Spencer. Mr. '^ ' • mentions to his credit that he 

stored Althorp > jaintings, and "laid the founda- 

tions of the 6i)lendid library " ; but here, we think, the 
biographer claims for the second earl a merit which belongs 
to nis son and successor in the title, Charles Spencer. 
Evelyn, who knew the family, and visited at Althorp, tells 
us that the young man was an assiduous collector of Ijooks 
at the age of nineteen, and the first large purchase (the 
Scarlwrough Libnu-y) was made in the year IG05, when 
Lord Sjjencer came of age. 

W',  .served too little sjiace in wliicli to deal 

with I. > on Sjjenser, Smollett, Southey, Sydney 

 Smith, and other men of letters. More than one of them 
deserve sjiocial commendation for their methodical and 
well-balanced arrangement. The biography of Spenser 
is a model in this resjiect, for its twenty-seven columns 
maintain a due projKirtion between jiersonal biography 
all' lessive criticism and 

bii . _. 1 : • . ._, uiiji has always been 

borne to Spenser as a begetter of English jKx-ts is very 
striking, and his apjireciation by his countrymen has 
never varied from that of the I^tin distich inscribed by 
one of his f ' i his tombstone : — 

Hie ; . , . '.. ..auc«rum, Spensore, poeta pootam, 
Condcris, ot remu qnam tumulo propior. 



La Question d'Orient Populaire. Pai- Charles 
Sancerme. Amc caitv.s histuriiiucs (III Colonel Niox. 
li» X Ojin., V. + 138 pp. Paris, 1807. Delag^ave. 

Notwithstanding; tho alarming proportions which tho litera- 
ture of tho Kastern Question is assuming, hardly u day passes 
without «omo new work on tlio suhject making its ap|>earance. 
Tho littlo l)Ook which M. Charles Sanccrmo has produced is not 
thu least ambitious of recent |>id)lications on this intricate 
<|uestion. it boldly faces diflicultios which the most dis- 
tinguished statesmen and diplomatists of modern times have 
found insurmountable, and provides tlic crowned heads of 
Europe with u means of laying once for all tho ghost which has 
so often risen to disturb their peace of mind. In tho Inief sjiaco 
of 1158 pages tho author disposes of tho whole matter with a 
focility which is positively refreshing. He Iwgins with u series 
of geographical and historical notes derived from Colonel Niox's 
♦' Atlas do Gt'ographie Gc'nt'ralo," with statistical, historical^ 
and geographical information by tho samo author. Ho then 
proceeds to give tho history of the Eastern Question diving the 
present century, this Ixsing extractod from the " Histoire Con- 
temporaine " of MM. K. Sudrus and £. Guillot. Then coraes 
his own contribution, which is an ex]>lanation of the question 
and its cauEos, its lioaring ou tho interest of Franco, tho attitude 
of the Powers towards it, and its relation to their interests. 
Finally, ho proscnts us with the solutiim. It is this 
lust part of tho book which is the most interesting. This is 
what tho author proposes : — There is to bo a Italkan Confedera- 
tion ; Bulgaria, Servia, Rumania, and Montenegro are to pro- 
servo their present frontiers. Austria would evacuate Uosnia- 
Herzogovina, which would Ixsconie un autonomous principality. 
Macedonia, Albania, and Thrace wocdd become autonomous 
principalities. Greece would annex tho island of Crete, which 
she alone demands. Constantinople would become tho capital 
of the federation, where the federal assembly and tho admini- 
strative Euro|iean commission would sit. Tho Turks inhul>iting 
Euroje would bo free to remain with all their goods, and would 
enjoy the same liberties as the other inhabitants. Tho Sultan 
would bo deported to Asia Minor, which would bo the new 
Ottoman Empire, created and organized l)y Europe. 

And how is all this to bo accomijlished ? The answer is 
simple enough. The lirst thing to be done is to assemble a 
concress. This congress will bo held in lielgium or Switzerland, 
in order to bo protected from any influence on tlie part of tho 
Great Powers acting independently. Each of tho six Powers 
would have one delegate or more, tho number in any case Iwing 
equal. The other States — Turkey, Spain, Portugal, Sweden, 
Norway, Switzerland, Belgium, Holland, Denmark, Rumania, 
Servia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, and Greece — would each have 
one delegate, who would assist at the congress w ith a consulta- 
tive voice only. These delegates would be able to make pro- 
positions. Tho mifsinn of the congress would bo the definitive 
solution of the Eastern Question ; and thout-'h the probable out- 
come of such an attempt presents a prospect not exastly 
alluring to those who have followed tho proceedings of tuo 
Concert of Europe, yet M. Sancerme is convinced that, 
inasmuch as his scheme could injure the interests of none of the 
Powers, it would be accepted by every one but the Sultan, upon 
whom it would be forceil. 

With respect to England we aro told that — 

It if in C(in(*inpt iif low, cimtrnrj- to tho wish nf Europe ami of 
R|ry|it, tluit the Knglinh occupy the rich liiuiin of the Niln sd<1 the bniik* 
of tbv Kuez CmikI ; tlii« <lt-plrirnbl« nituatinn has Instod too luiiK : it 
niunt rcue. EnKland will be, in reality, the grrnt benpllciary of tbe 
new ftatv of tbingt rrriit«<l, and iibi> must eotoeni herself hiil>py if tho 
congn-M leaves htr the inland of Cypnin. 

lu reading this book we have been irresistibly reminded of a 
slight, but amusing, sketch of a literary Bohemian in Paris, 
drawn by the skilful hand of M. Franvois Copp^, in an article 
entitlo<l " Sciences I'olitiques." M. Coppi<o says : — 

I'our mm port, jf< n'ai connu qu'un gnillard qui fOt tria fort rn 
politique. Le jeu det iostltatioiu inrlrmentairea n'arait pas do secret 
pour lui, et il coDnalanait la quedion d'Urient commc  pocho. . . . 



Jauuur^ -:i, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



71 



Cert liomm«>-li\ n'avnit pan iino pitrnil pour dire Mn f«lt A I'Aafletom on 
pour rappclor li's niicienii pkitia il la puilaiir. 

It woulil appear that tlio raoo ia not uxtinct. 




HISTORY. 



Ilstory of England, from ihc I-nnlin^ nf Julitis 

ICivMiiito 111.- I'ns.iii |),iy. Hy H. O. Amold-Porster. Willi 

IlliLstratiotiH. Kiiiio., KU p]>, Loiitloii, INi/7. Oossoll. &• 

Not ovon tho minor pnets havo kept poco during th.> lout fivo 
years with tho minor historiims. Tho demand for achnol 
histories o( England sooms insatiable, and tho sui>i>Iy, on the 
whole, is of good quality. We hoiMj that before long Colliur 
and othor enormities of middle-class schools may disappear 
among tho siilimergod tenth, and that their places may bo Tdlod 
by works at onco more accurate and more interesting, among 
which doubtlosa a higli place will be taken by Mr. Amold- 
Forstor's sane and interesting book. 

Tlio fashion has lutoly been 
writing of historical schoolbooks 
result lias been that we havo had tho ii' 
Oardinor, of Mr. York Powell and Mr< 



£ollowp<1 

to : 



of 



giving tho 
and tho 
looks of Dr. 
Tout, of Dr. G. W. 
I'rotlioro, tho "Oxford Manuals of English History," and, amid a 
host of others, perhaps beat of all, Mr. Oman's compact and 
scholarly volume, which schoolboys and undergraduates, wo 
believe, prefer to all its competitors. IJut why hIiouUI tho field 
1)0 given up to tho aggressive specialist ? There is certainly 
ample space for a book such as tho one before us, written by a 
politician and man of the world. 

Mr. .Smold-Korster in a pleasant dedication tolls u.-) that he 
first wrote his book for the '• bonolit and instruction " of hia 
O'vu boy, and that ho has boon frequently indebted to his friendly 
onticistii. This accounts alike for the merit and the defect of 
the book. The merit is conspicuous. Mr. Arnold-Korster has 
tried to tell a story such as a boy likes to hear and to repeat. 
Ho bus illustratod it with manifold knowledge, with wise sows 
and modern instances. lie has not shrunk from a style which 
recalls Mr. Kingston and Captain Marryat rathor than Mr. 
Froudo or Mr. Lecky. Above all, he has striven to retain, in tho 
inevitable struggle with tho storn duty of compression, as much 
of romance and dramatic incident as ho could think of or his 
readers remomlier. In all this he has succeeded, and the book 
has tho conspicuous merit of being eminently bright and 
vigorous. Its defect Eccm.s to us equally clear, ar.d we 
think that it is easy to remedy. Mr. Arnold-Forator, with- 
out any of tho vices of the specialist, has too foir of 
his scanty virtues. He is here and there unnecessarily in- 
aoourato and out of date. When ho had finished his maiuiscript 
iio should have handed it for suuijcstions to some dry ;i 

college common room, who has kept apace with modi, 
if with nothing else. Ife should have received his vuitiblo 
corrections with complacency and embodied only those which 
commondod thomsolvos to his own judgment. Wo havo not tlio 
slightest doubt that many of the corrections would have been 
rejected, but that those which tho author would havo occepte<l 
would have very greatly enhanced tho value of tho book. 

Wo may proceed, then, in the spirit of a dryasdust who 
desiderates accuracy as well as vigour, to point out a few of tho 
passages which have brought us to our conclusiiin. Is it of any 
value to the school boy that wo should persist in speaking of Hengist 
and Horsa as if their existence had rccoivo<l no more seriously 
sceptical assault than that of Napoleon underwent in Wliatoly's 
'• Historic Doubts?" Is it quite certain (with a yell of derision 
local antiquaries from every shire answer " No," and wo are 
bound to say that historians support tho nogativo) that 
Brunanburgh, which Mr. Amold-Forster quaintly makes tho 
English chronicle call " Brumby," is near Beverley ? If he 
must compare " Anglo-Saxon " Lincolnshire with tho county 
council division to-<lay, he should be accurate where the school- 
boys themselves may correct him, and rememlier that there is no 
county council of Lincoln, but of Lindsey. Becket has been for 



the laat 700 yttm a 

h.. .t...„1.l i.. ...Ii. 



prieti 
For*t«r ri 



'it thM« U no naatm mhf 

omoriM, |)«irlwf«, of tJMt 

KraMQMi na*>l t« Mjr U« 

. "Kiymui. And • ••rjr l»- 

MMrtMl tiukt •• faa tl I wi • 

1. Hm Mr. AnoU- 

••ri»My not th* etm 

I Um C«»< 

Artkk el 

' tfukilftten 



arts on ; 
nt ; we 1 
Wo tal. 



.aixl 



at 
tb- 



had livid in vain : 
There are «omo v. 
pilloried as ''TwoEvi: 
like tho authority for tho .^^. 
bitter offence to all who n 



(Uc 
arx 



if hu tinul H . 
rf Divine It. 
;ow word- 

T...t BUffl'l 

"ra," and wo 



whilfi 



might bo corrected by a .- 

seem to us to constitute i... ... .^. .. » ; . . '. 

excellent school history. We advise Mr. Art. 
borrow a professional historian in time to r«Ttau ms m^-' >.< 
edition. 
'I . 

way. 

to every i 

any way 

to begin to think about polities in :. 

And wo cannot forlicar to quote tho wnril 

" In l;->80 tho Boers roso in rebellion. 

„,...;.,.^ !!'em were defi-- ••■ ' ' — 

! nd gave up tb.' '< r i 

l.i.;, : - t -Ml 

and   • 1 

done . 



.10 taken from 
but a in* ot Um new dtmwinga 



The Rise of Dcniocra 
2."iJ pji. The Anglican Ko . 
Canun of 1  . .'■ i.ii. 

M.A. 21 
OlasgKW. . 



■<\. 



.T. Hoiianci Hose, U.A. 
J. H. Overton, D.D., 

inn ICrtx S«'i 



and it woald be diflcult to 



The namo of nories is le«rion 

invent a new ov 
T|.„ T,ovf!ty of ; 

:;o thinl \ 

.is in the 
with " the great movements and •£• 

tho life work of its typical and in: ' i* 

mended by its cheapness, and the volomc*. promised, for tbe 
most part, from represent"'"   -'^ -« •■••. • • -• >■ » ^iA- fi«l.l. 
including education an<! 
colonies and India, the noreusn.ur. vic.r^etii»iin;.»»«i- r«vwuii^ 



sod 



72 



LITERATUKE. 



[January '22, 1898. 



1, will dMi with Dickeni), the oratnr, and the divine. 
TIm thrM alMtdiM bcforu us are its tirst fruit:), the tirKt l>eiog 
Um work of the Aditor of the series. Although thoso are some- 
what unequal in merit, they will umlouhtcdiy Hupply in an 
original form a useful record of th« reign, and the life of John 
B»%fat will, un the whole, afford a satisfactory rcjily to the 
obrious obj«otion tliat the mixture of movements and men in the 
■abcBM of tho svrifs is unsyinmetrical, and necessitates over- 
lapping. 

Mr. Boae is well ami favourably known as tho author of a 
lucid t«zt-book on tlic " Revolutionary and Napoleonic Era," 
which was a ver}* model of terseness and of dexterity in tho 
marshalling of details. It is a pity tltat he has ilepartod from 
the clear and virile stylo of that volume in the book now before 
ns, which is marred by a forced liveliness, by all sorts of strained 
locutions, and even at times by slang. Still, after duo dciluc- 
tion is made for these irritating deformities, Mr. Rose's book 
remains a highly meritorious sketch of tho manifestations of 
democracy, as democracy is understood in England, during 
tho present reign. Mr. Rose holds that English notions of 
democracy are " insular, economic, and practical," and so 
ho devot«s himself rather to a record of tho nxlress of class 
grievances than to special activities of democracy as such. With 
cheery optimism he decries tho theoretical democrats on tho 
Continent, and he ia ever jubilating un England's good 
fortune and good sense in avoiding such chimeras as have 
led IfYance, Ocrmany, and Italy into unprolitablu excess. 
There mfty be somotliing perhaps in tho fact, not mucli dwelt 
on by Mr. Rose, that, alono among tho great Powers of tho 
world, Britain has escaped war in any rude form for close on a 
century ; and historj' may not join in the attributing of her 
present prosperity and power to democracy alone, or perbaiis at 
all. But ^Ir. Rose is ttruggling between pathetic belief in tlio 
creed of democracy and tlie Imperial fervours of Jubilee year ; 
■o he reconciles his creed to his emotion b3' tho easy pla.n of 
making Fitt, Palnjcrstn, and Bcaconsfield complemental to 
Cobden, Bright, and Gladstone in the fulfilment of the whole 
mission of democracy. Tho sketch in this way is largely 
journalistic ; but in the arrangement and deploying of details 
the skill shown in Mr. Rose's earlier book stands him once more 
in good stead, and we have ta admire tho easy way in which 
be dresses his ranks anl sets them in array. Accurately 
his book may be called a sketch of Chartism and Radicalism, 
with some thoughts on the now Imperialism ; and so under- 
stood (all theories act aside), it may be recommended as an 
atlmirablo summary of oil tlie objective politicil movements 
in England since the great Reform Act of 1832. In the preface 
Mr. Rose tells us tliat he has turned of fixed intent to men 
and names on whose record ordinary histories are nearly 
silent ; and, indeed, we meet lialf-forgotton or wholly forgotten 
or likely-to-be-soon-forgotten iiersons crowding and jostling 
each other in every page, so that wo are at any rate not dis- 
tracted by the brilliancy of the actors from the argument of 
the drama. The only serious attempt nvuto by Mr. Rose at tho 
fall presentation of an historical figure is in tho very difliciilt 
case of Feargns O'Coiuior, and hero most certainly he does not 
achiere sn c cess. But as long as he keeps to narration and 
enomeration be does well. It is a pity that he h.is thought it 
nece ssa r y to play pranks with his useful an<l solid knowledge. 

No series of sketches dealing with the Victorian Era could 
be complete without an account of the revival in the English 
Church, which is almost coincident witii tho reign. " The 
Anglican Revival " is rightly npoken of by its author as an 
att< "«t an existing need. Many have not tlio time or 

the :i V> attark tho vast lilirary of Uvch and reminis- 

cences wlncli form the literature of Church life during this 
pariud, and yet want Komething more detailed than the brilliant 
last chapter of Mr. Wakeman's " History of the Church of Eng- 
land." Dr. Overton is well known a-t a student of the Church life 
of the lAth and early 19th century ; and we are not 8urpri8e<I to 
find bim insisting on the logical ae<|uenc« between tho Evangel ical 



and Anglican revivals. But he does good service also in pointing 
out that the Oxford Movement wos not on exotic, but a re.stora- 
tion of character, a return to the old [laths, and tliat tho gradual 
recognition of this has Ikjoh tho secret of its sncco8.s. Keblo 
recognized ttie Tractoriaii dtvctrineH as " what were taught him 
by his father." Hook preached them II years before the " Movo- 
mtnt " Wgan. Tho I'm Me<lia was no new invention ; it was 
simply " the religion of all English Churchmen who hail adhoretl 
faitiifuUy to the original intention of tho Engli.sh Reformation." 
The great autlior of the phrase did not recognize this ; to him it 
" hatl novor existed except on paper." Dr. Overton is skilful in 
tracing tho progress of Newman's mind before his secession. Ho 
shows once more tliat Newman never had, from association or 
conviction, that conuino lovo for and trust in the English 
Church which kept Keble and Pusey firm in their loyalty to it. 
And thus 

The i^oeiiiion of a uumlnT of men who lis'l Ijimu manife»tly 
tending tow»r.li Home for some time wa« roilly a relief and cauiic of 
litrrniith to Ihoiie who (till rrninincJ loyal to the Knglish Church. . . . 
'I'hc true Church of Englniid wn» not a thinu to be BiHjIogireil for, and 
made the !*« of, but a thing to be gloried io, and to be thankful for ; 
and it wsh foon found that all except a Mnnll minority, who had been 
more Roman than English Irom the Or»t, accepted it aa such. 

The " goings-out " of 1845 and 1860-51 were defections of 
leaders. Since the Oxford Movement has fairly developed 
into the Anglican revival, few of the seccders have been 
men of whom such a term could bo used. Cp to 1845 
Dr. Overton has had the guidance of Dean Church's 
classic "Tho Oxfonl Movement," and it has tempteil him 
to give to the earlier period a disproportionate amount of 
space. When he comes to tread comparatively new ground hi^ 
work is much loss satisfying. Tho sketch of Dr. Hook's 
parochial, and Bishop Wilborforce's diocenan, labonrs and tho 
analysis of the causes of the success of the revival are, so far as 
they go, well done. But there are curious omissions. The 
significance of the prosecutions of clergymen, first for doctrine 
ond then for ritual, their apparent success in some cases, and 
ultimate failure are inadeciuately dealt with. Tho most remark- 
able of all developments— the missionary activity and growth of 
tho Anglican Communion throughout the world— and the revival 
of Convocation, are dismissed in a single sentence. Wo could 
have wished, too, for some account of the developed spiritual life 
in the Church, of the improved mutual understanding of parties 
within her pale, and, not least, of tho critical and apologetic 
work in which the English Church has playe<l so conspicuous a 
part. Dr. Overton gives the impression of being ovorwoighteil 
with his authorities. Where he depends upon his books hia 
quotations are full to tho point of being cumbersome ; where ho 
is thrown upon his own observations of life his work is sometimes 
inadoipiate. The style of the book, too, leaves something to bo 
desired. He should not write down to the masses as he does ii> 
some places ; and ho must have been in a hurry when he penneU 
such a phrase as " the much esteemed vicar of Margaret Cliapol'a 
glorious successor." In spite of its faults the book may be re- 
commended to the general reader as an impartial and accurate 
restim^ of the events with which it deals. 

" John Bright," by Mr. C. A. Vinco, has justappeared, and 
a perusal of it shows, we think, that the editor has done well 
not to neglect the personal elomont in selecting for special 
notice the leading features of tho era. As tho series is to include 
a volume on " Tho Free Tratle Movement aiul ita Results," by 
Mr. (i. Armitage Smith, it is clear that tho formation and ulti- 
mate success of the .\nti-Corn Law League inust be related twice 
over, and that part of the story told by Mr. Robo in the " Rise 
of Deir.ocracy " must be repeated in tho life of so jiromincnt a 
champion of reform. Vet Bright may well claim a book 
to himself. Ho doos not deserve to bo singled out from 
the (loliticians of the reign l>ecause he was the greatest 
man or tho greatest statesman among them. He was perhaps tho 
greatest orator ; but his claim to figure on the titlo-pago of a 
volume in such a scries aa tho present lies in this, that ho waa 
representative of a new class of politician, the Radical manu- 



Jiinuary 22, 1898. J 



LITr:UATUKE. 



Ifttoturer op|>ose(l to thu Coimorvative aristocrat— I 'so I formad in 
■■oino (logruo n bridj^n botwnnn tlio two Ami almi >':' il 

iorood whicli achiovod f,'roiit rosultH, Imt whit-li in  ■, 

[chief articlun HriL;ht's succotuidn liavo (liHcardicI d. 

[Mr. Vinco is rt littlo raih in Bayitv.t t'lnt Uri;.-'!'.' - -.i 

' ia " Iwiiislioil for ovor from jiolit; 

tainly Ijocomo difliuult for tito pr^ ,. 

nimemhor that tho Radical Itiiulor uf half u century 

that " mont of our evils oriHo from leginlativo int4ji;,; 

[that ho resisted tho Factory Acts ; thot ho discouraged tho cry 

for payment of mombcrs ; that ho did not lilto Kngland to bo 

" tho Knight Errant of Europo " ; that ho thoii;;ht tho party 

had too much policy, an<l did not approve of v.'' 

or programs. Hut ho was the first groat domoi : 

political stage- groat, not I)oca\i8o of li 

but because of tho strongth of his c^ ;. 

giving utterance to them. Hright's work in its rolnlmn to tho 



cluinges timt were to come is thus slcctohod by Mr. \'in.c in ron- 
nootion with tho Reform liill of 18C7. 

The history of tbn cpntury mutt b« misn.iM 1 13' a 
the pro-coiicoptiun that thi' I.ilx^nU wim cKaciitiklly n 

Coiisprvntive ensi'iitially »n nristm-mtip parly. The I.i.m ... i"'.'. •"■ "•■ 
have itorn, threw ot! thi^ aristorrntic fctten, with not it littio reloctanpc, 
aivl Disranli'H feat of (leiiiocratisin^ thv Coiiftervativo r-utv w:i« Reuvely 
innru ardtiouH thnn HriRht's feat of ilcmorrntiziDK the I v. . . . 

The real mul peniianent diHrrenco bitwoeii hii [i}:j rv an.l 

Uri|{lit's relatcil, not to tho drmocrstic, but ratbrr to thi' 
If w« may ereilit him with thu pxixjctatioii that thi- i> 
might be eilucatcd into his coowption of political or im|i • 1 

na rnidily aa into that uf Bright, such a hope finda aoirc j in 

subsequent history . 

In Uright was summed up ono stago of tho political history 
of tho era, and for tho student of Victorian progress this book is 
full of instruction. It is not a biography ot Bright. Scarcely 
any facts aro given as to his education ; his early travels ore not 
mentioned. In its record of such facts as tho conversion of Vecl 
to free trade, and tho origin of the Crimean War, tho need of 
condensation impairs tho clenrness of tho narrative. The follow- 
ing ia not quito a satisfactory account of tho sensational circum- 
stances of Peel's ritllr face, and of tho historic announcement of 
December 1, of whicli Lord Dutforin last year gave ns tV.n 
history : 

The Cui'iiK I niiH ou uctoncr --t, tina / "' i .'/iJ'.., alitiL-i|iuiiiiK ii.-* ui- 
I'vitablo dwision, declared that the ports were to \h- ii|)ened. " Hence- 
forth the League may cease to exist. Its spirit has alrcn'y been trans- 
lerred to its nntigonists." Three weeks later than this ri'velation. though 
Hnticipating by n week the publication of Peel's conversion, LonI John 
Itusst'll in Ilia Kdinbiirgh letter announced that he abandoned his pro- 
pos:il of a moderate U.ted duty. 

Rut Mr. Vinco writes with insight ;\nd with remarkable 
impartiality, and ho has made good uso of letters and speeches — 
the only moans Bright used for atUlressing tho ptiblic. Ono 
choptor devoted to Bright 's oratory shows rcmiirkaMe critiral 
power. Mr. Vinco is, no doubt, right in urging that Bright did 
not, as is so often said, cultivate a " vigorous Saxon " 
phraseology. There were other causes to account for the sim- 
plicity of his diction, and it was always subonlinate to his deli- 
cate, if unconscious, sense of rhythm. Disraeli referred to his 
sjiecch on Ireland of April 2, 1840, as " a speech to which I 
listened with pleasure and gratiliration, as I must to every 
ilemonstration that sustains the reputation of this Assembly." 
But Bright himself would never hove been guilty of such a sen- 
tence—not because ot its Latinity, but because ot its jingle. 
Compared with tho other great rhetorician of the day, Bright as 
a popular siwaker had an advantage in his melho<l, which is 
explained in his own words : — 

llip dilTercnce lietwecn my speaking and tliatof Mr.G'alstone is some- 
thing like this. \\'hea I speak I strike across from lieadlan.l to hea.llantl. 
Mr. Cladstone follows the coast line, and when ho cornea to a navijaHe 
river he is unable to resist the temptation of tracing it to its sonrc*. 

This chapter as a study of the methods of a successful orator 
deserves to Ik) widely read at a time when tho higl-.ost exponents 
of the art are so few. 



I 



Fttchott 1 



to • 



ust aclcnowledg* it to b« oa* of Um Am gitl-t>ook* 

inf til* firvt 



A fow »1 
Uiu 



A(t«if fMllt 

,.,..i.- u, 



 I tlto i«i. 



tte " would hare |ire*' 

, his pictur* wo>'!d l•.•^■■ 

woulil also have run losf r 
Railajoa, for instance, waa a 1 
Ctudad Ro(lrii;o ; bat why 



This 
profaoo, !•■ 
is no attoiiipl at . 
Tho only attempt :. 
military battles with naval ones, 
to be crushed by strategical d's..!!' 
to bo given just so much < 
cohorenco to 
their proper p 

These ins 1 
the book. It 



and with power. We I. 

the battle of Albuera iV~ . . 

Some noble exploits, moreover, a 

allowed to remain f •■ •■ *■'• 

rano's magnificent t 

and the ; 

" muddy- 

goo<l stories. 1 l.c p-itiaits ci f 

oollont. I'erh»i« '* V<vleff« " v. 



written, manly, and ttai ' 



East Anglia and the Oreat C 

<  >. ..If - r. . .,,.:. I. . ;., • :,.. 



.u oompletj' 
The atoni: 



3criL4; Uui I 
hoU? 



.1... :. 


'-tf-d lU.M.- 


1 
i 


<s m a m 


its :. 




,1'1 »•'! 





f 

tUiah 

h the 



Kingtitou, 



F.R.Uiiit.S. c^^Aoiiu... viu.TWV 



Stock' 
In this valuable and scholarly work Mr. Kingston, who has 



illitori. 

10 



previously pub'i-'"' 
same i:eriod, 
the whole of I . 
record of that ' 

W»»d. 
civil war, i . 
I'arlii- , , . , 

■\ '.s a 

thou^ii. t^ t. il i : 

want which hr. - 
parsonage really vxi 



f lii 



far 



'•-•; nonacinvsi v.su.'iiv c 



inty during the 
-1 M> as to cover 
 > preaMit s •" ' 
•• bis won;  
1 '. D« worvi t*' 
.If wtuck eatn< ! 

:i)]y local interi 
view, it snppliM .> 
.) reader " (:f such 1 
onfiac* his pcmaal c{ 

e 



74 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



oripinAl attthoritiea to the fascioAting p*gM of Cl&rondon, whore, 
by tte biatorian'a own admission, the affairs of tlio eastern 
counties are very iinporft>ctI.v troatotl ; indeed, so ini|M>rtant a 
•traggle as the battle of V ' ' ". 'on Moor, 

ifl not vna\ mentioned, , no jjrcat 

predeci llo lias tojiluil [lationtly in 

the Pu^ T!n;'rintc<l pappra at the two 

Unireraitiea, and b:\ to procuro nil 

kinda o( local and tr:L . ii <lo.scriptions «f 

the cotxrae of o^'ents at Cambridge, and the complete subjugation 
of the Unirersity ; of the sieges of Crowland and King's Lynn ; 
of the King's escape throuj:h the Fens ; and of the Second Ciril 
W ' '"  --- y--' r.larly full and graphic. He disclaims 
a' "a historv of families and places con- 

ccrui-u ;:. li.-, L'.vil \\ . .in Counties " ; yet ho 

gives in an ai'V«n<lix . .0 county committees of 

the as30ciat uit want as regards the 

Parliament similar list of Iloyalist 

gentry, if f. ;stivo, woulil have been welcomed, at any 

rate by loc;. -, ; and this leads ns to mention what, wo 
think, is a fault in the book, though perhaps, from its plan, an 
unavoidable one. 

It is not aimply that the writer's own sympathies 
•re wholly on the Puritan side. If he were as impartial 
as ho ob\-iously tries to be, his work would not ho such jiloasant 
reading. It is, t "us no connected view of the 

lloralist party  . within the area thot ho has 

chosen, so t ; (.rings and risings, in a region where 

the Parliav i a grip, seem alisolutcly aimlcs^s and 

sporadic. Weqti. ith Mr. Kingston in his protest against 

" the conventio!.- of the schoolbooks " of " the gentry 

for the King and the common people for the Parliament " ; but 
this division is inaccurate, not only because, as ho says, many of 
the best families of East Anglia were on the side of the Parlia- 
ment, but also because numl)er8 of the common people sideil with 
the Kinp. H °i quotes freely in Chapter XV. from the Ordinance 
of r removing '' scandalous " (in plain English, 

1; :cTs in tho rnstcm counties ; but he does not 

q it which frankly admits the 

di . •■ISO " too many parishoners 

are enemyes to that blc8se<l information so much desired by 
Parliament." Indeed, it is easy to see that there must have 
been many Royalists in that large stratum of society, which had 
no votes and paid very few taxes. The majority of this class wore 
not BO Pontan as that middle class from which Cromwell sprang ; 
tl. ■' "t no opurossion, and they saw no need for violently 

a  form of Cliurch government. Mr. Kingston's 

«r remark that tlio Puritan party were striving " for 

tl. '■ of religion — religion without Popery — in the govem- 

sient of a nation " is utterly tmfair and misleading. Tho truth 
really is that the struggle was for the supremacy of a particular 
form of Church government. One cannot, of course, expect 
that ho would join in " the common-place execrations " that 
hare been heaped upon tho defacing of churches by order of 
p.-. " " ' \t surely ex|>ect him to give a complete 

a -not to omit, for instance, one of the 

fit ivcii, that " all organs with their frames or 

ca !>p " tak"r away and utterly defaced ! " And 

01 ho woidd see some ground for 

ci . , 'ion of tho (•athe<lrols f>ther than 

'• t'." rii M.hite poverty of any historic sense which it discloses." 
Tb'j trcatuicnt of his suthorities, too, is not always quite unex- 
ceptionable. The reader is sometimes wamo<l to make allowance 
for the " colouring " of a Hoyalist pamphlet or gazette in roconl- 
ine eome outraite ; but when the other side complains of tho 
r,  -"ating women or using " poisoned bullets," no 

b:. i>>enwd necessary. 

WiUi the^e few reservations, wo welcome tho book as an 
interesting and ably-written rcconl of tho war : and some 
chapter* (notably one m the taxation of I^>yalints, which 
renders the aucceas of the Parliament leas sorprisin^') are most 
useful contributions to the history of the time. 



l^tudes et Lecons sur la Revolution Francalse. By 
P. A. Aulard, S.. ..,,.1 s..,;. , 7'  r.in., :«»7 pi.. Paris. 181>8. 

Felix Alcan. 8f, 60c. 

M. Aulard is i:ui)uuf.tu:imljly tho highest authority on thu 
French Kevolution. It is a quarter of a century since hu began 
writing weekly articles on its epistnles in La Jui,fice tho 
fruit of researches in tho Archives and public libraries ; and 
when a professorship of tho Hi8t«>ry of tho Itovolution was 
founded at tho Rorbonno by tho Paris municipality tho 
post naturally devolvo<1 on him. He at oncu showed his inde- 
pondonco by the freedom of his criticiams on Robespierre, but 
when these wore resented by some municipal councillors the 
Oovernmont wisely stopiMjd in and made it a State chair. 
Moreover, although he views tho Revolution from tho stand- 
point of aDautonist, M. Aulard has displeased Comtists, who 
insist on regarding Danton as tho pivot of that event. A thiol 
attack on him emanated from Royalist students, who, annoyed 
at his ti-onchant reply to M. Brunetifcro on the so-called " bank- 
ruptcy of science," foolishly created o disturbance at tho 
Sorbonno. His scientific mothofl has led him to rofuto tho 
legend of Carnot's irresponsibility for the Terror. M. Aulard 
always cites his authorities, so that oven those who reject his 
conclusions profit by his researches and are boimd to testify to his 
conscientiousness. 

Tho present volume is a collection of articles from tho 
'* R«$volution Fran^aise " and other reviews, in which M. Aulard 
discusses Comte's view of tho Revolution, Danton's nVc in tho 
September massacres, the separation of Church and State (1704- 
1802), tho causes of the 18th Urumairo, Bonaparte's Lifo-Con- 
sulato, and tho authenticity of Talleyrand's Memoirs. M. 
Aulard has had loss occasion, perhaps, than in his previous publi- 
cations to cite unpublished documents, but there are a number 
of roforonces to tho Archives, as well as to books long buried in 
oblivion. 51. Aulard's three chapters on tho Consulate ore 
especially interesting. Ho shows how France, weary of illusory 
promises and factious intrigues, accepted a master from whom 
many blindly expected an era of liberty. Ho even suggests that 
Bonaparte himself hiul hankerings for l)ecoming tho Washington 
rather than tho Cn^sar of Franco, although this seems still to 
require domonstnition. But however this may be, M. Aulard 
has placed tho Consulate in a somewhat now light by shownig 
that tho 18th Brumairo did not at onco give Bonaparte absolute 
power. Unlike Louis Napoleon in 1851, he had to feel his way, 
and to leave some semblance of authority to his colleagues, 
while his Life-Consulate, tho stepping-stone to tho Empire, 
encountered tho opposition of a small but courageous n\inority. 
He had, however, tho support of tho immense majority of tho 
nation, and there was not tho slightest attempt at armed resist- 
ance. 

A Handbook of European History, 476-1871, Chrono- 
logically Arranged, HvA. UassaU. Hx."..)in., ifrCi jiji. l.<>nd<>n, 
iai7. ' Macmillan. 8,6 n, 

Mr. Hassall's thoughtful " Handbook " is a work to be con- 
sulted rather than read. It must stand on an accessible shelf for 
a long time, and bo visited, like an encyclopjedia, again and again, 
l^eforo tho ordinary reader will do justice to its comjiressed ful- 
ness of information. Its pages are all what is called analysis 
—unreadable, but certain to tell you what you want if you know 
where to look. It is hard to sny what is nat in them. There are 
lists of popes for some future Macaulay to learn by heart— 
(,'enealogios, ranging from tho Nortliuml)rian Kings down to 
Francis Joseph and tho unlucky JIaximilian— sots of Kings of 
this, that, and tho other, of Dukes, and of Ttars. But of course 
the main thing is the story, or short outline of tho story, of 
European history. Here Mr. Hassall has tried " merely 
to bring into prominence the leading foots in tho history 
of tho principal States," and tho attempt is by no means un- 
successful. The account keeps a pretty firm hold of what is 
n ally important. Tho compiler is undlstracted by sido-issues ; 
and, when such a thing does get upon his mind, ho disnii.sses it 
promptly with a short but terviceablo " rote" in the tfxtor 



Jamiary 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



75 



*' luinmary " at the end— «.i/., there it a apeoial note on the war 
hotwKon K(,'ypt iitiil Turkey nt p. UJi (minleojliiiply rallo<l the 
'• wars " ill tlio tal)lii of contontx), and a Hiimiiuiry of tliu cauaes 
of tlio Htnipglo butwuon Franco and Kiiglaiid in the roi(,'n of 
Kd ward III. Wo have looki'd for a groat many things in tlii* 
viiliiiiie and found thoiii all, with nnu oxcoptinn. Wo can liiid 
nn account of the family of Ooorgo III. and ni> explanation of the 
■ouriiiiiM family-panic which is said to have driron tho lato Duko 
of Kent into iniirriage. 



SPORT. 



Kings of the Turf. By 

viii. 1 :{7.S pp. Uindiiii, IfSllS. 



"Thormanbjr." u .",|iii.. 
Hutcnlnson. 16 - 



Fi'w more intorcstin;^ volumes tlinn tlii.s Imvo lipj-n 
yircscnted to tho world of sport in recent years. The 
^lutlior has piven a most entertaining eollection of 
liiosjrai»liical sketches, in the course of which are in- 
<iuded anecdote.s of a va.'it number of those who have 
''nmdc history" on the British Turf. Cosmopolitnu a.s 
that wondrous institution it.self, the book treats of'all 
s'orts and conditions of men," from Prince to prizc-fijjliter, 
and not the least absorMii" of flu- ^i-M-nil hio;^raphies i.n 
that of John Gully— 

who, in his timo, was biitihtr, bniitioi , iml)licaii, bookmakor, 
i>wiuT of horses, member of Parliament, colliery propriotor, and 
*' line old English gentleman." 

Lord (jeorge Bentinck, the once-popular idol, who.se 
fate it wa.s to win every race but the one he so preatly 
coveted — the Derby — has been selected to open the series, 
and )H'rhnps no more strikint; fiirure has ever been known 
on the Turf than his. '• Thormanby" gives, with <,Teat 
fairness, various contemporary writers' views of tliis un- 
tloubtedly great man's character; and, whilst warning us 
that the still living John Kent " is pt?rhaps a little too 
much inclined to idealize his old master," strenuously 
resents the acrid utterances of the Days, of Woodyeates, 
on the matter. In most of the sketches, not only is the 
r.icing life of the subjects dealt with, but many items of 
their social experiences and vicissitudes are introducetl 
witli the hapjiiest results : Lord George's interview with 
IVfr. Disraeli in tlie library of the House of Commons on 
the day following that of Surjdice's Derby victory; the 
former's duel with S(|uire Osbaldeston ; the transactions 
of the unfortunate Mar<iuis of Hastings with the money- 
lender Padwick (the '• Spider " of Admiral Kous's fanjous 
letter to The Tivn-s) ; Colonel Mellish's love of display antl 
uncontrollable yiassion for gambling ; the change of fortune 
which carried Kobert Kidsdale from the position of 
*' boots at a Doncaster inn " to that of a singidarly 
?<uccessful owner of racehorses ; and an account of the 
action brought by the notorious Ixird <le Kos against Mr. 
Cuminiug in the card-clieating affair at a celebrat<>d 
West-end club, all find their ajijiroitriato places within 
these jiages. 

It is, perhaps, open to question whether I^rd 
I fastings was worthy to rank as a "King of the 
Turf" at all: he certainly did nothing for the Turf, 
but set an example of mad gambling. However, any 
sketch of the racing world in the early sixties would 
doubtless be incomplete without mention of " Harry 
Hastings," and probably it was for this reason that 
" Thormanby " saw tit to add the xmlucky Marquis 
to his gallery. His character, faithfully iKirtrayed. comes 
out in i)itiful weakness when com]>ared with those of 
others at his side. Two slips occur in this chapter, but 
neither is at all likely to mislead the racing man ; they 



to 
 ii>- at 
U> Sir 



to 

IT. 



both appear on page 281: — '• When (b>- M»r.,,,:.< .....».,,..i 
at A»cot a few rnoiithi* later," \«-. 
week) — this would b«' an obviout ic 
followa «o cloHelv U)kmi K)muiii — a 
LI- • • • 

1... , , 

Tntton .^ytces is aitdgeliier del: 

when depicting the line old Yun. ., - -,,,,.„ 

Sledmere. "Thormanby" likenu the old Sjuip 

Roger de Coverley. - ' •' 

Ix)rd Palmerston's i 

L'reafest interest, and it i« rui.-ly ii<. 

dexiibe him as " the nujst universally j 

jierhaps, that England has ever had." The ; 

controversy anent the ] iron unciat ion of " F'- "  ,,„. 

of Ixird Palmerston's Cesarcwitch winner, i i.h|. 

The dispute<l jKiint, it may b.- lo 

whether the "o" shoidd Ih» j.' ,,|-t 

and the disputants, I^jrd ' je and ^ .un 

Gregory, wagered large sum .icy in " 1 ieir 

opinions," before the Maj<ter of Trinity, Cn . to 

whom the matter was referred, gave a decision m lavour 
of the short " o." In treating of the Dnke« nf (irnfton. 
the well-known extract from t !s " 

concerning their follies and vi. ,.>re 

pleasant remling follows in the story of the hard-riding 
young Curate who, "o <....l.i.- f ;,.. Ti>'l... r.ii ... o f,.noe in 
front, shouted out— 

" Lio still, yotir (Jrace, and I'll ulciryou : " 
The Duke, rising from the ground, remarked — 

" Thot young man shall havo tho first good living that falls 
to my diH^msal ; liad ho stopped to take care of me he would 
never havo liud any of my imtronago." 

With lyord Eglinton's career on the Turf is, of 
course, inseparably connecte<l that of the Flying Dutch- 
man, and the history of both owner and horse are well 
told. We could have welcomed a little fuller account, 
indeed, of that great match wherein tlie nii>_ditv •• Dutch- 
man " defeated Ixird /et " ur. 
Again, we notice an uni" -of 
the match being given as iJHbl inste.id of ten years earlier. 

The famous, though ill-fati*d, Eglinton T ■■' -nent in 

amusingly dealt with. It will be remei 
three day "jousts" were accomiwnied ijy 
most pitiless description. 

In short space all the finery was dragglc<1. 
drenched, tho performers com|>elled to rt'snit 
humiliating devices to shelter tliein.'i.lves 
downpour, the arms and armour tariii!t)i<-*l aii<i ..-en 

of Riauty (Lady Seymour) in tho sulks, as w. . -ht 

l)o. at having to wrap lurself up in a plaid shawl . up 

an umbrella ! 

In a brief reconl of the grim Lord Glasgow . 
Scot, but of a va.stly different order from the Earl of 
Eglinton — we are told of his eccentricity in refiwing to 
name his racehorses, and of his jierjietual irrit.ibility of 
temper: but the chronicler do .-st 

of incidents, when, having , n- 

stairs, Lord Gla.^gow sardonically told the to 

" put him (the waiter) in the bill." After treat ..., ; .ich 
other prominent owners of horses a.s Lortl Kalinoutli, Sir 
Jo.seph Hawley, Mr. James Merry, and Mr. ^i>• - " -Tie, 
the author gives a few courteous words to •■ ••« 

on the Turf" and".Vii! in» 

represented by John S. .." 

Matthew Daw.son, and John Porter. Notices 

of George Fordham, Cannon, Archer, " Tiny"  .;.! 

Harry Custance in the ranks of celebrated jockevs. 



lat the 
ruiu of the 



tho spectators 
t" (he miiet 



76 



LITERATURE. 



[January 2*-?, 1898". 



Then, resen-ed as a Itoniu bouche for the conchision. we 

fit '  ■• • ' - •• ,]ty on the Turf." a brit-f 

hi • of Wales. His Koval 

II' t career is well (le.«orilvHl. and 

e>i , .;..:it fMirt of it which ileals with 

the \nrtorv achieved bv Persimmon in the Derby of 1896. 



No wor' 
«ntl»n«t(»«m  

s- 
ai 

ail' 

Yl' 

hi 



. <if the stomi of 

Tbf vast crovril 

into the 

. wavixl, 

-U bliuiik U.u .lu- with tho 

It showisl hi>w iloe))- 

iniv ..I tht" IMiice, aii<l hnw keenly 

.te his sterling qualities as an English 



iiitiiii itliti r |>^»i h^iiiiiii. 



Rowing. Vol. IV. of the Isthniiiin Lilinuy. Bv R. O. 
It^hnuum ; with Chaptoi-s I»y fluy Nickalls, C." ^f. Pitnuin. 
W. K. Cnini. anil OthiTs. lUiistrnted. 8x.'>Jin., xii. - :U(I i)p.. 
with App»'ndix. London, 1«07. Innes. 6,- 

Mr. Lehmann h»a given us the hest account of tho latest 
(torolopment of rowinj; that has yet appeared. The history of 
the «fort. nnd of vsrions clulw which have held prominent posi- 
ti'  rid, lia."? l>een well <lone elsewhere : but for 

a 1 : 1 aooount of the iK'st lioats and tho best 

way to more them, which is never an uninteresting account from 
the first i>*5e to the last, we should read what Mr. Lehmann and 
his fellow-writers have to say. The virtue of their sayings lies 
in the fact that erery one of them has haid a share, in most coses 
a very larjo share indeed, in the best forms of the sport they de- 
•eribe. But all Mr. Lehmann's " crow " write a.s will as they 
row. We knew already that the Cambridge-Oxfonl-Harvard 
ooach could wield a quill as readily as he could take an oar ; but 
we must confess to surprise at finding in tho other pages so 
bnlliant a refutation i.f the carping criticism that boating men 
are fit for nothing else. This talent might indeed have been 
suspected when, not very long ago, a eompony of Old Blues 
assembled at dinner to greet a I^gal Four, who had not only 
reprasented theirUniversities over tho Putney course, but brought 
a far more critical struggle to a safe conclusion as Judges in the 
Conrt of .Appeal. Yet of all those famous guests. Lord Justices 
Chitty, "" (on, A. L. Smith, and Lord Esher, then Master 

of the ! R single one has contributed to the volume 

before U3. 1 nreof contemporary oarsmanship can not 

only do wit' . but make a very creditable show. Mr. 

L wever, cannot forb?ar one look bick into tho post, 

hu; , • is so extremely hoary that comparisons are not 

invidions. For he recalls to our imicination the woes of a 
Virgilian crew and commiserates the impulsive' but unfortunate 
Uyas on the difficulties he must have encountered in coaching a 
trireme. Tho men must have been no less unhappy, for 

Jiut imicine a crew of > bun<lr<-<l «t two 

SlioTeil three <le«|t in a kiiM of a l»ri;<-. 
Like • orif) <>f k'-^ with no room for Ih'jir log* 

Ami on-  Imrf^e. 

Qnoth he, - (h«v trr t« do no. 

At •' iin addle ; 

?o roil' 



Now 

Y 

\*ftU ^ 

K. ,.. ,.-■ 

And now, though yon only 

of codar and oanvaa that •- 

just aa much <v>A<-hin?. ii 

pictnreaqno t 

HarV.Tini. ' 

ilb. 

m< 



.l-ei«bt, 

i; you. 

men and a-half into a slip 

-ind-fifty pounds, they need 

even more astonishingly 

•'.lis to the OikI of 

in the Ixiok is its 

in from photographs of 

!. Tho author has oven 

no' imsclf to tho extent n( exhibiting how a stroke 

•hoi > i^' >->M«J. Zeal can no fnrthergo. Tho result should 

be a nightmare t4 every Froshro.in training for the Torpids. As 



an example of the care with whioli details are considered, we- 
may quote tho case for fixe<l rowlocks against swivels, as stated 
by Mr. Lehmann. 

Tho comliiniil rattle of the oari in they turn cnnstituten n moist,- 
valuable rallylni; point. 'Ilie enrii are lirought into a<-tion nK well aa the 
eye». Thin ailvantaRi' is loat with nwivelH. In modern Hctilling-boat*- 
a man munt iim- nwivilt, fur the r<."ich of the •rullir exti-nd.H to a point 
wbieh be could not reach with Qxed rowlocks, m bis scull* would lock 
liefore he (jot there. A« he moves forward he in constantly openuij; up, 
hi- :i linif on either side of his body ; hut in rowiii); one arm- 

swi the body, and unleaa you are Koinf; to screw the body 

roiiii'i t.i\v;ir IS the rigwrr an) thus saeriAre all ntreUKth of iN'^imiing, 
yuii cnnnot f:iicly roaih lieyond a certain point, whii-h is just as lasily 
and comlortably attaint- 1 with fixed rowloclcs us with swivils. .lUore- 
over— dni hnrc> is the ^-reat advaitage — you bavc> in thi' thol<<-pio of a 
fixed rowlock an absolutely unmovable siirfaee, and the point of appli>- 
cation of your power is always the same throughout the stroke. 

The last few lines open up a probli'ui which Mr. I..eliinann is 
far too wise to touch. Ho writes of what he has seen to proilucw- 
good results without asking too curiously why tho results have 
lieen produced. On tliis side of the .\tlantic we frankly confess 
that we have no notion of the niechmical ]>roblems involved in n. 
gooti stroke. We know that doing certain things in a certain 
way results in getting a boat to move, but that is all. However^ 
the boat goes, " £ pur se muove," and tho rest matters little. 
Imagine, for instance, a good eight all swinging forward against 
the stream, tlicir bodies over their stretchers, just on tho point of 
getting their blades in. The boat is just losing tho nuimentunr 
of the last stroke and is as deep in tho water as her crew will 
ever let her be, the bodies have never st ipped in their swing 
fonvartl or back since they began to move at all. At the very 
same instant eight blades clash into the water, eight slides 
begin slowly grinding Kack, eight lusty men get all their weight 
on their oars : tho boat lifts and shoots forward. But nobody 
quite knows how or when or whore the power was applied that 
made her move. It is because the Americans have been too. 
ctu-ious to discover this that they produced the mechanical style 
which our Cambridge-Oxfonl-Harvard missionary is now hard at 
work eradicating. Thoy thought that by a six months' elabora- 
tion of certain fixed principles they could produce a crew. They 
did. But it was not a racing crow. That my.storious and in- 
vincible quality which makes a college or a University eight into 
a winning combination is not a thing of rules and principles. 

Mr. Lehmann 's wise advice will go far to teach tho veriest 
lanilsman how to hold on oar. But it is in tho chapters by Mr. 
Criim or Mr. Pitman that you get the real explanation of tho 
superiority of English rowing. Frequently from tho time when 
o ^Yetb(d) first wont to school he ha.s been learning waterman- 
ship, and he has been learning how to race. As soon as ho goes 
up to his University and tokos to the water he finds a succession 
of struggles waiting him, and when, after achieving his " Blue,"" 
he is off to Henley, no wonder that in three weeks' time he is as 
fit for tho Ladies' Plato or the Grond Cliollonge as any man who 
has taken twice as many months to painfully elaborate a 
" stroke " that has not once been tested in a roco. For with 
two, or ot most three, rocos, tho American University man has 
hitherto hod to be content. This, too, contains tho coniplotest 
answer to such olFers as wo have lately heard of from " strong 
men " and others. In the photographs of famous oars in I^fr. 
I.<chmann's book there is no abnormal dovclopment of muscle ; 
only a clean-built, healthy-looking bock and loins. It is not 
muscle that is wanted, nor even weight olonc. It is grit and 
experience. A scratch eight once rowed the 180t Oxford crow at 
Putney betwiMm ^V^lldon'B and tho Point for two-and-a-half 
minutes, and were level at the finish. Thoy aver.iged something 
over 13»t. , thej- were untrained, and the Iwat they rowed in w.is 
useless for ony further exhibitions [irnxuit unit jumilcri- rtimhn. 
That meant watermanship, and experionfo, and several other 
things besides. Mr, Lehmann 's l><>ok shows bow many other 
things it means. These chapters, intloed, have a valiio not 
merely for tho boating man, but for the spectator on tho bonk, 
and each will he grateful in his own vrtty to Sir, Lehmann and 
hi* fellov'Viiters, 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



4 i 



An excellent and tueful little text-book on KtioTBALL i» th«t 

ropriiitiKl, w:tll lulditioim ami altnnitions, fmrn tlio " Eiiryi-lr>- 
pji'ilia <if S|i<)rt," by I^au ruiioo unil llullun (Is.). Ah tlio lottiT- 
1^11 as iit by such wi'll-kiiown aiithoritius ii* Moxfiia. .\rtluir 
liiidd, ('. H. Fry, Tlifodciro Cook, iiiid IS. V. ilobinson, it will 
lie acroptod iiatiiraliy as Hound in jirirK-ipIo ; and if it is poHMiMu 
to loani tho art or 8<;ioiii'o of footl)all from a thoorotical tro;iti9v, 
this liooklt^t will no doubt satisfy every dosiro of the student. 
'J'horo is an iutcrestiiig chapter on American football by Mr. 
Cook, one sentence from which is worth cjiioting to show one of 
the main dill'eronccs between Itrititih and American idoa» of 
the ^amu : 

The le^al noutcnciK with which their code in frniiipil in on!y iiur- 
pnui'cl by the inKt'nuity of iiucce«»iv8 gcnpratiunn of tiii'ir pluyen in 
-erniliiig it. 

There are maps and plans of the " battlefielda " and some 
fairly woll-roproducod photographs , a jjlo.spary of the language 
of the gauio, and the rules of botli species of football. 



TECHNICAL ART. 



Old English Glasses. An Account of GIii.s.s DiinkliiK 
Vcsicls ill RnKlantl t'niiii I'iirly Times to the ICnd of the 
KiKlitccnUi tViitury. With liitiiHliicioi-v Notices, Original 
Dodimciits, &c. "Hy Albert Hartshorne, P.S.A. loj < 
J (in., xxiii. ; UK) pp. I^mdoii, ISll". Arnold. £3 33. n. 

Much ha.s boon written about (;la8s ; but a pood book .ibout 
wineglasses roinaincd to bo written, and Mr. Hartshorne has 
written it. Vet he is not precisely to be congnitulated upon the 
choice of a good sidiject— his subject rather chose him, ond corn- 
polled him to write a book about what was nearest his heart. 
His pliin includes a survey of the history of gloats, which is by 
DO moan.s the least interesting part of it ; but he does not 
linger too long over what is merely traditional or conjectural. 
Ho gets as soon as pos.sible to State papers, patents, and 
other documents, which leave no doubt about the development 
of the art of glas.smaking and the direction it took— how it 
spread into the Xothorlands, Gerninny, and to this country ; 
but ho has wisely relegated to an appendix the quotation of the 
documents upon whicli his conclusions are based. After a rapid 
but very comprehensive review of ghissmaking from the time of 
the Pharaohs to the Goi>rgian Era, he goes back to tlie 8>d)jectof 
glass vessels in general, and of English glasses in particular. The 
first certain evidence of glassmaking he linds in the Tth conturj- 
when Bedo reconls the bringing of artificers from (iaul to make 
glass for windows , but frjm then to the Kith century thera is 
■nothing, he tliinks. to prove that vessels of any acount were 
made in this country. 

The fii-st improvement in the art of ghissmaking in England 
vi traced to a colony of Venetian workmen who settled in 
London in the middle of the IC.th century. They stayed, it 
s -ems, only two or tl roe years, but long enough to leave behind 
them the art of making glasses " favon de Veniso." A few 
years later came one I.aunoy from the Low Countries, sub8idize<l 
by the tJovernment to instruct Englishmen in the art " as 
pr-ictised in the Netherlands." After that, there was an influx 
of French Huguenot glassworktrs, until in 108-t, according to 
our author, an Act was drawn up " against the making of glass 
by strangers and outlandish men within the realm." By that 
time Hritons knew probably all they wanted to know. But 
with all this, it was i;ot until towards the 18th century that 
English-made glasses began to take a front place, by which time, 
of course, art was no longer what it had been. The days of the 
airy Venetian goblet and of t'le sturdier Rlienish roemer were 
pa.st. It was no longer the fashion to wi rk in glass upon glass, 
as was at one time the univt>rsal practice. The fact is, the 
material was no longer suited to the jilastic treatment which 
was so charaoteris'ic of earlier work. We had got nearer 
to the ideal of all the gliismakn-s (in tome respects a false one), 
and had j rmluced " g'ass of leid," or, ns it is more commonly 
calle<l, "(lint ghus." which lent itself to other trootment. It 
was prixed for its purity and freedom from colour, which quali- [ 



tiaH « ' 



i«I by cuttilif; <t «t«^ravinp ij. ¥) 




contempor. 

How, I iih the intrfxhieiiii. • f flii.f .. 

fell olf is illu«tmto<l in the amjilu aiul 

given. The it«ma of 18ih century gb.--. -, ,.i,.i,,, mi.L.M, . r 
boliistcrlike, aro roarso and clniusy ; tlui l»>wls, boll or (uiiii*! 
nha)>od, lack elegance ; and the " drnirn " gloaaos, in which 
" the stem is drawn from the IkjwI and the foot attacb«Ml Vi it, 
tl '■•■' ling of two i><)rtion8 only," ar»  ' 

I The *< blow " cr " t*nr " wi^ 

St n glass, " a tear which - 

wa . -IIS, rather than nn 'r- 

sign, c:ilcuiatod (it was ilone ' 

the wonder of the ignorant. 

not of much nionioiit, but it has technical ami tke 

author, by his descriptions of the f'-'''-- - 

and the well-choson examples illii ' 

amateurs all the information on tiie snoji'ii  

glasses whidl is to bo learnt at second-hand. H 

ai' i.iphir; it was a happy tli' lit- 

H.-: ny " lin<»s dooornting the ! • ' cf 

Early Egyptian, I'lionicia- 

formed by them to the " i 

binders. The re8emblanc«< comes, of course, from an almott 

identical expedient in de.<ign of a semi-mocbanical kind : but 

the comparison sticks. 

Apart altogether from technical or arti'*-" 
is much in Mr. Hartshonie's pages of more : 
where be reminds one that Hngerglossos, 
used, are but the 8ur\'ival of the vessels in 
were rinsed, or where he tells how •' ^ 
can never sihsII a foreign word r;. 

" Willkommen " into " \i<lrecomo,' ami iii.v. rtl, 

being retrixnslated into (Jcrnian, becomes'' • " — 

whence much confusion among the English, who not only 
adopte<l the name, but invented a fabe rea*on for it, imagining 
this ample drinking vessel to be not a salutation cup or a 
'• welcome," but a " stirrup cup." On one point we mast 
quarrel with Mr. Hartshorne. " One is willing to think," 
he says, " that Virgil Solis would have l.v. ' ' ^ talents 
if not U> the forms of glass, at least to the s whicb 

appear on thum." Here, surely, I:" for the 

art he honours by a sumptuous ui Id have 

been no ilerogation on the i)art of the Virgil 

Soils was more uii engr<iver than a il' >rk fur 

glass, or for any craft in which were possibilities of art. 

The Ceramics of Swansea and Nantgarvr. By 
William Turner, P.SS. ' ' "■ in ii ip. i>i>nihiii nnd 
Derby, 18U7. Bemrose. 81/0 

Among the many Hriti.^h paieries at «Lik duri' 'ter 

half of the last and the early part of the present • .ew 

r.re of so deep an !i i the collector of native ware aa 

those of Swansea and > . (.>no reason for this is the 

comparatively short period iiuring which exquisite work was 
produced, work which had the rare fortune, as Mr. William 
Turner ]x>inta out, of Wing sufficiently like old Sivne 
to be sold hy metropolitan dealers aa the veritable pitt 
tcixdit ware of Louis Quinze. The " Cambrian " jittery, it is 
true, lasted a little over a hundred Ve. ' i <Iate in 1768, and 
during part of this time both the ■' i i ' and " Mead's 

Pottery " flourished to som 'iroe of excellent 

" output " was limitc<I. f the Nantcarw 

factory may be roughly stated ti- liave bi>tio ir.>ni 'i a 

hiatus of a year or two. until 1819. It has Iwer »». re, 

and dur.nj this short siiaoe of time, the work of the tirst potter* 
in these islands, the ll>erians of the neolithic age, was, after a 
vast inter.'al, earned to perfection. Without pledging ourselTsa 



78 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



to this oi^nion, w* <%a highly valuo the [•orcelain of Ksnt^jarw, 
w hw the " SarMUhi* School " nf workiimnship, as it is iiow 
OklM, originatMl. 

Although the Nwnt^rarw pott«^. »Villi«ni Killiiipuley (or, u 
h* WM MaMtiin ' who came 

froiB ttM Royal t 'luiionas 

tlM orMton o< the golden ag* ot *■ .■^waii8(>n/' tho ■* Cambrian " 
wvrtm «w« alraady to •odm extent tliu modu in 1808, whon Mrs. 
Piund writ<.« to 8ir Janies Fellowes about puroliasos for his 
wife of " South Wales China," and lavishes praises on iU 
beaoty. Of the wares if Swansea and Nnnt^arw there have been 
many forge: ' " ''' ' ' ' v nf tJiose jrotterios, with 

its biograi'! , rietors, manufacturers, 

and artisu, aiul ki:. n tliu merits of tho imrculains, 

iUnatrations of s]^ . ami list of marks, will ilo 

mneh to aesist the collector of these particular objects 
of art in avoiding the pitfalls ever ready for the professional no 
1«M than the amateur buyer. Tlie value of " Ceramics of 
Swansea and Nantgarw '' — apart from that historic interest 
which i* to lie found in tlie origin of any {larticular form 
of pottery — is for thoee connoisseurs who happen to care 
greatly about thia especial comer of the ceramic world, and for 
tiia Mnrice of such its usefulness cannot be ovcr-entimated. 
Dnring the time the Swansea potteries remained^ oik-u they 
prodnoed a variety of wares : — Opaque uhiua of several sorts, 
Ba»a!t»»!» or Fjryptian Black ware, salt glaw) ware of light ami 
art and an " Etruscan " ware — 

 r- ., , .:. on of classic models— and also 

•arthenware of several qualities. 

The many illustrations containe<l in this volume will give a 
good gaaeral idea of the designs painted on the wares and of tho 
partioolar mannerisms of the artists, a point on which Mr. Turner 
I aa of groat value in aiding tho collector towanls a proper 
Til. .-en good handbooks written on tho imrco- 

I of Dt-: 1, Worcester, and on Wedgwood ware, and 

it may be s:.  .-irly every Britisli pottery of not« has had 

its monogr:i_ . • as the late Mr. Smien Smith, of South 

Kensington, suggested, Swansea and X»ntgarw. This want has 
now been siiniilicd by the present work. 



Windows : A Book nl>oiit Stained and Paiiil.d Gl.iss. IJv 
Lewis P. Day. O^Oin., 415 pp. I»nd<>n, ISO?. Bataford. 21"- 

Mr. Lewis F. Day is to be congratulated on tho successful 
completion of a work which has been long expected. It is 
do.licated to three classes of readers : — 

Those who ka-jw nothing about naicrd (flam : those who know 
• wnethinf and wi^b to know more ; and those who know all about it. 
It will b« heartily welcomed by the first two, the third does 
not eiist. There is undoubte<lly room for such a book. Winston's 
treatises are scarce, and Westlake's " History of Design in 
Paintcxl Gloss "is in foiu- large volumes, and is beyond the 
rei ' '    •  iver, although the craft 

o H.iic ") glass is the one 

ar: ("xcels, the merits of mosaic 

Wi: ud it is still ]K>ssililo for tho 

tourist in Oxford to turn his back on tho fine fourteenth century 
windows in tlie anto-chapol of Sow College and gazo in admira- 
tion at Sir Joshua Heynolds's inetfoctivo efforts. 

Tho author deals with his subject as an expert and as an 
amateur. He shows how pleasure may be derived from tho stntly 
of windows, how they may \>e force<l to tell tlioir own stories, 
historical aa well aa tochnical ; an<l what lessons the modem 
designer may dr.i Each division of the siiliject is 

oopioasly and a, ..|, and, ade<|uat« colour 1>«ing 

unattainable, the pen liuv* m the sketches have been arranged, 
wherever possible, to represent colour as in heraldry. Tho 
evolution of mosaic gUrn windows is treated rather from the 
■tandprjint of the craftaman than of the archmologist. There are 
three stages, the first of growth, the second of maturity, ami the 
third of decadence. During tho first tho glazier is supreme, 
treating bis scraps of gloss a< jewels, an! thinking out his 
designs in supporting bars of iron, and coiuiecting stripe of lead. 



In the second tho glazier and painter work hand in hand ; and 
in tho third tho painter is pro-eminont and paints his glass liki> 
canvas. In all three stages enamel paint, applied to the Nurfaco 
of tho glass and fused by lieat, wa.s employed. In the liist two, 
however, it was only used for outlines and xhading on coloured 
glass, whoreaa in the third it was appli('<l to white gin.ss as a 
substitute for coloured glass. Tho objections to ename1-]aint, 
applied as colour, are that it is necessarily tliin, muddy or 
opaquo, and that in somo oasos it has proved not to bo lusting. 

Mr. Day draws attention to other changes, which wcro 
slowly oTolvo<l bctwooii tho twelfth and the seventeenth century, 
notably tho gradual disrogard of mullions by tho dosigners, and 
tho gradual self-assertion of tho donors of windows. Tho donor 
is at first content to api>ear in miniature in a corner of his 
window, or is reprosontod by his arms ; gradually ho intrudes, 
in person in the midst of sacrod episodes, and at last, supjMirtod 
by patrun-sainUs, wife, and children, banishes the sacred 
episodes to tho background. Tho guilclessness of tho early 
designer is remarkable, tlluo beards, blue donkeys, and 
ruby-coloured cows are to bo met with, and no theme is 
too sacrod or too complex for his art. He tires of th» 
tameness of saints and angels, and attacks with avidity 
more congenial subjects. Tho Day of Judgment is particularly 
attractive, as it otters a magnificent field for brilliant colour. 
Tho flames are realistic, and devils of nvery huo are engaged in 
tho grotesque and gruesome duty of torturing tho condemned. 

Mr. Day s historical periods of tho development of stylo 
differ slightly from those fixed by Mr. Winston, who is creditotl 
with having done for glass what Mr. Hickman did for architec- 
ture. Mr. Winston did a great doal more for mosaic windows 
than divide their history into periods ; he revived not only the- 
technique of the craft, but also the manufacture of coloiu-od 
glass adapted for mosaic treatment. 

Tho lessons to be derive<l from this book by the modem 
designer may be briefly stated. He must, in the first place, 
recognize the translucencj- of ghiss. In preparing his design ho 
must resiMJct the architecture of tho building and acknowlodgo 
the window as part of it. In drawing ond technique his aim 
must be, not to reproduce tho work of the old master-craftsmen, 
but to produce such work as they would have produced if they 
had possessed modem knowledge and modern resources. 



The Training: of a Craftsman. li\ Fred. Miller. 
81  :.-,.Jin., X. , -ili) pp. LoiKlon, ISIS. " Virtue. 5- 

Tho title of this book is misleading. After somo observa- 
tions on tho drawing of plants, Mr. Miller devotes the greater 
part of his book to illustrated notos on the works of certain 
modem craftsmen. Many of these works have appeared in the 
Arts and Crafts Society's Kshibitions, but ilr. Milter's selection 
is not representative. The Arts and Crafts .Society has done- 
excellent work, and includes among its niemliers somo very able 
artists, Imt its level of attainment is unequal, and Mr. Miller has 
iwrversely illustrated some of tho very worst work ever exhibited 
by tho society. H is choice in woo<I-carving and metal work is- 
peculiarly unhappy. Wo do not, in fact, seo tho necessity for 
this book. .48 a contribution to art criticism it is wortliless, 
and its method is too loose to give it any value as a technical 
handbook. Mr. Miller's stylo, moreover, is irritating. Tho 
direct bid made for custom or " patronage " on behalf of his 
follow craftsmen is one that any craftsnmn who reR]iocted himself 
and his art would lie the first to repudiate ; and we hear a groat- 
deal too much of tho artist's " ego " and its " utterance," 
terms of which >Ir. Miller is inordinately f..nd. The bonkshowa 
evidence of a certain provincialism, Itoth of tliought and manner, 
characteristic of the art most in favour with tlio illustrated ai-fc 
magaxincs. 

THEOLOGY. 



An Introduction to the Literature of the Old Testa- 
ment. By 8. R. Driver. D.D. titb Kdiii.ni. ka • 5iin.. 
xxii. + xi. +677 pp. ICdiiiburgli, IJ^'". T. and T. Olark. 12- 

The present e<lition of Dr. Driver's well-known " Intro- 
duction " is practically a now Imok in its form, tho work having. 
been not merely revised throughout, but reset, in order to make 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITEKATLRE. 



room for important luUlitionikl tnattor. In a poaaage oddod to 
tho original profuco Ur. Drivor draws attention to two fact* of 
groat Hif^nilicanuo. On tho one hand, tlio liighcr criticimii of tlio 
Old 'IVKtamont has won its way to accoptaneo in • 
it was forinorly logunled with Hii«i)ii.i(iii. '• TI>o . 
roitsnnings u|)on which at least tho liroador m 
criticiil concliixions rest aro [? is] soon to hu ii 
truth that critical conclusions are not roully > tho 

claims and truths of Chriatiauity has boon wi _, , ■il." 

On tho other hand, Dr. Driver points out- tliat " tho attuinpt to 
rufuto tho conclusions of criticism by moans of aruluuology has 
signally failed." "The idea that the monuments furnish a 
refutation of tho gunoral critical (losition is a pure illusion." 
Thoso who have paid any attention to the controversy hero 
alludo<l to will un.|uestioiialiIy a;^roo with Dr. Driver's uoiielu- 
sion. Tho foct is that a dofonco through thick and thin of th" 
irn<litional view of Hebrew history has involved 8<>i 
writorM in a twofold mistake. Thoy forgot that in tli- 
tho fantastic and oxtromo conclusions of a handful of <•; . 
do not roally diminish tho weight of tho case for th- . 
critical position, which rests not merely on tho results of exact 
literary analysis, but also on historical considerations which in 
themsolvos constitute a weighty and consistent argimicnt. Thoro 
is also an undoubted tendency displayed by some opologists to 
exaggerate the importance of a particular view of tho Old Testa- 
ment history in tho supposed interests of Christian truth. A 
book like Dr. Driver's is an admirable exam]>lo of the spirit in 
which this deportment of inquiry should bo ajiproached. As 
every serious student of tho subject is aware, tho " Introduc- 
tion" combines almost nil tho ijualities whi-jh such a work ought 
to exhibit- massive erudition, scrupulous fairness in weighing 
ovidont'o, a wise caution in forming conclusions, and, lost but 
not least, that strict fidelity to facts which is not only 
characteristic of the true scientific temper, but which is most 
likely in tho long run to serve the highest interests of Cliristian 
faith. 



American Lectxires on the History of Religions. 
Seccmd Series, IKiXl-T. 1. -Hel'^yioiis of Primitive Peoples. Hy 
D. Q. Brlnton, I'l-ofessor of .'Vnieriean Archa>ology iiiul 
iiinguistics in the Univei-sity of Pounsylviiniiu .Sjy,5jin., 
25^1 i)p. New York luid I.i(jiidon, 1807. Putnam. ' 6;- 

Tho sciences of Anthropology and Ethnology have apfKJorotl 
rather at a standstill lately. Now fact«, of course, have been 
accumulated ; old stories have boon tested, corrected, re-inter- 
preted ; but of epoch-making books there has been a lack. 
Whatever one may think of the central doctrine, or of the de- 
velopments thereof, in Mr. Frazer's " Golden Dough " or Mr. 
H. Spencer's •' Sociology," there can bo no doubt that thoy 
contain suggestions of enormous calibre and importance. But 
thoy have not been followed by succos.sors on their own level. 
Wo do not suppose that Mr. Urinton would claim to bo advancing 
any now theories of equal roach. He modestly calls what he liag 
to oft'er "a study of early religions according to scientifio 
mothoils" ; and, again, he remarks that '• tho sciontitie study of 
religions confines itself exclusively to examining opinions (con- 
cerning God and Divine things) as phases of human mental 
activity, and ascertaining what influonco they have esorted on 
tho dovelopment of tho species." His si-x lectures aro suo- 
coasivoly — The Sciontil:c Study of l^imitivo lleligions ; The 
Origin and Contents of Primitive Religions ; Primitive Reli- 
gious Expression in tho Word, — in tho Object. — in the Rite : 
Tho Lines of Devoloimiont of Primitive Religions. Under these 
heads ho has much odd information to give about savage ways, 
feelings, and myths— a good deal of it, wo fancy, new ; and we 
aro glad to have it guoranteed by an inquirer of Mr. Brinton's 
position and oxj>orionce. Now to us, at least, is the extreme 
nervous susceptibility of savages on which ho lays stress. It is 
much higher, ho .says, than ours, although tho contrary is often 
taught. •' Neurotic diseases, csjiecially of a contagious cha- 
racter, are very frequent among them." Wo want far more evi- 
dence for this than ho gives, but we note tho assertion, at any 
rate, as important. 



W« oannut, buwever, mftkv cioar 

title of the second lecture, what i* t^ 
 >rigin of primitive religion. He *'.. 



bo ui II 

but "fr 



Wl;' 

Wo might sr 

kii 

li\ • . i,in'_\ 1. 

till at tho ni' 



we can ot lir. r.riiit"n b  
I'tion," what •■ laws of tin 
mean exactly Y Hero we are left at a hi«B. W • 
talk, unprcoiso and uncertified, about " tho u... 
plumbed abyss of the sub-consciuua mind." " 
statcts are tho ]>8ychic sources ■' :-—; — •: - - i 
and the lecturer i-ays lie has . 
tho ctmception of tin- 
ness " or " |>«yohi<> «■ 
yet unil 
aro no\'. 

universal postulate, the psy 

is the recognition, or, if y- . . 

scions volition is tho ultimate source of all force." 

Here, then, Mr. Brinton has pu»he«l hie way >>»"V»«t.1 . r 
downward as far as he con (and farther than wu can 
plumbed. But elsewhere ho does not ,- ' 
investigation. He will not accept the or 

S]iencer, but he ought at leosttohavo lea- 
that certain words or ideas which he 
explanation themselves want eM 
is, acoordine to him, why " ^; 

primitive peoples) as causes of inatorial ilii.ts. ' i.iii "■• u 
lii-st learn how any such idea as s: irit:: 1 v ..- It i: '.'■ :i ; .; 
not ready-made. So, when he  
deal of " how the goils '' and " i... i-. .^.. 
acjordingto tlio imaginings of early man ; bu: 
of Deity first of all? If wo aro to ^' ' 
things wo must begin at tho beginning. 

all men, is not to start with wIk '.U 

what thoy meant by " ([od " ani 

Much, then, remains to bo cleaitKl in 

weighty matters. But even j'ts and tiv -if- 

loctod.and such blemishes :: 'Hc and Greek wuLcat 

accents sliiiuld disappear frt:., . „ 



Women of the Old Tr F. Horton, 

M.A., D.D. 7i' oiin., xii. *2!^ 

ot^i^ ICC iuii.1 Paton. 3 6 

" It requires a jioot to tell thp «tory of KoWVsh." myn T'r 
IIort«m, and there can hr 
reproiluction of Old Testa i • 

to have added to their beauty and siiuplicity. It is with a aonae 
of disappointment that the reader lays down the l>ook. Th« 
outhor is so facile a writer, and at rare intervals so snggestivap 

that wo are the less pre)>ared for an occosi ' ' "  '-"'''O*. 

and into a treatment of the Old Tes- loh 

verges on v ''■""' ' k' 

OS " the wo in 

the " servants" ball ' 

of a style which is sin t 

subject. 

It is tnio that tho terseness which marks the Old 
Tes ainent stories— a well-known characteristic of all aasient 



so 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



lit«ntiir«-lMrea mncli t< tho r*«d«r*i imagination, but it nooda 
imagination of a loftier tj-po than Dr. Horton's to supply tho 
tiotftiU of a picture drawn onlj- in delicato outline. Tho author's 
defeot in this !>■-•  ' ;ieci«lly striking, if his book is com- 
pared with a « r in aim, but entiroly superior in 
treatment. JT  u„ k, •, •• old TesUment and Mixicm 
Life." l*a' ; npnwbirtion of "Tho Song of 
S>ong«," Dr. : atjvo capacity. 

Thm^ i« ' r»r. Horton is 

«cr.- lish 

pc. ted 

I'y TO ciro and thoroughness, anil which is peculiarly 

o"^* ' 'iltv iti.1 r.ndors. Among soverul cxaoiplos of this 

fanit, < ; may be mentioned. The closing 

line* of ;....., .....1^ :- tiai^iert and Hob " aro not improved by 
1 r. Horton's latest version of them :— 

' •'ifrt' a tnf ' ... , j ^.^^ 

tomrtkin' i-nrn cU'»r. 

ji ."iiuiild b6 addfii u;.i; ;i t.Tiiu ii:ir Foiiiin i.i u (ir(i,sworth faros 
no better ; Tennyson's " Rizpah " is misquoted, and oven the 
" Benedicite " is adapted to modem thought by the substitu- 
tion of tb« wonl " women " in tho phrase •' Holy and hiimblemen 
of baart." 

fn hi<! preface Dr. Horton defends at length his somewhat in- 

M lent of the purist Vn/u'vA tlucighout liisbook. 

t wise or considerate neeiUessIy to sulwtitute in 

iamiliar discourws this nnpleasing critical form for a term which 

hat taken a permanent place in the language and around which 

" majestic atsociati as " have gathered. It is fair to say in 

conclusion that although tho writer's treatment of tho subject 

lAves much to bo desired, his aim is a laudable one. Any 

.■.iriM the literature of tho Old Testament is to 

;ned. It is to be regretted, howcvtr, that Dr. 

ii'- nlikely to commend itself to biblical students, 

*"■ ' -<.'«8od of literary instincts and culture. 



Bv 

'I' 



P__,= 



chlng on Faith, Life, and Order. 
'. C. O. Moule, .III. I T. W. Driiry. 
i^ ...... n, 1SU7. Cliarles Murray. I/-11. 



We welcoTne thi^ xhnrt •Timmary of " evangolical " teaching, 

s of view which pervades it. 
iief are much moru likoly to 
contribute to tho caiue of Christian ro-union than the contro- 
versial ne^'ations which were formerly in fashion among 
writers of the achool to which the joint nuthcrs of the present 
"'"'' '-'mg. In each part of tho book tliero is much that is 
. Canon Oirdlestono seoma to answer tho question, 
■' '■ ' ' s and brevity. Tlioro 

•■ '^ unity and j.urpoao of 

on III. : es between England 

■■'d and 1 in tone. We question 

uh, as Canon Uirdlc.stono holds, " tho 
"nature." Art. ix. tells us that man 
i 1 iiis present state " ab originali juatitia </iMiin loiiyutime 
diatat "—i.e., he is " rrry far gone from original rightoousneas " ; 
bat we think it oinrious that the compilers of the Article intended 
, I. .., :.i .1 Calvinistic doctrine of total depravity. 

j-ivo<l," which was afton«nH« proferroil 
')• '■ ido. 

i by tho 
■s have 
1 of Mr. 
;rjst is apparently expressed in a 
i -, . . ^fr ^foide pleads most tem[>eratoly 

for the pra'-tioe of evening > n, but deprecates non-com- 

mnnicating attendance and ...,..■■.■ inaistcnco on fasting Com- 
munion. His seventh chapter on " Aids to a Christan lifo " is 
admirable. T- * ! part, by Mr. Dr !s with the 

Church, iU ti. 1 unity. We gathc . Dniry is in 

favotir >.r :,ji the validity, if not tho lejiularity, of non- 

epiacopn. 'lis. 

Th» dvftft-t vf the book lie* in the tendency of tho writer* to 



make tho Thirly-nino Articles and the Prayer Hook a final co\irt of 
appeal on points ol doctrine. Thoy do not merely overlook what is 
necessarily implied in that ap|)oal to primitive usage and order, 
on which the English Church takes her stand. Thoy also seem 
unduly to limit the weaning and application of certain expres- 
sions in tho Prayer I5ook and Articles which were almost cer- 
tainly intended to admit of more than one possible interpreta- 
tion. Canon Oinllestono's contribution ospociully strikes us as 
neofllfs^lr r >ntroversiaI. It is certainly a breach of good taste 
to f. '. tho Prayer Hook " has j)ut otf tho ' old man ' of 

Iloi lonial, so fur as this was assoriatud with lioniish 

doctrine, and it has put on tho ' now man ' of Iteformation 
doctrine." Tlicse and svich-liko statements detract from tho 
value of a book which contains much that is excellent and 
encouraging. 

Genesis Critically and Bxegetlcally Expounded. IJy 

Dr. A. Dillmann. 'I ^^!ll^l.•lted iiom the Iji.si ICilition by 
\V. H. St.veii'.iiii. :; NO!.-.. It  Oiii., xii. i ll.'J j)!!., viii. t 507 pp. 
KdinlnirRh, 1897. T. and T. Clark. 2S1/- 

It is scarcely necessary to commend to Old Testament 
students the lato Professor Dillmann's celebrated commentary 
on Genesis. Tho present translation, which displays every mark 
of care and efliciency.is based on tho sixth (Jerman edition, pub- 
lished in l.SOS. The great merit of Dillmann's work lies in tho 
lincness of bis historical instinct. He belongs to that moderate 
school of Biblical criticism which, while accepting the results of 
tho literary analysis of tho lloxateuch, docs not unduly press 
them into the service of arbitrary theories in regard to the 
beginnings of Hebrew historj-. The " preliminary remarks " 
prefixed to volume 1 contain a compressed, but lucid, account cf 
the main documents on which tho book of Genesis is based. 
Further, each section of the history is introduced by a passage 
explaining tho nature, origin, and theocratic purport of the 
different narratives. These intr. ductory passages are jjcculiarly 
interesting and valuable ; they well illustrate the sobriety of 
judgment, combined with a true historical sense, which dis- 
tinguishes Professor Dillmann's work (see csjiocinlly tho intro- 
duction to the history of Abraham, and the discussion respecting 
the origin of cli. xlis., tlio so-called " liloKsing of Jacob "). 

In his literary analysis of the sources Dillmann has laid 
himself open to the criticism of oxj^Tts. Ho seems to lay undue 
stress on certain phraseological criteria, which do not always 
justify the conclusions baned upon them. It is a pity, by the 
way, that the translator felt himself bound to retain Dillmann's 
symbols A, H, and C for the more customary P, K, and J. In 
his own jirefaco Professor Dillmann seems to have noticed tho 
inconvenienco of hi.s own nomenclature, but he saj's :— 

It was the need of iiiaintaininR unifnrmity with the other volumea of 
hia HcxatPnch commcntarv which coniptlled bim to retain the symbols 
A, U, nn.l C. 

As F. Delitzsch's " Neuer Cominentar Uber die Genesis " 
has already been translate<I, Biblical students have no cause to 
complain that ctMid commentaries on Genesis aro inaccessible. 
Tho jiresent edition of Dillniann's work h.is incorporated all tho 
latest results of recunt arcliieolojjical research, which amply 
illustrate the dependence of the Hebrew narrators on a stock of 
cosmogonic and mythological ideas common to both .^^euiitic and 
Aryan jHsoples. In attem{itin<' to form a just estiiiiato of tho 
wondertiil story of Israol's origins Professor Dilliiiaiiir« work 
will be found almost indispensable. 

In Sklkction.s from Kaklv Wiuters Illu.stiiative of 
Cbuucii History to the Tivk of Coxktantisk (Macmillan, 
4b. M. n.) Mr. H. M. Gwatkin has collected " a fairly represen- 
tative selection of original docunmnts for tho use of students." 
I'he compiler's reputation as a scholar and historian is a sufTi- 
cient guarantee that his work iscarofullv and thoUjjhtfully done. 
The only criticism wo have to make is that the usefulness of tho 
lKM)k would be mnti-rinlly increased by Ihe addition of a classifie*! 

'of the (lltrerent passages 
ttlo light is thrown on the 
iii^iiiiv 1 1 ii'>c iriiirs In <Ntr:i'tB emlxxlying " tho |>ersonal 
opinions of coii.«picuou8 writers." Many of the excerjits aro 
tjjiit.i; ,,,,,.1,. I , ;..( |.,,- Mr. (iwatkin'a collection will probably 
t<'lii to ventuie further and deeper into tho 

wide L : — . ,^:.. '... literuturo. 'J'ho book has evidently boon 
found usefid, as a reprint has been calloet for. 



January li2, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



fli 



EARTH-BOUND. 



Thongli from tlio body I am jmst, 

To tlie Kuril 1 I nm bound fast ; 

Immortal voii"-^  "'1 '"■• i"vv 

I may not f;o ; 

JUit likt' a bird out of the night 

K(>at ever in on this wann light. 

I hoard an angel say 

♦' Come away ! " 

I answered " Ijct me bide 

" Wher(> I have died ; 

" Near to the blowing grass ini^l ><in,. 

" Where I have run." 

And then I said 

" 'Tis dreary to be dead, 

" And wntch the budding lane, 

" And hear the rain : 

" To pine about the green, 

*' And haunt the sheen. 

" rare, rare, 

" Are human face,«, human hair I " 

Spirit nm I, but cannot yet 

(to from tliese ancient pastures wet ; 

Though from the body I am past. 

To the Earth I am bound fai^t. 

STEPHKX PHILLIPS. 



—  — 

AX AKAB CLASSIC. 
The Arabs had a curious and effective manner of 
reviewing. In the Time of Ignorance, before the advent 
of the blessed Prophet, the poets of the desert submitted 
their verses to the judgment of their countrymen 
assembled at tlie great annual Fair which served as the 
Olympia of their race. The protagonists of the rival 
tribes were carefully masked, lest winged words should be 
followed by a different kind of arrow, and their ])oems 
were iniiiartially recited by a Public Orator. The 
acclamation of the multitude decided the event, and the 
clan whose poet won the Arabian substitute for the bays 
immediately indulged in feasting and self-glorification. 
The discovery of a tribal poet was a source of pride 
scarcely excelled by the birth of a son to their chief, or the 
foaling of their favourite mare. In Mohammedan times 
the criticism of authors was conducted in an equally 
public manner. When a man had produced something 
he thought particularly good, lie hastened to tlie Moscjue 
to share it with his critics. He was sure to find them 
there, doctors learned in the law, jioets, commentators, 
seated cross-legged on their carjK'ts in the arched porticos 
round the court, expounding the refinements of style to a 
circle of squatting students. To this audience he would 
recite his latest achievement, proud but frightened. It 



iin\fl have been u treinmdouN ordml, for i 

were mme of them rivals and all of tliem ke< . on 

tlie alert for the I 

rhythm, the timalle' , , . 

idiom. They had, too, a way of exprcxifing their ofnnions 

which X 

much ' „ , , , - - - , 

Hearchingofmemory,andexaminat ion oftextB. The newcomer 
I"d his dietiii: ' <•« ; the 

lit him up in p It waa 

A thanaaius contra murufum, and the extraordinary thing w, 

n<.^  -'lat 

he ^ utU 

actually con^inced of his Bins, and amended his way>; 
which, as an experienced reviewer will jierceive. is al><iurd. 

It is true, nevertheless ; and an authcn*'- •-■••Tiple 
lies liefore me, in the book called "Tlie A of 

Hariri." Humiliating as it is, I am aware tiiai 1 shall 
be instantly confronted with the question, who or wliat 
was Hariri ? Was it a town, or a man, or a tribe, or a ntdt ? 
I can only reply that an Oriental : ny 

pretence to polite scholarship wouKi , his 

ignorance of Hariri as an English gentleman fifty years 
ago would have admitted that he could not quote Horace 
Both these ideals are i»assing away, yet to the i>ducated 
Arab the " Assemblies " are still the sum and perfection of 
literary form, and even Kuroj^-nns have f: ' ejr 

spell. Kiickert imitated them with i>oi;. in 

German, and the late Professor Dieterici won! nes 

wander into a friend's room in a vagn-- 

that he had l>een "meandering in i. 

of the flowery gardens of Hariri." For nearly eight 
centuries his " iMdk'tmat" have been . as a 

scarcely less fervent disciple, the late Mr. < , iaid, na 

" next to the Koran, the chief treasure of the Arabic 
tongue. Contem])orarie- 
praises of him. His ' ,\- 

with infinite learning and labour in Andalusia, and on the 
banks of the Oxus. If- the 

feasts of the great, and 1 _ 'rt. 

To appreciate his marvellous elo<|uence, to fathom his 
profound learning, to in- ' 
allusions have always ; 

literary, wherever the Arabic language has been scientifi- 
cally studied." The exi " ' ' ' ;nd 
refinements of his style hav. .n, 
as it were, the philosopher's stone of Orientalists, and Mr. 
Chenery's version, with its ' ' . i.< 
among the many ser\ices w , lar 
unobtrusively rendered to learning. 

El-Hariri belonged to the critical, artificial, imitative 
jieriod of Arabic literature. The time of creation was 
I»st, when the early desert poet-s comi)os»'il those •'Golden" 
Odes and "Linked" ' . which tr;uliti«ni 1 ed 

were sus|x«nded, to i... .. . .. rnal glory, on thr ■. ; ibe 

holy Koaba at Mecca. The age of memory had followed, 
when to recite the classic verse w.is  an 

to compose anything new. and when 11 - uis 

prodigious memory by declaiming at a sitting two thousand 



82 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



ni- >tHl poems, 'a ' with each of the 

twi-. ..i:f letters of ii , ., ;... ilie Caliph Welid 

was pro>lnteiI with listening to them. It became the 
ambition of the man of letters to model his style closely 
apon classical examples ; to treasure up rare phrases, 
peculiar granimntical constructions, recondite allusions, 
curious i: ; to piny ujKjn the sounds and 

meanings l ....-, and to test the wits of his hearers by 

the obscurity of the dovbU enienie. Artificial as such 
oompi^- lation in 

mostl , -~, whose 

critical taste and learned api>aratu8 found free play in such 
conceits. Hariri was of this sort — a man of immense 
literan' resources, remarkable critical jxiwers, yet of narrow 
intellectual vision. "He spied out defects with the 
ni' • eye of an insect, but the merits which he 

pn, f nice and contracted also." 

His birthplace encouraged his intellectual tem{>era- 
ment. He was bom of .-Vrab stock at Basra in 1055, and 
died there in 1 122. He celebrates his native city as the 
jtlace where '' the ship and the camel meet, the seafish and 
the lizard." But besides being the chief Mesopotamian 
mart for the commerce between east and west, Basra was 
the home of literarj' subtlety ; whore, more than anywhere 
else under the Caliphate, there was everlasting " grinding 
at grammar," making of anagrams, devising of conceits, 
and all manner of poeta.«trica! iiedantrj*. When one of 
its most famous scholars lay dying, his friends gathered 
round to catch his last wishes ; but the learned Sibawaih 
could only gasp out "There is something on my mind 
concerning the particle hatta ! " — One thinks of him who 

Gsye us the doctrine of the enclitic ti, 
Dead from the waist down. 

Bred up in this straitest sect of the grammarians, Hariri's 
undoubted genius for style was jwlished to its finest edge, 
and his learning wa- widened to the bounds of the scholarly 
horizon. His greatest work, the •' Assemblies," is indeed 
(«-".'»■'■ ' ;i.s well obser\efl) an enc\'clop:fdia of 

th' is time and race, set forth in language 

saturated with the idioms of the classical jjoets, the Koran, 
and the proverbs of the desert. It is this which makes it 
»o valuable a text-book for the student of Arabic. Here 
he will find poetry, history, antiquities, theology, law ; he 
will be introduced to every branch of Mohammedan 
learning ; whilst for niceties of grammar, rhetoric, and 
lexicology, he could Ijave no surer guide. Dr. Steingass 
haM conferred a great benefit on studon' ' ■• ' ' n publication 
of a convenient text of "The A> of Hariri" 

(Sampson Ix>w), elucidated by very necessary notes, 
based u\ton the labours of Sacy and ('henery. It is a 
matter of jtersonal regret, which will be shared by all 
(> -, that the indefatigable editor's sight has 

suii- 1- u iiom his long and continuous devotion to study; 
but the misprints for which he asks forbearance will not 
f^erioanly diminish the usefulness of lus work. 

I • I bt , for m ost WeMems to npprec i at e 

the bf..>.i.i , ;. „ iirnttnl classic. There is no cohesion, 

no connecting idea, between the fifty se])arate "Assemblies," 
beyond the regular re-eppearance of an egregious Tartufe, 



called .\bu-Zeyd, a bohemian of brilliant parts and abso- 
lutely no conscience, who consistently extracts alms from 
assemblies of jjcople in various cities, by preaching elo(|uont 
(liscourses of the highest piety and morality, and then goes 
oflF with his sjwils to indulge secretly in triumphant 
and unhallowed revels. Even in this framework there is 
no attempt at originality ; it is borrowed from Hamadani, 
the " Wonder of the Age." The excellence lies in tlie 
perfect finish : the matter is nothing ; the charm con- 
sists in the form alone. Yet this form is, to English 
readers, exotic and artificial. Among its special merits, 
in the eyes of Easterns, is the peqjetual employment of 
rhyme<l prose. To us this is ajjt to seem at once 
monotonou.s and strained, with its antithetic balance in 
sense, and jingle of sound ; but to the Arabs, as to many 
primitive i>eoples, either rhyming or assonant prose was 
from early times a natural mode of impassioned and 
impressive 8i>eech. It is the mode adopte<l constantly 
and without strain in the Koran, and it is' the mode into 
which an historian, such as Ibn-el-Atliir, falls naturally 
when he waxes eloquent over a great victory or a famous 
deed. The Arabic language, with its mathematical 
regularity of structure and resulting assonances, lends 
itself easily to this art of expression, and what to us seems 
artificial and affected was undoubtedly ]iroduced without 
effort by the writer; indeed, it is the commonest tiling to 
hear the weekly sermon in the mosque delivered ex tem- 
pore in rhyming prose. 

But if we do not care for rhymed pro.<e, there is 
plenty besides in Hariri to minister to varied tastes. In 
these wonderful " Assemblies " we shall find every kind of 
literary form, except the shambling and the vulgar. 
Pagan rhetoric, Muslim exhortation, simple verse, elaborate 
ode, everything tliat the immensurable flexibility of the 
Arabic tongue and the curious art of a fastidious scholar 
could achieve — all is here, and we may take our choice. 
But the strangest thing about Hariri was his profession. 
The greatest master of Arabic style in the Middle Ages 
was a Sahib cd^Khabar. Now Sahib al-Khabar, being 
freely interpreted, means — our own coiTospondent ! 

STANLEY L\VT--TO(">T,K. 



FICTION. 



The Great Stone of Sardis. rjy Prank R. Stockton. 
Ilhwtrntcil l>v Pi'tor Xfwi-U. TiAuiii., .'541 pp. I.<<in(I<>n iiiut 
New York, lSt8. Harpers. 6/- 

" Rudder Grange " did not certainly go down to the great 
deeps of romance : it was moored fast, indooil, to i-artli, and its 
only voyage was both short and disastrous. Yot. thou(;h it was 
oncliore<l in a more backwater of the noblo floods, and could 
never, even with the most skilful sonmniiship. have modo 
liarataria or the port of Kinging Island, it will still have a 
humble, but sufliciont, anchorage when the good ships of story 
are finally asscniblocl. There, in that happy haven, it will never 
encounter the Dipsoy, an electric, submarine vessel, tittod with 
electric gills, an hyilraulic thermometer, a continuously unroll- 
ing cable, an electric Ica<l, and every scientific convenience 
known to the year 11M7. The Dipscy <li8c<ivcrs the North I'olo, 
posaes under the ice, penetrates the secrets of )>org-bound lakes, 
wearies us with the clatter of its jKjrfect and tiresome machinery. 
Hut the Rudder Grange voyaged into a tar more distant country, 
I touching, at least, on the shores of old Romance. 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



83 



'  Tho Oront Stono of Surdia " is a oompound book. Hi* 
DijiBoy nn<l tlio hydnitilio thormoinotor divido tlie intoroit with 
thu Hcioiititio (.<xp«rimont8 and invuntinns of Mr. Uoland Cluun at 
tho Hiinlin works, Nuw Jorsey. In n way thin Inttvr part nf tlio 
tiilo in woll rnnnngCKl ; wo aro lod very nkilfidly tliri>u;;li tliu 
Artosiiin Kiiy nnd tho Ornat Shell up, or rathor, down to the 
Groat Stono, and tho Hccrot of the book )h inguiiioUH onoiiL.'h in 
its manner. Hut what a poor manner it is ! How that initial 
date, U'47, chilLs tho imagination, and in what a torpiil humour 
wo listen ti> tho catalogue of " iciontiflc " marvols ! And then 
thoro \a tho garnishing which ia doomod nocoHaary for auch 
aturios as thesu ; Mrs. Block givoa comic relief, and Mrs. Kaleigh 
looks aftqr tho lovo intorcst, and through it all one remombera 
tho onrso which .''tovcnson pronounced on tho .Jules Vorno si-hool 
of fiction. l!ut •• Tlio CJroat Stone of Sardis " hoa its uses. It 
Rorvoa to remind us how utterly remoto tho wonder of romance 
is from tho wonder of external things, and liow admirably Uos- 
sotti spoke from the romantic standpoint when lio said that lio 
neither know nor cared whether tho earth went round the sun or 
tho sun round tho earth. 

Margaret Forster. .V Drciiin within a Itio.iin. Uy 
George Augustus Sala. 8x5.tiii., 307 pp. l^ndon, lhi)7. 

Unwln. 6/- 

However desirous wo may ho to forbear giving pain to tho 
many friends and admirors of tho late Goorgo Augustus Sala.itia 
impossililo to concoul tho fact that " Margaret Forster "' is not a 
.suciossful pieco of fiction. Perhaps Mrs. S,\la, in her lonsthy 
profaeo, furnishes a partial clue to her husband's failure as a 
novelist. Sho tells us thiit this last work was dictated to a 
typist and composed by the author while sitting in his easy chair 
" scanning the current pictorial poriodicals of the hour, and 
criticizing every illustrated book of note of the day sent him 
by tho publishers." This strange method of writing a novel 
explains to a great extent tho careless journalistic stylo in which 
it ia mostly written. 

Mr. Sala has described his novel as a dream within a dream; 
but even after a careful perusal of the book wo aro not quite 
sure of his meaning. When does tho innor dream begin ? Wo 
know where it stojjs, because tho author has taken the trouble 
to indicate tho place, but we do not quite seo the sense or object 
of an inner dream at all, except as a puzzle for tho reader. To 
get at the facts of the case, Mr. Sala opens with a description of 
tho ejection of a drunken old woman named Maggie Frewen, 
and known to the police as tho " Licensed Victuallers' Curse," 
from a public-house at closing' time. Apparently sho falls under 
a horse-trough and goes to sleep there. From this point, we 
take it, the whole of tho subso<iuent narrative is tlio old woman's 
dream of better days, until tho two concluding chapters, which 
aeem to take up the thread of tho story t<dil in the first ehaptor 
and to explain tho real development of ovents. So far so good. 
This dream, however, is not in itself a very intelligible affair ; 
and a re-perusal of its construction only serves to deepen the 
ambiguity with which tho whole plot has been unfolded. It ia 
with regret that we find ourselves unable to accord a measure of 
praise to this posthumous book. It gives, certainly, many 
glimpses of Mr. Sala's vigorous, straightforward method of utter- 
ance ; and as such we have no doubt it will prove a welcome 
volunie to the many friends of one of the most indefatigable ami 
jMipular labourers in the literai-y field. 



In the Choir of 'Westminster Abbey : A story of 
Henry Piirceirs Day.s. Uy Emma Marshall. Illustrated by 
T. Hamilton Crawford, U.S.W. 7i ■.."liiii.. ;>lti pp. Seeley. 6"- 

Mrs. Marshall's imaginative pictures of the England of other 
days are in reality prose poems, constructed with the utmost 
attention to historical detail and local colour. They are many 
in number, and form a series of delightful reailings, of which, 
perhaps, the one dealing with Xorwich in the days of Sir Thomas 
Browne best exemplitlos her peculiar power of retrospective 
creation. Another which may be specially mentioned is '■ Ken- 
sington Palace," a chronicle of the reign of William and Mary, 



written with muob viridueM. Tho prvaont book may bt chanc* 

tbr(»od aaa ! * < «. .. . .,, .. . .j^ 

ToworHl For .lui 

a ai.fi 
iti««ti'- (■! 



lo bo written by • yoiiii. 

. I-,,, ■....11 I, ,.,,.., I,. 1.1 (.. 



I  
.Iw 
•t 
.(• 

•iO 

lo 

'.ilO 
of 
.,.1 



time, in 

aist'"" • 
oft 

of hiiii II nin-' iiiiiK<'% iiii'iii ji'li in I. 

Church of two organa for tho choi 

Temple. For the trial of ' 

people gatherotl together. 

by I'urcell won t! 

beauty of the ] ' 

auiall for \n t y, 

" 1 waa, as i .t, 

and knew naueht of (juurtor not«« or th« facilltiea thMO gmr* 

fur modulating into remote key*." 

.\mong tho peraona in the atory tho gracioua figaro of Mr*. 

"- '■r\\\e, the actress, la con*  ■■•■^■-, jxnd it is * ' ' ' •• in 

played in the charactei . i in tho ir. iig 

 I ■'• i,:htf';' 11 ahe W»» t" IJie iHM.f, 

> ' h^iiiitly -our them, ami how 

young Mr. Coiii,iu-.i "st 

unhappy and was tiiiu I'a 

death-bed. The career oi ttiu musician is '>:h 

feeling. We moot Aliister Drydon, who, he\\, t of 

arroat for debt, found it mighty oonvonieiit to go to Puroell'* 
private apartment in the Clock Townrat St.Jamea'a Palace, where 
he was sofo and enjoyed the air and acone. Purcoll waa in great 
favour under William and Mary and '■ '•'  '' 
Queen Mary would send for him and -.i. 
to make music for her in private. Mi». inut'. 
and aang aweetly, while Henry Parcoll ac<- 
harpsichord. Une day tha Queen audd>!ily 
Hur.t, " Th.".f i<t all fine gmve music ; hin.; i.. 
ballad 1 ' Cold and raw.' " Now this 

the you: " sang through tho streeta. 

tuned her Into and sang it twice, the Queen clapping tier handa 
and laQghing, beating her amall feet to the time." And 
Purcell, though somowliat hurt at tho proferenco, novertboleaa 





• ••• ent. 




nt, 








^ ^ . 


Wi.- 


.^n 


'M 


ml 



good-naturedly took tho hint, and in tho birtV 
year, 1692, in the lovely air he composed to ' 
her bright example," usetl tho very tune of • 
for tho bass, " note fur note the same, ahoiu 
good-nature but his genius, for who but ho c> 
the matchless air of his own beautiful ecu 
common tune of the old ballad f" Queen Ma; 
daya of 1094 ; tho groat musician on t!io i 
Day, 1695. The book, which is vers 
Dr. Troutbeck, tho precentor of W. 
really charming drawings by Mr. T. II 
way of frontispiece, a reproduction of 
portrait of Henry Purcoll. 



for that 

" May 

1 raw " 

nly hia 

wedded 

to the 

.»t 

uk'a 

.ited to 

-4 a<im» 

ind, by 

j\iit.iicr*8 fine 



THE YEARS HELLENIC DISCOVERY. 

 

Fr0.M OlB CoKRESroSDBST AT AtHKXS. 

In a year of war and rumours of war an archv <>1'^^'.'>I ox. 
plorer finda his occupation well nigh gone. Through c- 

drawn crisis of tho {laat >;■-■• ' "mmiir boio n «■  • fc 

Government and the Gre< ; d towards tho f r- ;^:i 

I representatives of science in : t with extraordinary 

courtesy, detaching them almo from tbe feelings of 

irritation or resentment w! i: • t "tod toward* the 

Euro[)oan Powers. liut with - ih- i,.i:: .lilable peaaaatry 

drawn off for the fighting line and i nd the other half 



84 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



able to Uiink and talk of little but war, it wa« naturally diflicult 
io effvet exoavaticHM during the spring : and tlio end of the war 
waa the beginning of tl>« great heats and tlie harrest. 

Tbna the American School in Athens, which had planned for 
la«t apring tfae openini; of the cani|>ai(ni which is to uncover 
Corintii, onl\ •• •  t ,j-8s too 

boaf to pro< ■<\te, and 

finally the <! !>t fur 1. nail 

traeteestoi quickly- .s of 

nHrxt, which teemed to indicate t! ty of tlie aijura of 

the city. Kut the work waa not \n  -vith. It is to be 

Tesnnied in March if the expropriation hoa by that time been 
doly carried through, but tfae great depth of the soil will entail 
great expenae. 

The French also hare done rerj little at Delphi, having con- 
fined their efforts to clearing again tho Stadium, into which a 
large maaa of earth had slipped since the excavation was first 
done. The building of retaining walls and arranging of tho two 
moaeums, now established on the site, have made up the season's 
work. But in the year to come this fresh excavation is to bo 
ondertakun, and we may hope for something to rival the bronze 
charioteer, the Treasury friezes, or the Apollino hymns, which 
hare been the most signal finds among a multitude of lesser, but 
most important, results of the greatest nrcha'ological under- 
taking; now proceeding in Greece. 

Round about the Acropolis of Athens n little work has been 
done by the Ephorato and the Gorman Institute. In clearing the 
Cf.^ " " ' and Apollo and the roi' the north-western 

aii' . ;i cliff of the Acropolis f li'sting inscriptions 

have cume to light, notably two just published by M. Cav- 
▼adiifl concerning the well-known Temple of the Wingless 
Victory. Those are, in fact, nothing less than the original decrees 
enacting that the temple lie built (apparently before either the 
present I*ropyln-a or the Parthenon were in existence) and a 
priestess be appointed and paid. The famous Callicrates is to be 
the architect. A labyrinth of stairs and passages has been ex- 
plored between the shallow grottoes, but they present few 
feature) of interest : but it has just been reported tliat a fresh 
historical ii^ . relating to Alcibiades, has come into the 

haTxls of thi- 

The German Institute has a few men working between the 
Pnyx and the .■Vreopagus for the further clearing of tho streets 
and houses at tlie foot of the former, and the exploration of the 
really extraonlinary system of water-conduits which lead from 
Hymettus to a sacred tank hollowed in the rock of the Pnyx. 
This tyrtcm, as is well known. Dr. Diirpfeld believes to be the 
Enncakroiino« »y't"ni of Poisistratid oriein. With a guide and 
tapers • ' 'of conduits, the older l>clow the newer, can 

te foil" liiout a kilnml'tro uudorgrouiid, and afford 

one of the most curious sights of Athens. For tho rest those 
excarations have rcsulto<l mainly in a demonstration of the 
aqualid general appearance of the old city, probably not 
moch more redeemed by its finer buildings scattered 
bare and there, than is a modem capital in the East. 
The Germans arc still searching round the eastern and 
northern slop's of tho " Tliereum " hillock for certain evidence 
of the • • I. Dr. I' s no doubt that ho 

has fou :•< finnkin;- • at the foot of tho 

eaatem »lo|>-. and Iki'- ' .\ !y or tiiiieil [K'niiission to excavate a 
large site through wl, .1 t':i>> .ii'iirosch from the Dipylon Gate 
mtist hare run. Some interesting tombs hare been found hanl 
by on the lowest sloi>es uf the Areopagus hill, which contained 
incinerated remains, pottery related both to late " My- 
eeniean " and to the earliest geometric wan;, and relics l>oth of 
iron and bronze. All luck to Dr. Diirpfeld in his patient 
•earch for ttie atora '. When found, he means to hand it 
orer for exploration to the fireek Archx-ological Society ; 
moA tbeuMforwartl let us ho{)c fewer archieologists will 
hare i n dn ce m ent to spetxl time and energy on tho too 
ninnte apecolatire commentary on Pausanias, which for 
year* past has been the recognized exercise of younger 



Noting, finally, the fact that the soil over the area of the 
Olympeion is lx>ing turneil over, but so far witliout any result 
worth mention, we turn with relief to Mycenn-, tho centre of 
problems of more general bearing. There Dr. Tsountas bus been 
at work on tho west side of tho Acropolis and among the tombs, 
finding another dome (rifle<l), and a very remarkable (minteil 
female heod with rosettes, which may represent tattoo, among 
the ruins of houses. Hoth in this excavation and in his latest 
article in tho Kjilumeri* Dr. Tsouiitna ha.s udded valuable 
1' to that before avoilable for establishing tho native and 
aructer of " .'^lyconivon " fabric. Tho anti-Semites have 
practically won the day, and established tho existence of a great 
European civilization in early timts, iudipondeiit of, oiid 
rivalling the civilization of tho East. 

IJut tho most notable exploration of the " Myconiean "' 
epoch (indeed tho most notable work done by any foreign society 
during the troubles of last spring) was tho excavation by Mr. 
Cecil Smith and tho ISritish School of a ningular jirehistoric and 
" Myccnivan " palace-fortress in Melos. It lies on tho sea 
shore, at the nortli-easteru corner of tho island, and has been 
partly cut away by tlie woves : but tho highest part €>f tho palace 
is loft high and dry, and all the massive fortifications can lx> 
traced on three sides. The walls are standing in places to a 
height of several feet, and staircases, rascmatos, and all tho 
details of the ground plan are evident enough. Tho upjior 
structures are all of tho '• Mycen.aan " period ; but regularly 
stratifietl under them lies a prehistoric settlement, from which 
very early pottery and masses of worked obsitiinn have been un- 
earthed. Tho site will not yield much " museum sjxiil " — a 
" Mycen.'i'an " bronze figurial is tho most notable find hitherto 
— but in itself it is most important as an example of stratifica- 
tion and of fortification in the early periods ; and, lying os it 
does between the Peloponnese and the " Myceniean Promised 
Land "—the island of Crete— this .Meliau site may have much to 
teach us. It is hoped tliat it will be explored entirely in the 
coming spring. 

Soir.e ye<trs ago the finding of the nev,' fragment of tho 
Parian Chronicle, which has come to light recently in Paros, 
would have excited more interest than actually it does. Partly 
nowadays tho Hellenistic chronologista do not count for much ; 
partly their records are so desperately meagre : partly wo seem 
likely to get more out of | apyrus than out of such chronicles as 
the Parian. But this new fragment deals with a period of which 
our knowledge is very scanty ; and its stray references to the 
first Ptolemy add some new facts to those we know about a king 
who must have been one of the (greatest, and is certainly among 
tho most forgotten, organisers of administration and empire in 
all antiquity. 

And that is all that is to be said stinimarily about explora- 
tion in (ireeco during the year past. Certain work has been done 
among Greek things in Asia Minor about which full details are 
not j-ot to hand. Excavation was prosecuted in tho spring at 
Priene ; and .Mr. J. G. Anderson, of tho Hritish Schixil, has, 
alone among archaeologists, been exploring in the interior, 
acquiring a complete set of photographs of the Phrygian rock 
monuments, finding ninny new inscriptions, and identifying a 
number of the little towns of tho Roman an<l Byzantine opoclis. 
Mr. .Anderson is greatly to be congratulated on having effected 
so much in so unfavourable a year— for, on tho whole, victorious 
Turkey was last summer a far worse place for a Eurojioan than 
conquered Greece. 

Egypt, however, can never bo loft out of sight when things 
Hellenic are being reviewed ; and during the past year those have 
assumed a prominence in the archieological harvest there, which 
they have not hold since Mr. Petrie was digging at Daphne and 
Naucratis. Tho Bacchylidos papyrus belongs to a previous year, 
for, though only just published, it camo into tho hands of its 
Caireno possessors in the early autumn of 181)0. But tho year 
18!*? has the credit not only of Professor Nicole's Monandor 
fragment, but all of the great find ma<lo by Messrs. Grenfell ami 
Hunt at BtOinesa, whose publication starto<l so sonsaticmally with 
the Lojia, an<l will be continae<l for years to come with a 



January 2'2, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



Ht the BoohstalL 



Among the many fine items offorod for sale in the portion 
of tho Ashbnrnham Libniry recently dispersed the most notable 
section was that formed by the Books of Hours. Owing to tho 
imlill'orent condition of some of tho lots their intrinsic value 
was very uneven, but what they lost on tho score of condition 
tlioy made up in tho matter of rarity. Many of tho books were 
nni(iue, hence prices generally ruled high, though the introduc- 
tion of an unusual element in tho compotitiim caused a few of 
tho books to become very bad bargains. Tho lo.'xdors in the 
assemblajre wore, by their merits, so conspicuous that one 
may bo forgiven for passing over tho rank and file. Yet 
it wants the pen of a Dibdin to do full justice to the 
host of them, or, shall wo rather say, it roipiires tho latitude onco 
accorded to Dibdin to set forth fidly the merits of the books. 
Tlioy embodio<l within thomselvos so much of the perennial 
charm of tho auti(iuo th.it thoy could not fail to touch tho fancy 
of even the man in tho street. It is not tho custom in these 
days to indulge in tho airy flights of tho chronicler of tho 
IJoxbiirffho sale, but we are greatly mistaken if there is not for 
bibliophiles as much genuine pleasure now as there over was in 
tho company of such books. 

The gem of tho collection was Tory's Horjc of January, 
152.5, and it was worth making a long journey to sea and handle. 
It is seldom that ono moots with vellum so fine and beautiful in 
such a book. There was a lightness in its bulk charmingly in 
keeping with its size, and tho printer in making up this volume 
avoided a practice only too common among his contem[>orario8. 
who frequently thought nothing of putting into octavo and small 
quarto books a skin almost thiik enough to cover an elephant. 
The " Torvs "' in this collection exhibited that artist's 
work ttt its best. Putting them side b}- side, ono could see ot a 
glance tho rapidity with which he cast off tho somewhat 



promised annual average nf 20 Oreok literary pieee*, nthnr than 
Homeric fragments. Mo much bus boon said abon' • 
ablo treasuru of documonts that wo will only add 
knowlwlgo this much - that probably nover has a 
owoil loss to clianco and more to accurate foroc.i 
energy than that mode at IWhnosa. Mr. (Ironfoll ha<l long talkixl 
of Oxyrhyiiclnia, led to think of it by its fame in early 
Christian times and its proximity to the papyrus-bearing 
FayOm. He assiduously trained himself for throo soaiiona to tho 
very special ami diflicult work of papyrus-digging, in which 
there was no other export but the native dealers and t!- 
and in IS'.IS-Of; obtained work on sites in tho Kayuin, 
conditions wore almost precisely tho.so of IVHinosa. i ii..iUy, 
when ho wont to the latter »iKit in 18'.K5, he had to {•(••e ;:t first 
more difiicnltieM and less encouragement than iiw en- 

counter at starting. Tho neighbouring IJoduin wii. ond 

))rodatory, and tlie site was a huge hnmmocky waste of sand, 
whoro it was impossible to know at what point to begin. 
Tapyrus-digging is among the least pleasant and exciting pro- 
C08S03 of discovery ; it mean? scratching monotonously for 
weary weeks over rubbish mounds, now and again disinterring 
masses of cnimpled paj er, of whicli nothing can bo made until it 
is brought homo, smoothed out, and cleaned. The objects 
fo\md with it aro of a late period, iluvoid of any artistic merit ; 
no anhitectural problems relievo the monotony ; and whenever 
tho win<I blows strongly, which it does on two days out of three 
in the E^'yptian spring, work has to bo carried on in clouds of 
driving gray dust, not tho clean, if cutting, desert sand, but the 
result of tho decomposition of organic and other refuse matter. 
Papyrus-digging is in no sense an elegant amusement ; and 
every ono personally acquaintud with it must feel that Messrs. 
firenfoll and Hunt liavo reaped no more than thair plain deserts. 
It is to bo hoped thoy will bo enabled to continue for many 
years tho work which no one else, now alive, is nearly so well 
qualified to do. 



85 



rk. 



proriona t<> 

those oi. l.i 
the in< : 

use •• H i.ir 

a long life. 



!'■ 



'o aiul rofinod I'arisian 



Horn-, 

■I I,.., 



Pius \ 



Tit ions, 
t in 

to ua that the 

h hail in Italy to 

b«en 



os|)ccially borders, is well known anil 
crediting him with beiii:/ th- ■.! Ii'inat. r 
of ilosign used in I 

Renaissance school of ... v. ... 

powerful a vogue at tho end of tho 15th century, h 
entirely ovorlookotl. <tn'j of tl 'i " ! tiuost exu ' 

floral and araliesnuo decoration row «pa>" 

do, 

faUuiiiU' v» ' • !• 

believed ti ho 

h ? 

in- . : 1 . , . ^ . ^ ._. 

Uut what strikes us moot about this old-time art 

satisfied belief in himself as a uraftaman, and his naivi< v .l 

in tho perfection of his work. Whoever might print his iKMiks 



toly that 

ment in 

..m- 



vos 

tlo 



Illy as much as and (wrliaps even more than 



mattered little, but tiiat the world show' 

he designed the illustrations was not to 

donbt. There stands his name, " Geofroy 

partments of tho border illustrationu. and oi 

his loter works comes h;^ 

not used by hii;i prior to !.• 

daughter, ai toil in their views by I 

8ubje;;t, bib. _ .i:ivo long been given t 

inscription noii ;>(im, and the device of tho bmken pitcher, 

the disconsolate grief of a childless man. Incidents of tlii* 

nature are of such common occurrence that any reference to 

them is trite beyond measure. Yet it is this wli! ' ' 

Tory's books a pathetic dignity ami an air of . 

which is not i ": of ony . •" " 

that men sh . nlmnt • 

at all is only an 

tho present wit!; 

book c ' 

into any 

At the .\shburnh.-\m sale the battle of the " little maslrrs " 
of printing was fought aU over again, Pigonchet rv'" • "i*'> 
du Uots, and Higman with Colinieus, but eien Uteir I ' 
not quite equal tlio Soptotnbor 14'JO Hone of liiieoi.oi 
Korver. This small <|uarto was in spotless condition, and in 
regard to ink. print, and fonnitt it was 
well-recognized merits. Thero was a f 
which accorded well with - 
He it was [who, in hii T) 
into Franco. I ! 
than those of hi- 

the London booksellers. Printing in England in : 
hardly got on to its legs, and naturally, t'>'"-"fo: 
jirinted hero wore not eqnal iu ntorit ' 

work. A compar- ' '  the Paris o■..■^^ ... ....■ - 

with tho first Kn ited with boniers. '• Tli- 

U's and other I'r.iyer-, i anon, riiiM 14!''. 

greatly in favour of tho foreirn artists : In 

did not follow tr 

and therefore tlu 

comi^titors. 

Tho illustrations to the earlier Parisian books are nn- 
donbtedly strong and vigorous, bat many are at the same time 



86 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



ogly and ooarae. Tt i« ditBonlt to imagine in such books 
•aythiiig mocv * than Vostre'a anatomical man, and 

whan it is met i. and that badly, as in some of the 

Ashburnham btx^ks, the thing is hideous. Kerrer has often Ix-on 
(.^■••■...^.i Trith abetting the decadence of French doeign by the 
it u of Oeniian ideas, but it is somewhat diflirult to 

y:~:::\ •: • h.irj^e. Bach pictures as those of /<ji troi$ mort.^ as 
n5.i! ! V I>-: !*;. , ill fact, the whole Dance of Death series, have 
•ometbing osaontially bnital in their coarse frankiioii*. The 
piotore* and borderings used by Kerver and Tory toiicho<l less 
directly the sabject-matter of some of the lu-urfi, but thoy were 
far leas repulsire, and, we make bold to l>elieve, more attractive 
to the really devout. As a matter of fact, the <if;ure drawing 
employed in the Horie, as well as in the hi8tnriatc<l dc8i<nis of 
the older Missals, was never at any time equally goo<l with that 
of the floriated and arabesque illuminations. An excellent 
illustration of this exists in the famous Misnal of Fenlinnnd 
and laabella, where the designs used for the hawthorn, the 
•trawberry. the iaponica. and moat of all for the rose, endow 
thoee ' 1 stamp of genius finer by comparison 

than ; .'in the contemporary volumes. The 

same •" "f quality is observable in repard to l>ook decora- 

tions 1- -Tid white. For one good designer of figures there 

were probably twenty really competent designers of floral and 
emblematic borders. So far, then, as the pleasurable enters 
into con»i<lerations of taste, the most attractive Books of Hours 
of the first half of the 16th century are those which contain the 
fewest groteeqnes and other monstrosities. This accounts in 
some way for the pn '_: demand for the Tory and later 

Kerrer books, and :. ,i fooling of regret is inseparable 

from the breaking up of s.>o>iii|iIete a collection as the.Vohbiirnham 
Hora?, yet, on the other hand, there is the satisfaction of know- 
ing that as individual examjiles many of those fine books are 
now gracing collections otherwise deficient. 

Mr. J. H. Slater's 11th volume of " BookPricrs Cukbext " 
(Elliot •»♦■■'• VI 7s. Od. net) deals with the book sides which 
have t in London from December, ]89(>, to November, 

18B7 ; innnv r,-.- cf-t-, n,i i ini.rovemeut on tho previous 

issoaa, and is v valuable summary — 

aeeunte, compr. able to all having to do 

with books. Tlie Ashluiniham sale has given the past season an 
importnTirf whirh H wnnld not otherwise have possessed, with 
the r ' tkI the avt-rage have b«'en higher than 

*njr r. ,; Prices Current " was started 11 years 

ago. Ihi,- cLici buok »al< s at tho three principal auctioneers of 
literary pro|>erty show the enormous total of £100,259 for 
:r •■"  ' . or an average of about £2 1.1s. M. per lot. Mr. 
>" unbiosaed and, therefore, a trustworthy guide, and 

he im^ ir'ne his work with great goo<l judgment. Tliere nre 
a few omissions — f.q., no mention is made of the rare Pontnnus. 
of which we publishe<l quite a little romantic history in 
LUeraiun of December 11. 



1 

o: 

for v.n 



■"rican Book Prices Current for 

V Messrs. Dodd, Mead, and Co., 

- (Vm entries of lots which fetched 

of the year was ?1.2.")0, paid 

•ion Prayer dated 17!<S. 



Hmcvtcan Xcttcr. 



A new comic weekly is impending, L' Enfant Tei-rihU, which 
was to have appeared in New York with the New Year, but 
has la^igMl a little. Mr. R. H. Russell is the publisher, 
and ita literary and pictorial res|>onsihilitioa fall on Messrs. 
Oliver Ilerford and Oclftt Burgess. Tlie capacity for being 
funny is a tiacful quality in the proje<:tors of a oomio weekly, 
and both these ;' '::nown to {KiKsess it. Mr. Herford 

haa published ii;  and amusing drawings in L</-- 

and alaewhere, ami Mr. Bur;^< « Irv a<hioved a considerable 
mM«aTe of faroorable notoriety .a- the inventor of the I'urfih 
€ov. Ho L' Enfant Tfrribl* ought' to b« amusing at the start, at 
any rate, and there is a chance that] it may cam a place for 
itself. It will bo told for fira cent*. 



The suocMs of the American comic and humorous |>aper8 
has all come within 20 yours. i'«<-A- started about 1K77, l)eginuing 
as a Cierman i>a|H>r and quickly dovoloiiing an Knglish edition, 
which soon proved tho more important of tho two. Jmlije fol- 
lowe<l five years later, languished for a time, and finally, after 
changing hands, justified its existence. Life began in ISKJ, took 
about two years to establish itself, and then quickly found 
favour and became a valuable pro])erty. The literary side of 
I'ytfk was greatly strengthened by tho late Henry 0. Bunner, 
who was long its ctlitor. hut its field, like that of JwUjc, lins 
always been broad comedy varied by politics. Liff has appeale<l, 
and very successfully, to a tasto somewhat more refined, and has 
been exceedingly useful in developing illustrators. The choajien- 
ing of Uio processes of pictorial repro«luction helixjd all these 
pajiers. and it is doubtless largely duo to that that they 
succeeded whore such pretlocossors as Vanitu Fnir and I'lnirh'unllo 
came to grief and died young. 

The simplifying of il1ustrati<m which has come with process- 
engraving and tho spread of photogrophy is making a marked 
change and an improvement in books of local history. Such 
books necessarily have a limited sale, and usually tho coat of 
producing thon» nuist bo carefully counted. Twenty 3'ears ago 
thoy were apt to bo unattractive in appearance. An example of 
what they may be now appears in Mr. Peter J. Hamilton's 
history of " Colonial Mobile " (Houghton, Mifflin, and Co.), 
wherein the text is very usefully supplemented by apt illustra- 
tions. Colonial Mobile had a gootl deal of history, beginning 
with the discovery of Mobile Bay in 151!>, ami including the 
successive dominations of tho Spanish, French, Knglish, and 
Spanish ; its capture by General Wilkinson in 181:5, its capture 
by a British fleet in 1815, .ind its finol establishment as territory 
of the Unitetl States by tlio Treaty of Ghent. 

An interesting American achievement which, in so far as it 
was anything, was literary, and which had a <yiia,ii-literary 
excuse, was tho recent letter from " Adjutant-General liallaino " 
of tho State of Washington, to the London Chroiiiclf, in which 
he jiaid his compliments to Mr. Stead, ditt'ere«l from that gentle- 
man's conclusions as to tho prosjKscts of the American Uepublic, 
and afl'ectotl to anticipate with glee a war l)ctwoon Great liritain 
and tho Unite<l States, which ho " fervently prayed may not 
long be delayed." Mr. Ballaino is a newsi>ai)or writor, a 
Populist in politics, 30 years old, who is private secretary to 
tho Governor of tho State of Washington, and is incidentally 
Adjutant-General of that State. The total population of 
Washington (State) is loss than half a million, and tho militia, 
with which Mr. liallaino has tho ofllcial relations which give him 
his military title, includes in all 1,105 men. His dissent from 
Mr. Stead's conclusions is in several particulars well founded, 
but tho force of his communication to tho (.'liroiiieic lies chiefly 
in the strength of tho languago he has been able to use. Kvery 
one knows Mr. Stead and romis both his statements and his 
opinions in the light of that knowledge. Nobody knows Mr. 
Ballaino, and jKissibly his deliverances, when thoy apixjar in the 
Chnmiclf, are worth qualifying with biographical annotations. 
Mr, Ballaino's extreme antijiathy to Great Britain is 
probably afTectocl for literary puri>oses, but the (icculiarity he 
ezein])lifios does occur in America as also tho o]iposite one — the 
extreme pro-British sentiment. Of this latter there is the 
record of an instance in Tennyson's "Life," where tho daughter 
of James Russell Lowell tells about her grandmother who always 
lamented tho sojioration of tho new Kngland from the old, and 
put crapo on the door-knocker on tho Fourth of July, Descend- 
ants of old Tory families are found in the United States who 
really have this sentiment in their blood, and who from time to 
time give it an expression which is half involuntary. Thoy are 
nearly all hereditary Kpiscojuilians, and of course thoy are so few 
as to bo curiosities, though, whether there are not enough of 
them to offset the Rnglish-hators (except those of Irish descent) 
is matter for discusaion. 

A reader of the " Life of Tonnyaon," who searched that 
biography to learn what sentiments the Laureate hold alraut the 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



ft7 



jfovciou betters. 



ITAL^". 
TliB commission appointed last September to oxttniino and 
report on the unpublishod manuscripts of Giacomo Loopardi 
which recently came into the possession of the Italian Govom- 
niont has at last brought its labours to a close and handt'd in 
its report to the Minister of Public Instruction. Tho president 
of tho commission, GioguJi Oanlucci, himself tho foremost 
Italian poet since Loopardi, states that, while the unpid)lishe<l 
maniiscripts contain nothing su|>erior and little equal to 
Ijeojiardi's published work, they throw considerable light upon 
tho poet's character and upon tlie more intricate workings of his 
mind. Some of the commissioners, Carducci declares, were 
stoutly opposed to all idea of publishing the manuscripts, seeing 
that publication could not add to, and might detract from, 
Leopardi's fame ; but finally, in view of the imp<issibility of 
preventing clandestine and piecemeal publication should tho 
manuscripts bo placed in a musDum, it was decided to recom- 
mend tor publication at the expense of the State the largest 
fra;4ment, entitled " I pensieri fdosofici e filologici." This 
manuscript consists of 4,526 pages of fine, close writing, and 
contains a vast number of " thoughts, jottings, memoirs, and 



Amuriuan Civil War, waa tomewhat (nrpriied to diMover no 

allusion, in letter or recorded coiirersation, to that «id)j«Mt, 
vxcopt in ono pl.t<'<> a passing reference to the Alabama cIuinDi. 
It Hcoms I to assume that Tennyson, like all other 

thinking 1 i; i, was cognizant of the struggle in .\iiwrica 

and talked and wrote about it, but there is no record of his im- 
pressions, an omission that will bo disapiiointing to such 
Americans, if thoro are any, as may agree with Mr. Charles 
Dudley Warner's estimate of him (in Harixr't Mmja:ini)aa '• the 
l.irL^o.st-sii'.ed man of his era." One likes to know what n 
" lorgost-sizod man " thinks on all imixn-tant subjects, osi«ci- 
ally when his era was that which also know Lincoln. 

Mr. Warner in the February Ilnrpir'n has something to say 
about that pn'spectivo American Academy of Letters to wlii<-h 
allusion has ah'cady been made in a former letter. 1: 
organized under tho name of " Tlie Comparative I 
Society," and its oi>eration8 begin in February in Can 
New York, in a series ot conferences under the care oi i 
Charles Spraguo-Smith, director. The society has in view " the 
purpose of dooi>oning the understanding of what has already 
been accom]illshe<l in literature, and stimulating to higher pro- 
duction." To this end there is to bo comparative study in out- 
lino of all tho great literatures in different races and i>erio<l8. 
This tho Comparative Literature Society intends to jiromote by 
a series of Saturday morning conferences on the Dawn of Litera- 
ture, and of evening conferences on tho Contemporary Drama. 
Tho list of lecturers includes Professor Shuler. Professor F. 
Wells Williams, Professor Lanman, Professor Toy, iind nino 
otliors, all roeognizod autliorities on the subjects of which they 
will treat. Those conferences are expected '* to give a view of 
the ' oneness ' of all genuine literature, and to broaden tho 
bixsis ot our judgment and appreciation." The society has 
another purpose. It hopes to bo tho parent of similar societies 
in other parts ot tho country which will bo centres for the study 
of literature and the restraint ot local self-conceit, and will hring 
together literary workers from time to time for the purixiso of 
conference and comparison. Thus, it is hoi)e(l, American Letters | 
may attain to a degree of organization which will be comparable 
to that ot other visible interests in life. It is doubtful, says 
Mr. Warner, if in America or England there could ever bo an 
Academy like tho French Academy, '■ but it is perfectly 
l>racticablo to bring men of letters and scholars into closer com- 
munion, and to add to tho dignity of literature in the eyes of 
the world by some organization of it as a force." 

In the American letter in Xo. 10 of Lilernture (December 25) 
the name Charles F. F. Summoss should road Charles F. Lummis. 






obMrratinmi conceminc hi* writtns* and hi* 

tl 

Hiilemu •Adnuaa of lii^ iieii.U .. 

written without rostmint or 

pagM, tliinks Cardir 

Uoveminent in an " •' . 'Iiaa 

little delay at may bo. Uno volume at laaat should be ready by 

Jtmo, 18tm. 

As for tho remaining manu«cri|ita thej are to be plaoed in 
til' ^ ■' nl Library at Florence, V>Rvther with a ooai]J«te 
d' and chronological catalogue. Some two handrad 

ui. I ' Mo poreonagoa to I^eofianli exkt 

(11 1111? four l«lt«r« from (iioberti. 



•  leltern oa nwy bo of per- 

Towards tho end of tho present month a ^ mpt «ri]l 

bo made to rival tho Nuura Antoloyia by thi •• • ' •' 

RirUtaii' Italia. The loading spirit of the m 
be Count Guoli, who, if I am not mistaken 
years tho Nuom Antolotia. Tlio latter was. 
taken << '"" Ferraris, e- 

and Te, .it appear*, 

to publish idcd a bulky fort 

L'lUtlin. ai :iy brought out tw 

July nil l)er last. The first 

other at..: contributions, D'.\.. _,.. 

mattina di primavora," and the second Carducci's " Cltiee% di 
Polenta." It was believed until lately tliat L' Italia would 
begin to appear regularly in January*, but, on second thought*. 
Count Guoli has decide<I to amalgamate his vei.t ' t}:e 

Vita Italiniia. a fortnightly illustnttod review, n: the 

new m ' 'Italia. T 

less bo any ways. : 

and published muntiily, it will competu 
have done L' Italia with the .Yuora A 
fortnightly and is somewhat political in tendency. lh> 
il'Ilnlia, moreover, will be able from tho start to lean u, 
public of the Vita Italiana. Count Guoli'a name ia a guarantee 
of excellence, and the new undert.-.king may be expected to 
prosper, but it will require to be excellent indeed if it is to riae 
above the present standard of the A'uoro Anlolot/ia. 

The contents of the last two nnmb«r« of the Utt^r ronew 
have bi- • '■• varied ar 

and poll -on well re 

to them well proportioned. Tiio pla • mr in both 

numbers has been given toa" parable " ti; D'Annunzio. 

or rather to a D'Annuiizian rendering of a Uiblic&l parable. It 
is scarcely necessary to say that in his hands the parable* in 
question—" The Wise and Foolish Virgins " and •' The Rich 
Man and Lazarus " — are transformed almost out of recognition : 
but his treatment of them is interesting in the extreme : inte- 
resting, on the ono hand, because it reveals tho funi: . 
tendencies and instincts of D'.Vnnunzio aa a writer, an 
other, because it supplies an answer to the quest:' 
D'Annunzio, in <>pite of his putridity nrd r-orbid <«■■ 
CO' .• from I 1' to 

Oi :. tist. One lo's 

works raise tho question whether the writer obtains his effect in 
spite of, or because of, his subjects and nieth<xl ; whether, in 
other words, his skill as an artist enables him to manipulate 
with success tho most repulsive themes -  >- •!■ - r' '- 1 :t«nt 
horror and disgust exerted by tboee i' <<-r's 

mind incapacitate him for criti irv 

quality of what ho has road. V. 

duco similar effects with less , -Jiiigerooi materials ? 

Or is it that his temporament t<> oh"0(« and t" find 

su'  
at 
no less skill — though perhaps less nerve — than Blondin cr oa e ing 



88 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



Kiagmr*. Yet thrtv can bo no tinastion •• to the general osti- 
ntate of the intereet of the two performanoes. Doubtless the 
•ttiatic risk run bjr D'Annunzio auoounts for some of bin i>owor. 
He keeps his madcrs in a pfr|>etual state of suUlned excitonieni : 
nor dooe he auffer one kin<l of excitement to pall. The reader 
■hivwra with horror. iHagust, sensual delight, admiration, and 
wonder in tjuick succession. In describing an ulcer D'Annunzio 
will coin » phraae fit to a<lom an idyll, and in t'xplainiog tlio 
beaatiea of a statue will su^pest an idea utterly horrible. 
Nowliwe will the Totaries of Art for Art's sake find their tlicorifs 
put tu so serere a tost as in tlie works of D'Annunziu. That he 
is a great artist in form and colour and ouphi^ny no one can deny. 
n-K,. 1 |. .,,1.,^,.. n.,,1 iiig treatment of them are often— though 
id and roroltlng to the last degree is c<|ually 
uniicuiaiiie. i o'^sM.iy all great artists are tomptotl to display 
their sapariority to tlie materials of thoir craft by handlinc in 
torn all, p' " i '-i. Yet, 

seem bjr pr . . ns and iik 

or to oovet nf the knife-thrower, is there not 

c»<iso I. . C'>: "S something rotten " ? .Aswan's 

I would stilt bo supremely graceful though the swan 

K >se to disport itself in a sewer ; yet most people— in 

a 11' tyrannical majority of Philistines— would prefer to 

•eo tiu' stately bird in less unwholesome waters. 

But conifurisonn such as those by no moans dispose of the 
claims of P' o to bo regarded as the most interesting 

artistic }■> of niodoni Italy. He is many-sided and 

atrang<'} ^ ts ho appears to be 

thelittiMiy  <• \ it is admissible to 

p<ike gentle fun at him in his legislative capacity, dubbing him 
• ' D.i.iifv for Abstract Beauty," or, truer still, " Deputy for 
,"~ ; JUS Art," it is impossible to deny that he has an art 

ot V. iiiiii to be conscious. Of its more recent aspects, and 
especially of his treatment of the Biblical parables above referred 
to, I hope to speak in a subsequent letter. 



©bituar^. 



" LEWIS CARROLL." 
All lovers of English literature will join with ua in our 
regret at tho death of " Lewis Carroll," whose " Alice in Won- 
dwland," written to amuse a child— one of tho daughters of 
Dean Lidilell— has amused the whole world for thirty years. Every 
<.ii of course, that " Lewis Carroll " was also the Rev. 

< itwi'lg« Dmleson, M.A.. senior student of Christ 

<  ' •  -  ■'.■- 

I;, .. \ . - .t 

tin; i,M: ;i • r-.i loymont in <ieci(ling wiiich y was the 

rtjl out. w;.. thor " Do<lg«on " was not, i . -ally, tho 

pseudonym, and Carroll tho real name. For " Alice in Wonder- 
land " was, in a measure, an epoch-making book. Ever since 
its publication author after author has tried to continue Alice's 
adventures, to work out tliat vein of humour which " Lewis 
Carroll " iliscovered per €ucidetit, as Mr. Dodgson, the mathe- 
matician >i' ' 'ave said. We know what Impjens 
when a f-v onoo e«t-.ibli"lioil, oiid it mu->t bo 
conf>r8so<l titdt ' treaiu of Alices. 
In the " A '-.■ -parctl, Hit tho 



grin remn 

v.tni -Vio 1 nl 



■' wit._ 
tb*" "in" of fhp r<>j>Ti«t. 



are, of course, the verbal contortions wo have alluded to -tho 
fishes who indulged in " reeling, oiul writhing, and fnintiiicr iji 
coils " — but it will be acknowlednod that fun of this «' 
is not, in any sense of tho word, inimitable. And i 
Turtle who wept Iwcauso he was not a real turtle, he, too, io u 
purely verbal creature, not, Biirely, a humorous reality, an rim 
iii(ii(m of wit. Wl-.ere, then, as Dr. Johnson remarkuti on a 
memorable occasion, is the merriment ? Tlie in(]uiry would bo a 
singular one, and cci-tainly nobody would have been more 
ilelichto*! than Mr. D<Hlgson if a cliain commencing with 

<< M,....  i,,mj been shown to extend, not merely into !  t 

1 -i, but into tho farther woiiilerland of m. • 

ui; . , _,,.. logy. And y<'i it m i m« i.ii>bul>lo that \. ... . 
" Lewis Carroll's " nou in it wo see mirrored 

certain dark and mysterio n;- nature. In tho 18th 

century philosophy had come to I on that man was a 

pun.dy rational animal, and from tl i int Johnson judgoil 

" Lycidas " to bo rubbish, or sombUiiiig very near it. Hut it 
seems probable lliot man is not only born rational but also 
•iial, that deep in tho heart there is a dungeon, where two- 
irianglc'S alx'und, whiTO Achilles chases tho tortoise in 
\:uii, ctornallv, where parallel strait;lit lines are C' *' " 
meeting. It is the world of contrmlictioiis, of tho i! 
realize*!, tho world of which we dream at nights, and, ai.'n,- i.u, 
it is the world which is the home of children, far more true ond 
real to them than all tho ns.semblage of nitional sublunary things. 
" Lewis Carroll " had perhaps learnt from his friend Mr. 
Do<1"son, tho mathematical tutor, that such a sphere existed, 
ami no journeyed into that dim and mysterious land, ond has 
succeeded in telling us the story of his " Voyage and Travaile." 
This, surely, is the secret of " Alice," this is the secret of its 
charm for children, whoso thoughts are ineirable, and those of 
ua who read the tJile in later years feel, unconsciously, that we, 
too, have passed through tho Looking (J lass, and have been in 
the realm of contra<liction. Maundevilie doscril'e«l the incrodilile 
wonders of tho material world : " Lewis Carroll " shows ns tho 
marvels of tho microcosm, that little worbl of the soul, in which 
there be many siiiiiilacrcs and monstrous creatures. 

It was extRKirdinary that, after the lirft success of "Alice in 
Wonderland," tho author was alile to write the equally success- 
ful " Through tho Looking filass. " Soijuels are proverbial 
failures, but " Lewis Carroll " was ) armloxical in this as in 
almost nil eke. It is quite in character that ho should have 
desired to prove tho earth to bo flat, that he shcnid havo Iwcn 
for over groping amongst the " trick " passages and trap-doors 
of scholastic logic. The " Hunting of the Snark " is to bo 
reckoned also in tne list of his achievements, but one neo<l not 
trouble about his later " Sylvie and Bruno," " A Tangled 
Tale," or " Phantasmagoria.' His little brocnurea on Univer- 
sity affairs are hardly known by tho outside world, tii< i ' ;' . 
amused his Oxford contemporaries. Who could foi 
touches as (wo quote from memory) " I will not say I hiii;.;iji u m 
my sleeve, though tne M.A. gown is parlicnlarly well suited for 
Bucli a purpose ; or — tlie end of a. \\'altonian dialogue located 
in " Tom Quad "— " ' See, Master, there is a fish '— ' Then let 
us hook it ' — (they hook it)." 

Perhaps tlie chiefest contradiction of all is this— that, whilo 
he dwelt internally amongst the wildest idata of the mind, ho 
lived all his outer life m his rooms at Christ Church, a don of 
the old-fashioned sort, courteous and alert, but a little stiff in 
manner, except to children, who found him as delightful a 
companion in life as he was in literature. 

Tho chief permanent contribution to literature supplied br 

JT  "- - KE, who h. -  ' 'iod at Cenoa in her 8J)th 

y lice to SI: The doiightor of Vin- 

c.iii, -..v, M- wi. i. .nder of llio ,...,...., music publishing house) 
and tho wife of Mr. Charles Cowden Clarke, tho friend and 
tencher of Koat" ^^^J ('I'lil;.' in iho course of her long career 
hod many int' • of literary and artistic 

iMT . ns. ;iti t '. ; _ ridge, Laiiil), Leigh Hunt, 

. \ arlcy, and many others, and her husband was 
it'T and Ici-tiirer. Her r<;iiinisc<nces she gavo 
to the woi . • 1 . !  in 18(»0. 

She nil work, both by her- 

self and in conjunctimi wiUi litr hu: I niv\ : Imt she will he best 
known for her woik on Shakespeare, of nhoni slio was a devoted 

' riy by " The (.iri;. ' ' 



I in laiO, by ' 

ii 11 liicli her h--' ' 

.tal Concord.i 



anil 



hardly admit that nonsanao, in itself, can amose 8nyho<ly. There I pecuniary reward, it etill remains a valuable book, tiiough to 



January '22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



89 



Romo oxt<!nt »tipcnnMle<l by other wcrku, ami jMirtUMiUrly by the 
Conoordaneo imlilislmd in lHi)4 liv Mr. Juhii llartlutt »t Cam- 
bridal', Ma««nchu»(!ttH, which, iiiiliko Mrs. Cowdon Clarke's, 
inchidcH thu pociiw iw woll lut tho dramatic work of .ShakoapuAro. 

Mr. E. H. Blakoney writes to im an to tho late rKorBNH<iR 
Aktiiuk Pai.mkb, " whoHo dotttli at tho olo»o of last yuar must 
have como as a imiiifiil 8hock to many. DoiibtlesR a full iiotico 
of his lifo work will ho cont.Mbuted to tho Clai"'''! '■■'■"and to 
Ifennnlkniii, tho popi'S of which contiiiii no nmi  contri- 

butions than thosu no ponncd. As a classical  ; id critic 

Palmor occupiod a uniqiio placo in the roll of his contem- 
poraries ; and his fame as an omondor of corrujit texts and per- 
verted piissagoH was immeiiHe. His • I'ropertius ' and his 
' Amphitruo of I'lautus ' aro typical instances of his fine tact, 
exquisite scholarship, and discriminating criticism. It is interest- 
ing to call to miii<l tho fact that probably his last w-ork was in 
connexion with tho ' last find ' in classical antiquitios— tho 
recovorod poems of Itacchylidos. Tho critical notes in Dr. 
Konyon's ' oditio princopa ' bear ample testimony to Talmor's 
skill in tho diUlcult ana hazardous task of textual recon- 
struction. 

" Tho iiromiso.l edition of ' Catullus ' would have no 
doubt exhibitml Palmer's scholarship more fully and distinc- 
tively than iinything hitherto iiublislied ; but whether ho left 
his collections in u sufliciently advanced state to warrant one in 
hoping that even now his executors will bo able to make them 
public projjorty is, of course, uncertain." 



THE PUPIUS OF PETER THE GREAT. 



(^olTC6pon^cncc. 

— •*■ — • 

A DICTIONARY OF ENGLISH AUTHORS. 

Tl) THK KDITOU. 

Sir, - I am glad that Mr. Karquharson Sharp takes his correc- 
tion in so amiable a spirit, and wish that I could admit that his 
" soll-justitication " amounte<l to more than it seems to do. It 
is a pity that he had such a bad printer. 

I. Mr. Sharp's statement as to the sale of " Sir Hu^h the 
Heron " is, of course, perfectly convincing. The authority on 
which I relied was that of Dr. Uarnett in tho " Dictii>nary of 
National Hii>gra{)hy." 

'2, 3. I seriously doubt tho desirability of a method of classi- 
fication which can intentionally omit such works us Steven- 
son's " Fables " or Wackstone's " Jjiwyer's Farewell to 
his Muse." How does Mr. Sharp define a " work " ? 
Besides, Mr. Sharp alludes to tho .statement in his preface 
that " ' Works ' is in all cases to bo taken as moan- 
ing peporate publications as distinct from contributions to 
periodicals." He docs not quote tho next sentence— " The 
latter aro mentioned in their chrcn<iIogical position in the 
biographical section of each article." In tho biography of 
Stevenson there is nothing to show that he was an author or ever 
wrote anything at all. As to Scott's " Essays " thoy were 
" extant in book form " in a volume of the Chandos Classics 
at least as early as 1878. 

4. Hero appears a curious confusion. " I om not alto- 
gether wrong," says Mr. Sharp, " in ascribing Scott's ' Tales 
of a Grandfather ' to 18'27." But ho ascribes them to 1828 ! _ I 
wrote 1827 by a slip of the pen, and Mr. Sharp has accepted it. 
Of course that was tho right date, noi Jlr. Sharp's. 

5. I never supposed that Mr. Sharp really thought that 
Percy wrote the " Relicpies," but I still maintain that if you 
make a regular separation botwoen original and e<lited work 
you ought to stick to it. I notice that Scott's " Minstrelsy 
is put under the latter head, Percy's " Reliques " undorthe 
former. Is this consistent ? 

(i. Mr. Sharp's " justificatiim " of that unfortunate state- 
ment about Addison is rather like that of tho Irishman who 
pled Not (Juilty of assault becau.^o ho hadn't done it, ho was sorry 
no did it, and ho wouhln't do it again. 

7. D<<e8 Mr. Sharp mean that Professor Skeat's Chaucer and 
tho Cambridge Shakespeare aro not " completer " than tho 
earliest editions, whereas the Kelmsci>tt Chaucer is? 

8. Living authors wore referred to in only two or three of 
mj- criticisms. Even here the fact that they themselves correcto<l 
tho proofs is not a complete justification of Mr. Sharp. 

On tho whole, whilst 1 admit that I was wrong os to tho 
Rossotti date, I cannot say that Mr. Sharp has remove<l the 
impression that his book " newls a thorough revision." Perhaps 
we mav let it go at that. I am. Sir, 

January 15. YOIR REVIEWER. 



TO TIIK KDITOK. 

Kir, — As a rule, I am •, 

but the rfvifw of my " Pin .;~ 

pear. ly 

that 1 Ic. 1 Iii'IUmI • iiri<-~y ami Mnsc >i taif 

play to insert the t -n. 

\'v ' •\u> Hamlan Coart mnA 

Enii '« Ur««t, M)d abottld, 

then 

lilies, foi 

is to (ju 

different character. I 

chapter* on the wars ol 



L« \ niir rt,\ ii- 



I 

in 
{ 

vr 

Id 



■■•r 

^ii rov 
us »•(! 
call' an account uf tho Na|>olt-4>uiu wu-s invUvaul m » history c( 
vleorge III. 

S<> far from Solorov beir ' T " i» 

but "no of fivo nativn wntei "u 

min id my thousand pajjes 'i ^":, .,i, i u.mk, 

ha\ duty. 

i H'.u i uo n<.t •■•'- — * ■' - - ■•• ' ■■•■ he 

says that Knglish : 'i- 

tios for much of lu, .. to 

havo to remind him th^ '• 

l>een out of iirint for 'n 

only bo con»ulte<l at the Kei-oni Othco or i i ; 

ancf that tho remainder of my outhoriti^ 'i. 

Spanish, or Oerman — languages not generally kuu»u tu I 
in the street. 

I am also guiltv, it seems, of pr- 
accounts of historical personages." it' 
drawn is the result of patient rehoarch .-ii'l d. 
must stand by what I nave written. I :■ ; i- ,;, t' • 
Dolgoruki mi.i " stupid, idle, and viciou:*, vi.  
the L)uko of Liria, who knew him intimately. I 
the Great frowne«l uim.ii Demetrii!-- i;..iit^:.^i.. 
not but frown on the man who i< 
belove<l Catherine as bigomy and t 
bastards. 1 repeat that Voluinsky was a mean ' 
entirely for his own hand, who would have or 
tho one really great htatesman of the t 
needs of Russia. Catherine l.'s favou. 
is ludicrously inado<piato as a defence u! '. 
as ho hos not inaptly been called. What 
hand, of a man whose i • 
she was a littlo girl in 

Finally, permit nie to i r w.m i, > 

bing my method of translit :i wonls 

and eclectic." Capricious . "' -■•■'" 

I have very stri^ng reason t' 
Russian history mainly froi. 
as, in that case, any but French ioi 
his eyo ; but as tho system of translit* 
excellently well at the British Museum for s^-ij 
years, it is quite good enough for me. If I « 
might retaliate by asking him why he ado; .is 

Tnti.<i-ur, which is neither Ku^sian nor 1' v- 

ski and Solovjer, which, phonetically, are ratrur i,irii.in nan 
English. Yours obodiontiv, 

Jan. 15. 1898. " K. NISBET BAIN. 

LA SEMANTIQUE. 

TO THE EDITOK. 

Sir, — Not a few of the i ' 
with surprise some of the 

of Professor Bridal's " V- i',." .i- 

that the science of sigi lly a net' 

or is tho professor sn iith what '■■ 

both sides of the Khino as to suppose that " the ' - 
Semantic " originateil in the I rain of Ars.' i.o I' 
Professor Ih-i'al is familiar with G< : 
nearly 40 years ago Stein thai and I>a; 
of a " Zeitschrift fur P.^ychologie un 
mere title of which shows that it w;i 
vostigate the phenomena of lanciiagis : 
side, tor a number of years a coterie of 
connecto<l with this c" ' we been 

elements of speech wit to ascer 

genesis and growth oi iiiKi,M..i;e8 can thr,^- ..,-.. ,... v.; 
human institutions, {olitioal and social. Yet I am not 
that any member of tlii« it.iui^ liim thp impression that tl>e 
studies are an innova of comparative philo- 

logy. It is true, cthnt ^ . . ^. as we may tranalate 



•t 

;le 
I 

.\>- 
1* 
as 
.,1 
k, 

<-x 

od 



e, 

:. . on 

.1 of our 

' Ab 

At 

>n 

, the 

to in- 

al 

.:s 
.U 

ne 
;.,... of 



90 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



Vftl kw p « y aholo)p«, is not a funiliu- term : ! ' ml to aee 

bow any one who ha« read some of the roooir, works in 

Oanaan on tiia aoianoe of language, or on tUu i>sxr\y history of 
inatitutiona, oan be ignorant ot the large meaaarv of attention 
giran to hiatorio {Mychology. 

Very truly yours, 

CHARLKS W. SUPER. 

Ohio rnirersity, Athena. 

ntt. Super seems to hare misread one sentence in oir ~ 
wUdi stated that M. Bn<al had reprinted part of u rev. 
book <•' «-■•,• Darmostetor, " giving as a reason tli.ii .....o.v- 
riaw, .-.oa from 1887, contains ' Uiu first idea of our 

Samant.,... . This " first idea " is trac.-.l i, M r.r.ils i,.- 

yimr, not to M. Darmesteter's book. The i> 
indeed, waa throughout to critioiae M. Br^i ' 
*' La 8einantiqae was " a new science."] 



MILLAIS' EVE OF ST. AGNES. 

TO TlIE EDITOK. 

Sir, — In tlio pararraph of your issuo of January 8 in which 
mention is raadr • ^' " • • •• i-"- n of St. Agnos," a wish is ex- 
liaaiHiil that thi' >h1 at the stanza of Keats's 

poem previous l. ...^ ..^ .....^ ;io illustrated. I have undor- 
•tood tliat this was his original intention, but that a friend 
aunested to liim ti^ut the power of ini|>artin): to moonlight 
sufficient stren^: a from the stninoil gloss "warm gules" 

on Madeline's f.. in<l thu rest of it, was the exclusive 

property of the puvi i not safely Iw meddled with by 

the painter. A moo: .rionce at knolo is said to have 

confirmed • If s.', the more highly-coloured vision 

ahould, as : : concludes, remain sacred to tbo lover who 

witnesaad it aiid tbo poet who describe^) it. 

Your ol)odient servant, L. 



THE PSYCHOLOGICAL CHESTNUT. 

TO THE EDITOR. 
Sir, My " rcjoicinp " wns over the exposure (first made in 
7; years ogo) of the kintl of evidence 

•« ; •- -when it suits them. There arc 

ca ! ..i.jjua^cs Icaiuiil ill childhood and forgotten, reviving 

in : :f in :;. , in illness. Besides Goethe's anecdote (vague as it is) 
there are man^ instances in du Prel's " Philosophy of Mysticism " 
and one — besidea the slavey — in Hamilton. But to recover a 
langnage once learned and to speak three dead langtiages never 
leamea are not quite the same thin);- I don't believe Coleridge's 
irt'^y^-  '■•'• •>■ •"• •'"y '!>->• ""?ny naronfn visited the girl, let their 
t' believe. ]<y the w;iy.your reviewer 

• I •.ions and Illu.sicns " ."saj-s, " It is 

int ;• remorselessly analyzes the ftoport of 

till- ' "ns." In a spirit of abject credulity I 

thouci ..u to comparo Herr Parish's analysis with 

the R' :i th<^ old ^^^"r.'titi^us maxim, " Verify 

y ! Herr Parish had, 

11- not in the Keport, 

M 'il 11; ii iiij^hly sciontitic way. 

H y, attribute*! to his victims 

ti.i ■•■ .  It liioy ' ' ■' statetl. His 

Inj : ■■•■i.- .. .■ V 1 wit 1 :..s ^iccuracy, 1 li 'ed a general 

afiiriciativ-' .  :i iu :..u iioiu a particiil.M ...... .aativo premise, 

which pre:, s « is not, in fact, a "veridical" state- 
ment. I a:.i rt.idv ♦" " -ii^nlv/n " Herr Parisli " remorse- 
lessly " ; in fact, 1 li d will publish the same. I 
fancy that Homo of i. 'i^ns and illusions admit of 
«xpIanatio:i. 

Faithfully yours, 
AXDREW LAXG. 

THE FRENCH " TU." 

TO THE EDITOK. 
Hir. — In your note i>n my letter you say " FVencli Roman 
Cath'di'"' 'i«" 'voufi.' The religions use of 'tu' is pt-rnliar to 
tha Fi'  'ontants." Iilenyit. To give two > 

wh«n- i.'ir« dozens, Riman (not a French I 

V •• JZe) :-" T- 

t: .1, du ha: 

aux coiift. pn^ncci iimiwe'* uu t ^ actefl. Au.\ j>ri.\ u'- <ii'-iijufs 

beares da soufTnuice, qui n'ont pas mdme atteint ^i 

ridr •■• '•• as aehet/< ■" '■'■■ '■•♦■■ ' t.i... |«.,„r 

ni .'iD^ea, to  de 

n<ia Co; 1" '" •><■-. „.....:*. . . , ura la 

plus ardeii' 

Lamart it'>manCatholic)writo8("LaPriire*M: — 
"Oni, J'aspire, beigneur, on (a magnificence. Partout, k pleines 



mains, prodigwant 1 'existence, Th n'auras jmis bornrf lo nombrede 
nos jours ik ces jours d'i<'i l>as, si troubles ut si courts," etc. 
I am, yours olHHiiuntly, 

WILLIAM HOLLOWAV, B.A. (Oxon.). 
Wostgat«-on-St!a, Jan. Hi, 1«St8. 



Botes. 



In next week's Li7iT<i(iire " Among my Books " will bo 

written by Mr. Arthur Machou. 

« « • ■» 

The title of a now book which Mr. W. H. Mallock hopes to 
have publisheil in the course of a few weeks will bo "Aristo- 
cracy and Evolution." Its aim is to demonstrate that the chief 
progressive movement of 80--^iety is duo to u minority, the part 
played by the majority being altogether subordinate, alike in 
the sphere of thought, government, and wealth-production. 
This part, however, altliough subordinate, is shown to bo real 
and essential, and an attempt is made to prove precisely what it 
IB and how largely its nature has been misropresontoil hitherto 
by sociologists and political thinkers, particularly by those who 
lea<l or sympathize with what is called the labour movement. 
The book will begin with a criticism of Mr. Herbert .Spencer's 
" Sociology," pointing out how Air. Spencer embodies and gives 
fresh life to the fundamental error of contoinporary "advanced " 
thinkers in defining the social aggregato as u body " composed 
of approximating equal units," the truth, according to Mr. 
Mall<x;k, boin;: that all the progressive aggregates are composed 
of unequal units. Special reference will, moreover, lie made 
to the true functions and the nature of capital, capitalism, ond 
the wages system. 

* « «  

In the new work on anthropology now being prepared for 
the press by Mr. Andrew Lang — which Messrs. Longmans 
will publish, but which has not yet receivetl its title— after 
an introduction concerning savage anticipations of scientific 
discoveries and an historical sketch of the relations of 
science to the marvellous, the author goes on to criticize tho 
anthropological scheme of tho genesis of the theory of " spirit." 
Mo<lern evidence as to certain sui^crnormal human faculties is 
placed Ixiside a series of parallels in savage life. Tho conclusion 
is that tho fact of tho existence of something which may as 
easily be called " spirit " as by any other name is, at least, 
an open question. Tho second part of tho book criticizes the 
attempts of anthropologists to show how— the idea of " spirit " 
being first acquired— tho idea of Gotl was thence evolved. It is 
argued that tho high gods of tlie moat backward and isolated 
races have not yet boon adecjuately studied. Evidenco is thou 
adduced to prove that the primitive idea of God does not 
include, is inconsistent with, and cannot have been evolved out 
of, the conception of " ancestral ghost " or " spirit." While it 
is imiMissible to discover, historically, the relative priority of 
the idea of God, or of tlie idea of spirit, tho former (in its early 
shape) does not logically presuppose tho latter, as it does in tho 
Animistic hy]>othe8is. It is then shown that, granting the 
existence of a relatively pure religion at a very low and early 
grade of culture (for which copious evidence is given), that 
religion must inevitably have degenerated as civilization 
advanced, unless a constant miracle intervened, which did not 
occur. The history of religion is thus demonstrated to be that 
of tho secular corruption of Theism by Animism, till the former 
was purifiml by Israel, the latter by Christianity. The basis of 
tho argument is tho evidence of the most comi>otont miKlem 
anthroixilogical observers, not included, as a rule, in earlier 
works on tho evolution of religion. It is admitted, of course, 
that the discovery of contradictory facts, or tho disjiroof of the 
most recent anthro])ological obser>-ati(>n.s, and of others of remoter 
date, will upset the system. 

« • « « 

Tlie Poet Laureate has rented, for the winter months, the 
Villa Codri, in the upper valley of the Amo, about two miles 



January lii:, 1898. J 



LITERATURE. 



81 



from Floronco, (in<1 is imid to ho en(;af;o<l on :! ! to 

" 'I'liu Uunlon That I Lovo," and " In Voroi 

« « « • 

Sir Horliort Maxwell must bo among tho moat wiiluly ' ' 

of English authors, for his lK>ok, " Sixty V'oars a Qnoon," v 
ho wroto for Mr. A. Harmsworth last year, sold to tho extuiit "i 
'.'(iO,0(IO copies ill lossi than six months and is, wo believe, Htill 
lar^jcly in demand. Sir Hort)crt lias at tho [in' two 

works in tho press ; tho first, to ho published by ' lok- 

wood, is to bo a memoir of tho late Hon. Sir CI t.iy. 

who was Master of the Ilousuhold to tho Queen ili lirst 

oight years of her reii;ii and afterwards Consul-Cleneral in Kpypt 
«luring IMohamed Ali's reign, and, later, Minister at various 
<'ourt8, including those of Persia, Soxony, Denmark, and 
Portugal. Sir Charles Murray, who was born in 1800 and dio«l 
in 181)5, know men and cities in all parts of tho worhl. Ho was 
nt one timo a. constant froi^ucnter of tho famous breakfasts of 
Satiiuel llogers, ami his notes and corrospondonco cover a long 
and interesting period and refer to woll-known roon Imth in 
literary and social life. Tho literarj* and social world, however, 
by no means exhausts Sir Charles's cxiioriencos, for in 18:54-35 
ho joined a hunting " nation " of Pawnee Indians and liveil in 
their lodges and foUowoil their life for sevoral months. Tho 
memoir will contain many unpublished letters from f'arlyle. 
Lord lirougbam, Rogers, Alison, Fraser, and others. 

* « « « 

Sir Herbert Maxwell is also editing tho " Sportman's 
l.ibrarj' "' for Mr. Edward Arnold, in wliich sinjcimons of the 
sporting literatiiro of tho past are being reproduced. Tho sixth 
volume of this series will appear early in tho spring ; it will bo 
*' The Chase, tho Road, and the Turf," and will contain an 
intro<luctory memoir of tho author, C. J. Apjiorley, whoso woll- 
known pseudonym was " Nimrwl." Sir Herbert has also com- 
plete<l in tlio " Angler's Library," which ho edits with Mr. 
AHalo, a vohimo on " Salmon and Sea-Trout." This is in tho 
press and will shortly bo published by Messrs. Lawrence and 
liuUun. 

*  * • 

Among modern painters few have so generally intorostod 
men of letters as the late Sir John Millais. This may bo partly 
owing to his connexion with tho " P.R.B.," in whidi liteniture 
and art touched each other closely. But it is also ciuo to the 
fact that, although ho did not very largely paint historical or 
literary subjects, there was undoubtedly that (piality in his work 
which some modern painters ajK-ak of as " literary." Among 
other letters on the subject of the Millais Exhibition wo have 
received one from a woll-informod correspondent, who complains 
of some omissions :— 

It IK a matter of spoculiition what thi- rea-son could have been, and 
surrly thi'rc must have Ix'en some gooil reason, for not inrluding in tho 
Jlillais Exhibition now at Ktirliiigton House the faipuus t<crii)tural ixampio, 
" Victory, O I.onl." painted in 1871, and purchased in 1884 I>y tho 
JIaneliester Corporation, who would cheerfully have lent it. " Flowing 
to the Kivcr," that lovely bit of tangled Englich woodlind. we are glad 
to see again, but why h.is not Sir James Joicoy been nskod to contribute 
from his collection in Cadogan-square the picture which hung a.s a ixii- 
dant to it in the .Xcadeniy of 1871, " Flowing to tho Sea," the scarlet 
uniform of tho Highlander hi which we all remember. Then surely, for 
so exceptional an occasion, a successful effort might have been made to 
include that work, hictorical in art Bnu.ils, which was tho means in 
lSi">l of greatly ailvancuig the painter's reputation, " 'llie Ketum of the 
Dove to the Ark," despiti^ the conditions under whirh it was bequeathed 
liy the late Mrs. Combe to the I'nivcrsity galleries at Oxford, whore it 
now hangs. There is a careful study, too, in water-colour, of tho heail 
of the woman in " The Huguenot " belonging to Mrs. Charles Loes, of 
Oldham, which would hare been very welcome in such an exhibition as 
this, and a water-colour stuily of both the heads in " Tho Huguenot " in 
Mr. Albi'it Wood's collection at Conway, not forgetting the tinely-finisheil 
pencil drawing done in 1832 direct from Mi.ss Siddal for the famous 
" Ophelia," which was sold at Christie's in 1893 from the col- 
lection of Sir William Bowman. These could all have \ieea obtained with 
a little trouble : but porhnps the most serious omission of all is tho 
jiainter's first exhibited picture at tho Koyal Academy in lS4f>," I'itarro 
seizing the Inca of I'era,"' a wonderful display of power for a youth of 
.seventeen. This extraordinary example oiJy recently came into the jhm- 



M- -at Soutk Kwcinctoo Ma 

ha- '• n bad (or tha aakiDg, 

• « « • 

Aprnpnaxf thnMilIni* Rxhibition, Mutmrm, W . niii^kwnnd aiwl 



t" ill* 

Alt. oat 

of tho works of tho latv President n>> 1 •• 

nn tlio numerous pictures by tho arti.. .. . u>l- 

lootion ; and tlioro is a chronological list of Sit J. K. MilUU'a 

oil pictures of which trace on n bo found. Pi r- '^ '- 

boon grantwl to include in this volume tho 

reproducing .^ir .John Mill- 1 .ions on .' 'Uu 

lato President for tho .1/ i' Art, »i,  r««. 

pnblishe<l. A list is aihled <>:' 

engraved. The book is fully il! 

President's pictures. Mr. .:in luu wnttisn for tha 

/iuoA6ui/<;r an imiKirtant art . i.i a wrilor. 



The other day wo^were oiici oii; <.ui  
Atliemtum on the completion of its suvi 
and successful criticism ; now it is tho 
birthday number, and prints monsagHS • 



the Hii 



to tho 
honest 

' 1 a 

all 

uw are, 

-C'-, but 
:nd 



moving • _ wo 

may note a repriKluction ot >ii, in which the 

German Eagle and thoRussi.1.. i: ;i i, while the Lion of 

England and tho White Hawk of Japan look on, eager and watch- 
ful. Excellent also is the series of pictures, " How we do it." 
We see by moans of Mr. Arthur Moreland's excellent and 
humorous art the wh"" itli 

the artist and the re; ore 

his fireside. Mr. Couaa Doylo coi. ry, 

especially written for this number. ar 

has never neglected literature, and we wish it every suocesa for 
the future. 

• » • • 

The approaching anniversary of King Alfred's death will be 
marked this year by the publication of a life of that hero, which 
is being prepared by I'rofessor York I'owell for Messrs. Putnam. 
Tho " Life " will be followed by the appearance of a little liook, 
also by Professor Powell (to 1 l*}' 

Messrs. Nutt), which is to give . .;o- 

rities, dealing with King A'- s, tr&ii&laUxl and 

chronologically arranged fir 

* • «  

All last summer Professor Khys, of Oxford, spent in 
examining and re-examining inscribed stones in Scotland, Ire- 
land, and Wales. Ho has gamcre<l the results of bia labours 
into i>apers, one of which has already been given to the world by 
tho Cambrian Archn-ological As.~ ' will probably 

bo published shortly by tho IJ rians : and a 

third ho intends to oH'er to the vutiqiurians, of who«c 

society ho has recently been n honorary memltcr. 

All this work is preparatory ; i prove 

of greot interest, callcHl " Celt-- . ins and 

Institutions as Illustrated by Inscriptions found in the British 
Isles." First in this book will come tho texts of the inscrip- 
tions : then will follow chapters of notes and deductions from 
them bearing on the Celtic and Pictisb peoples. 
« • • 

A now story by Mr. Max Pembert 'torn 

Army," which we ho|>oil to have seci 'dy 

not appear till 1899, or at earliest ;■. « 

one book by Mr. Pemborton which i~ -1 

this year is •• Kronstadt," which, when it is produced by 
Messrs. Cassell in May next, will receive ita original title *' A 
Woman of Kronstadt," and not the abbreviated name under 
which it has api«aretl in tho )riii'/»>i'. 3Ir. Max Pemberton hka 



92 



LITERATURE. 



[January 2-2, 1898. 



mlao in hand a norti for Maasn. Cassell ob certain ptinsos of the 
Franso-Pruaaian war — an intareating subject, treated by M. Zola 
and many other Frenehmen, and in many short stories in 
Kngland, but not yet, we think, taken by an £n(;Iish writor as 
Um theme of a norel. Mr. Max IVmbcrton, by the way, has 
) a special study of Wnetian life in the I8th century for 
I years ps>»t snH h«.« ox<r«cto<l tlierefrom itntn for a long 
novel '- '.rhilc he is writing a series of 

Veoet):i ^im't ilaganiit. 

 * • « 

The Clarendon Press will this year publish King Alfred's 
01dEnglish(AngloSaxon)rersionof the " De Consolationc Philo- 
aophiae " of Uovtliiua, edited, with Introduction, variant read- 
ings, critical notes, and glossary, by 3Ir. W. J. Sedgefield, M.A., 
of Trinity College, Melbourne, and Christ's College, Cambridge. 
The test will be that of the Cotton MS. (damage<l by fire) 
supplemented where deficient from the Bodleian MS. The 
fragment of a third 5IS., recently discoverwl by Professor A. S. 
Xapier, of Oxford, will also be printed. 

• • « « 

Itesides King Alfred's translation there were three English 
translations of " Itoethius " written before 1600. Chaucer's 
translation, printed by Caxton, is to be found in the British 
Museum, and there are two copies of it at Oxford. 
George Colville'H translation, recently edite<l by Mr. E. B. 
Bax for the Tndor Library (Vol. V., Nutt, 8s. net), is not the 
first Ttidor edition of on English translation of the " Consolation 
of Philosophy." The version which John Walton, a Canon of 
Osney, fini8he<l in 1410, was printe<l by o monk named Thomas 
Richard, at the monastery of Tavistock, in Devonshiie, in 1525. 
Mr. Bax, in an able Preface embotlying the main facts of 
the philosopher's life, regards Boethius as the last of the Roman 
pagan writers, and considers that he owes his '/utzni-saintship to 
having been unjustly pat to death by the Arian heretic Theo- 
doric. Theo<loric put Boethius to death in 52.5, when ho was about 
fifty years of age. The " Consolation " was written in his last 
days, while he was in prison at Pavia ; and so is one of the 
notable monuments of prison literattire. Tlie dialogues are 
containe<i in five books. Philosophy drives away the Muses 
from Boithius's bedside, in his prison ; and then they talk 
together of fortune, chance, virtue, the fickleness of worldly 
things, and so forth. 

« « « • 

If a motto were wante<l for the Tudor series, it might be 
" Italian culture breathing life into English imagination." That 
spirit of refinement and delicacy that we see in Shakespeare's 
comedies, and especially in his Twrlflh Niyht was not the 
natoral English character. Where did it come from ? Italy 
nltimately : though our great dramatist was evidently of a most 
refined nature. In what way did this new spirit come into Englsli 
life T Largely, by translations such as these, from the Italian. 
This Library, however, does not, as yet, contain the book 
which of all others refined fcnglish manners into courtesy. Sir T. 
Hoby'a translation of the " Courtier " of Count Castiglione, of 
1S61 ; or Archbishop della Caaa's " Galateo," tranBlatc<l by R. 
Peterson in 1576 ; or that rare book, of which there is a copy in 
the BotUeian Library, T. Crewe's " Nosegay of Moral 
PhiltMophy " of 1580. We commend these works to Mr. Nutt's 
attention. Witli them, also, ho miplit include H. Idon's trans- 
lation of Gclli's '* Circes," of which John Caw<xxl printed 
two editions in 1S67. 

• • • • 

All students will rejoice to hear that there is to be a now 
edition of the " Poetics" of Aristotle, by Professor By water. All 
esiating editions of this imi)ortant work are hopelessly bad ; 
their text hae in many places to be emended before it can be oon- 
•tmed ; and the sabject is one about which no one else knows so 
mdl as Profas-" -t. At all events, it is notorious that 

for Bftny yean i < undergraduate has felt safe in otfering 

the Poetioi as a " s{«cial subject " in MiKlerations unless he 
had the opportunity of attending Profissor Bywater's lectures 
about them. 



Meanwhile, we have the second e<lition of Mr. Hutolicr's work 
on the Poetics in our hands. It contains no great changes ; Mr. 
Butcher has ]viticntly siftotl the enormous, constant silt of 
German criticism and conjecture ; and translation and essays 
have been revised and suppli-mented in places. A {toint of wider 
than mere spocialiHt'N interest is tho use of tho Arabic Version, 
which dates back UOiinil extant Cii-eek MS. sourotn. Latinized by 
Mr. Margolionth, this version has thrown light on several vexed 
passages, and in some instances conlirniod tho reconstructions of 
modern Kcholars. Similar evidence niiglit chasten the con- 
jectural cmender of other classical authors : if only the Arabs 
had translated Ijatin poett< and Greek tragedians I 

• * • • 

Mr. Joly, Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin, who has been 
electe<l Andrews I'rofessor of Astronomy and Astronomer Royal 
for Ireland in the place of Professor Rumbaut, who lieconios 
Radclitt'e Professor nt Oxford, is editing an edition of tho com- 
plete works of Sir William Rowan Hamilton. 

• « « « 

The collection of nursery rhymes issued by Messrs. Gardner, 
Darton, and Co. uiulor the title of " National Rliynies of tho 
Nursery," with Introduction by Professor Sajntsbury, and illus- 
trations by Gordon Browne, haa been revised and enlarged in 
ortler to embody suggestions made by Mrs. Oliphant and other 

literary friends. 

* * * * 

The Watt Memorial Lecture, at Greenock, is given as nearly 
as is practicable on the anniversary of Watt's birth — Janu- 
ary lU. Professor Thorpe, of the Govcmmont Laboratory, who 
is the lecturer for this year, solectod for his subject, " Jamea 
Watt and the Discovery of the Comfjosition of Water." 

• « • • 

An English Text Society and a Scottish Text Society have long 
been in existence. An Irish Text Society has now lieen formed, 
as an offshoot of the Irish Literary Society, for the purpose of 
publishing texts in the Irish language, accompanied by introduc- 
tions, English translations, and brief notes. There are a largo 
number of Irish manuscripts— imaginative, historical, satirical, 
genealogical, &c. in tho British Museum Library, the library 
of Trinity College, Dublin, the Bodleian Library, Oxford, and 
also in several of the great Continental libraries, which have 
never been published : and it is selections from these texts that 
the society proposes to make generally accessible. There are two 
classes of readers to whom the society osi)ecially appeals for sup- 
port — first, the largo and increasing number of Irish people who aro 
taking an interest in tho language of their native country ; and, 
secondly, those who, as philologists and archielogists, are con- 
cerned with tho scientific aspect of ancient Irish literature. To 
the former class the publication of iiiodorn texts of tho 17th and 
18th centuries are of greater interest : while to the second class, 
what are called the Middle-Irish texts have a more especial 
value. The society will cater for both classes in turn. Tho first 
volaino will contain a collection of modern romantic tales, 
e<Iited, with translation, by Dr. Douglas Hyde, and one of the 
early undertaking's of the committee will bo a comjileto edition 
of Keating's History of Ireland. The subscription to the 
society has been fixed at 7s. (id. per annum, which cntitlea 
members to a copy of, tho volume or volumes to bo published 
annually. Mr. Alfred Nutt will be tho society's publisher, and 
its hea<lquartors are at 8, Adoljihi-terrace, W.C. 

« • * • 

Professor Margoliouth's translation of the letters of tho 
Arabic jKiet and sceptic Abu I-Ala, of Baarrah, for tho Anecdote 
series of the Clarendon Press is now nearly ready. It will in- 
clude the text of tho original and u yet unpublished biogra|)hy. 

••  « • 

The Rev. Hastings Rashdall, of Now College, Oxford, is pre- 
paring for the press a volume of I'niversity sermons, which will 
shortly 1>o published by Messrs. Methuun. 

• • «  

Professor Hugh Macmillan, who has just begun hit aeries of 
Gunning Lecture* in the Edinburgh Unirersity with one on 



January 22, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



1>3 



" The Law of Corrospomlonco lictwoon tho Nntiinil ami Spiritunl 
Worlils," is Rottinn roady a book of acrmniiH for youn({ i^oplo, 
%hioh will ho prmlucexl by McuHrii. Isbistur early in the Hpriug m 
a, companion volume to his " flock of Nature." 

• • • • 

Mr. Henry W. Nevinson i« writing an acoount of his waniler- 
ings up and down the (Jreok frontier and over the Pindun range 
Imfore and during tho late war. This l)Ook will give a doicription 
of the country,! tho pooplo, and of Mr. Novinson'ii porional ex- 
perience!, and will not aim at heing a military history. 

* * •  

Mr. W. S. Caino is ongagud upon a revision of his intorost- 
ing work, " rioturesquo India "—now in it« fourth thousand - 
with tho view of bringing tho information down to tho present 
day, anil also of adding a now section dealing with liiinm Tho 
now edition will 1>g in two volumes instead of one. 

• » • ■» 

We roferro<l last week, on tho subject of back illustration, 
to tho greater attention to literaturo paid by artists at tho 
present day. Mr. H. It. Millar is a book illustrator who inte- 
rests himself closely in literary work, and ho carefully studios 
his author before putting pen to Uristol-board. It is thorofore 
of interest to learn that Mr. Millar has almost finishetl some 40 
<lrawiiig8 for the edition of Kingslake's " Kothon " which 
Messrs. Nennes intend to publish shortly at a popular price. 
Oriental subjects have had a groat attraction for Mr. Millar, and 
ho has now in view tho illu.stration of Moore '.i " Lalla Rookli," 
■which will give him an excollcnt opportunity of showing his 
mastery of a somewhat neglected branch of black-and-white work. 
«  «  

Mr. H>igh Thomson, as our readers well know, is another 
artist who never fails to imbue himself with tho spirit of tho book 
he ha-s in hand. All lovers of Miss Austen are grateful to him 
for his charming illustrations to her novels, and ho fully keeps 
wp his re[mtation in " Xortliangcr Abbey " and " Perstiasion," 
now publisiiod in ono volume in Messrs. Macmillan's series, with 
an interesting Introduction by Mr. Austin Dobson. Hut oven 
the most careful draughtsman occasionally tumbles into a pit- 
fall. Wo gather from ono of his illustrations to " Persuasion," 
ndmirably drawn though it is, that lie is not a practical car- 
penter. Tho drawing of Captain Harvillo in his workshop is 
full of little errors t)f detail. His bonch-vice, for instan-.o, is 
not a carpenter's but a blacksmith's vice, whoso unprotocto<l 
jaws would play sad havoc with "tho rare species of wootl " 
which. Miss Austen tells us, the lame captain so " excellently 
worked up " ; again, his tools aro some of them in impos.siblo 
positions in their racks, while others aro so inconveniently 
placed as to bo almost inaccessible : and, lastly, his piano, which 
ho has evidently just been u.^ing, is placed face downwards with 
the c\itting-edge resting on tho bench, instead of being laid on 
its side, as a careful workman would lay it. It is possible, of 
courfo. that all those things aro meant as indications that 
Captain Harvillo was a more .amateur. 

«•»■»•» 

Mr. Alfred E. T. Watson, the woll-known authority on 
sporting literature, is writing tho article in tho Enciicloixrilia i>f 
Sjioit dealing with " Uncing and Steeplechasing." It will extend 
to some 50,000 words, with many ilhistrations, and will be 
published later in book form, with additions. 

 » • * 

The second e<lition of Mr. Frowen LonVs work the " Lost 
Possessions of England " is, wo understand, already in prepara- 
tion ; J*Ir. Lord is at present engaged upon a monograph on 

Richard Wall. 

•« « « » 

As political attention is directed towards the West Coast of 
Africa, it may bo interesting to noto that Mr. E<lwards Tire- 
buck's serial, " Tho White Woman," just Ixjginning in the 
Quilt r, deals with the romance of missionary life in that part ot 
the world. The white woman of tho title is a popular oratorio 
singer, who is decoyed into thf interior for tho death customs 



I A., of tl. 
iiwUrd l.tl' 
translation in 



that 



of a native king, ao one majr be •■»« that advaotan will not b* 

lacking. 

• • • • 

80 far there haro appoered bat tbre* vmn» aiwl twn ptnee 

tranalationa into K: !l 

bo addo<l to thumi 

which has Ihjoii udittnl ny Mr. i- 

which will publish the volumo in ' 

Tho text taken aa tho liaai* f»r Uim tusw 

edited by Uartach from thu line M.S. preeorvetl in the monaatory 

of Bt. Gall. Ai a frontitpieco will be given a facaimile ul ona of 

ita |>axei. Profixod to tho venion itaolf will be Carlyle'a Muay 

on the Liftl, taken from tho Wolminttfr Hrrinr, in which it 

first appeared. 

• • • • 

Mr. Ernest Olanvillo has had t! luit-o^nary for a 

novelist of colonial life, for he is a Ca;  ' . t'otli by birth 

and training, and has serv-e*! aa war corre»[Kii :ig the 

closing scenes of tho Xulu war, as well as sou,, .iida at 

Kimberley and studio<l humanity in tho rough throughout South 
Africa. His " Tales from tho Veldt," a strong book of aport 
and adventure, will be followed in tlto spring by " Tbo Kloof 

Bride," the scones of which are plaoe<l on tho Zam' -- ' in 

northern UhiMlesia. For another novel, which Mr. ' la 

now writing ti> bo named " His Enemy's I).ii:i: • -.lie 

Un-ale is fixed on tho skirts of the Montana, Pern, r : . in 

centres in ono of tho ruinc<l cities of the Incos. It tells of the 
vengeance of the son of an Indian woman against his f.ither. an 
English colonel, who has abandono<l his Indian wif' I. 

It will include tragedy, romance, and atlventure, w ^y 

attempt at mystery. 

• « « « 

Mr. Stuart Erskino is now at work on a more leng^iy and 
moro ambitious work than his recently published novel " Lord 
DuUborough." It is to be called " The Kidicttlous Uouae," 
and will bo ready for publication early next year. 

t * * * 

"Tho IJook of lilack Magic and of Pacts, i: e 

Kites and Mystories of Goctic Theurgy, Sorccrj*, :.-  vl 

Xocromancy," ia tho extraordinary title of an rtccalt b.- .. 
being privately printed for circulation among those who lu ;u;,;j 
in tlio somewhat heavy literature of occultism. The author, 
Mr. A. E. Waite, is a well-known and extensive writer of occult 
books, ono of his best known being " Devil Worship in Franco," 
which oxcito<l a good doul of interestayeanvtwoago. Mr.Waite's 
new book is divided into two parts, the first conUiinincr an 
analytical and critical account of the chief maL- .>n 

to tho author, whilst tho aec<md forma a coin) ••{ 

Illack ilagic. The book runs to nearly 300 pages. 

• « « « 

Miss Sarah Doudnoy, tho author of tho well-known hymn, 
" Sleep on, beloved," which was chosen by the Queen to be sung 
at tho commemoration of tho late Duchess of Teck, wrote " A 
Cluster of Koscs," the first of tho monthly supplements to the 
Girts' Own VajKT. She is now writing another called " k Mower 
of Light " (tho Flower do luce, or Iris). Miss Dondney, who 
takes a deep interest in the |>osition of women. discns^M" in a 
short paj)or she has written for a magazine the que^' ' '-.y 

Women choose to remain unwod." For a novel whi. ^oa 

to get finishotl by the a<itumn she has chosen as a title eoiiM 
lines from " Locksloy Hall." A lady in T<mr8 is now engaged 
in translating some of Miss Doudney's stories into French. 

• • • • 

" Woman and tho Shallow," Miss Araliella Kotiealy's new 
novel, will lie issued next month by " 1. The 

" Shadow " is not. vo nnder.4t.iud. a .d. Imt 

tho shadow w' -w 

which tho stii «, 

Miss Kenealv m 

danger of di:- to 

snatch at tho chimerical and merotrieious. Miss Kenealy's 
studv o{ metlioino, in wbirb sh.* hokls a qiMnfcitinii. b^a Is bpr 



94 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



to think thftt the -' of her sex arc g|)o<!iiiliM><l t<> dutinite 

ends, only to be . I>y work doiw in womanly ways, but 

that tboM wonsnljr powen u« baooinin^ fo^t oxtim-t, and 
BMd«m woman is bceooiing « thing neitlicr male nor female, 
bat BMr^jr neater. " Woman and the Shadow " is meant to 
aoand » warning not* to woman to stay her too t:,.-:i:, 
daMMUiu, without compelling nuuiculino interference. 
• • « « 

In raftnnoe to a paragraph on Iriah piibliahing houses in 
oar nombar of January 8. Mr. T. K. Alibott, Librarian of 
Trinity CSoUege, Dublin, writes :— 

Yoor parsfiaph onl p. 'it tlon but neant jiutiro to tlie Dublin 
prialiaf hewee. Tba best Dublin book-work uord not fear eiimparimin 
with that of LoadoD or Edicburgb. The bookii ue, indeed, published in 



An early nambor of Chambrrs' Joumul will contain an article 
by Mr. W. Roberts, entitled " The Story of a Burrs Find," in 
iriiidi is told the curious vicissitudes of a copy of " The Scots 
Mnaical Museum," with numerous annotations by the poet, and 
a batoh of other Bumtiana. 

* « » • 

Muaaia. Harper and Brothers are publishinf; a book for Mrs. 

J. A. Owen, called " The Story of Hawaii," which will give a 

•hort history of those islands, called " The Paradise of the 

Faciflo." Mrs. Owen live<l there for some years, and since her 

return to England she has been in close correspondence with 

ralativee who have spent close on thirty years in Honoluhi. The 

book will b« illustrated. " Our Honolulu Boys," a Story of 

Child Life in Hawaii," by Mrs. J. A. Owen, has lang been out 

of print. 

« « * « 

This year's auction sales of books have nlready begun at 
Sotheby's, but the first of real importance will not commence 
until next Friday, the 28th inst., when the library of Mr. George 
Skene, of Skene, Aberdeenshire, will be dispersed. Tliis is 
easentially the library of the antiquarj-. and it is long since so 
valuable and scarce a collection was offered for sale. Like the 
famous Gordonstoun Library, it is particularly rich in historical 
pamphlets, collected mostly in the 17th and 18th centuries, and 
in point of age nine-tenths of the collections of books now being 
sold arc mere mushrooms comparo<l with the Skene Library. 
Numerous books relating to America are in this collection, one 
of which is a volume of sermons containing a rare prcfacu by 
Increase Mather. Another book contains one of the earliest 
copies of the infamous Assiento, printed at the time of the 
Treaty of Utrecht, by which the nefarious contract for supplying 
the Spanish colonies with negroes was transferred from France 
to Great Britain. But the more special interest in the Skene 
Library centres round the valuable works and pamphlets relating 
to the social and religious life of Scotland. These date from the 
early part of the 17th century and extend over a period of 200 
years, and one of the most interesting among the many notable 
things is a volume containing contemporary pamphlets relating 
to the Porteons riots. 

  • * 

Mr. Gelett Burgess, who has just added to his literary reputa- 
tion in America by publishing, through the Boston firm of 
Copelan<l and Day, a volume of whimsical romance, entitled 
" Vivette," occupies a curioiu position among American writers. 
Before the appearance of the Lark, the amusing little publica- 
tion which he helped to start in San Francisco a few years ago, 
he was unknown, but his unique verses and illustrations speedily 
got him a wide reputation. Mr. Burgess, now in his :t]8t year, 
paMed his early life in Bo»t<jn, where, at the famous Institute 
of Technologj-, he was trained for the profession of engineer. 
For several years ho Uught in the scientific department of the 
University of California, and it iras directly after resigning his 
post there that he turned his attention to writing. His success 
has now committed him to the literary career, and he has taken 
up his residence in New York, where he is engage<l ujion the 
new periodical, L'En/ant TerribU, to which our corrospomlcnt 
in Anerica refera elMwhere.| 



Messrs. Doubleday and M'Clure, of New York, are to bring 
out a complete edition of the works by the late Henry George. 
Mr. George's death brought out the fact that ii large nnml)er of 
the writers of New York were believers in his doctrine of Uio 
single tax. Several are active workers in the single tax agita- 
tion, which continues to be persistently advocated throughout 
the country, largely through the columns of the daily Press and 
through the disseminations of [laraphlets. 

  • « 

For several months Mr. Richard Harding Davis has l>ooii 
working on a dramatization of his popular novel, " Soldiers of 
Fortune." This will make his first long play. 

 « •  

Mr. Hamlin Garland, the American novelist, is completing 
in Washington the life of General I'. S. (irnnt, on whirb lu^ has, 
been steadily engaged for two years. 

« * « « 

At tlie dinner recently given in his honour by the Aldino 
Club of Now York, Dr. Kdward Everett Halo was callc<l " the 
Nestor of American letters," and the description could not 
have l)een more apt. Dr. Hale, who in his 70th }'ear is still 
preaching in Boston and has lately brought out a new volume of 
stories, was closely associated with that group of writers, in- 
cluding Longfellow, Holmes and Whittier and Kmcrson, who 
did 80 much to give Boston its literary distinction. Though he 
has published work of excellent quality — Mr. E. C. Stedman, as 
one of the s]M!akers of the dinner recalled, ranking his " Man 
without a Country " as the best American short story over 
written — it is as a humanitarian that ho has won his best fame. 
His stories have been written with a puriioso, and several of tho 
last attained an extraordinary popularity and exerted a wido 

influence. 

* • « « 

Paris has recognized a now poet with a unanimity which i» 
the more striking as for some years France has been suffering an 
eniiiii in its efforts to comprehend tho spirit of its younger poets. 
When M. Coquelin brought out tho other night ot the Porto 
St. Martin Theatre a new five-act play by JSl. Eilmond Itostond 
the jirciniire was at once saluted as a literary event of import- 
ance. M. Rostand is a young gentleman under :J0, born in Mar- 
seilles, ot partly Spanish blood. His father is a jwlitical 
economist. He began his career in a Paris bank. Meanwhilo 
he wrote abundantly in verse, ami, fond as ho was of the stage, 
bent all his etforts to tho production of a play. An extraordi- 
nary facility : a fancy so rich as to seem inexhaustible ; an 
exuberant gaiety in which the more characteristic Gallic 
roiulcur is tempered by the taste of the poet ; an imi>oc- 
cable technique : a life and glow rendering the most in- 
genious preciosities, the prettiest euphuisms, acceptable at 
tho bar of Taste— these are }&>stand's qualities as a poet, tho 
(|ualities which at (nice jilaccd liini, when his Cyravo tie Ikiycrac 
was played at the Porte St. Martin, among the masters of French 
verso. 15ut he also has the irony of the artist who has alwayn 
observed life, and the purely sjiociol gift of the playwright in 
addition. Ho is not yet a great jioot, because ho has not yet hiul 
sufficient experience of life. But he is a marvellous composer 
of verse and the most talented dramatic poet in France. 

*  « « 

M. Edmoiid Rostand is among tho men of letters who havo 
just received tho decoration of the Legion of Honour. Others 
are M. Hugues Lo Rouse and M. Lobrius, bettor known in tho 
literary world as A. Le Braz. The latter is the author of tho 
exquisite stories and sketches of life in Brittany. 

* * « » 

It has often been said that the man of letters is a person of 
much greater consequence in France than in England. But eveiy 
high position has its disadvantages, and at tho jiresent moment 
Paris is within measurable distance of insurrection bocausx M. 
Zola has found fault with the chiefs of tho Frem-h Army. 
Infuriated mobs of students from tho Ouartior T,atin parade tho 
streets to the cry of " Conspucz Zola," and only a charge oi two 
hundred police savc<l the novelist's house from attack. It will 



January 22, 1898.J 



LITERATURE. 



95 



bo rcmoniltcred, of coiirHe, tlmt thiH i» not tlio fir»t timo that 
/ola Ims touched tliu toiulor pluoos of the aimy. " La 
DdMcle " drew a vivid picturo of imporiul di»organization 
mid iiiplHcionoy, nnd w« bcliovo thnt iho military aiithiiritio* 
would not ixTiiiit tho btwik to enter barracka. And now, 
bot^uuKu M. /olu has jilainly itatv<l a fact known to all the 
world outsido France, namely, that tho trial of Droyfun wa* 
highly irregular nn<l sUHjiiLiouii in its procedure, tlie Freiuh 
f!ovornni(>nt in talking of a prosecution, nnd Alarceland Schau'iard, 
nnd Rodolpho and C'ollino arc howling for tho groat authorV 
blotKl. It is all amazing enough, but it helps ns to iniderstand 
that tho Knglish Channel is a great g>df of separation. Let «i« 
try nnd imagine London almost under martial law, special 
constablus drilling in tho parks, and two hundred pidicemen 
gnanliiig Sir Walter llcsant's residence from an infuriate<l mob 

— of pidiliHhers. 

« • * ■• 

The nnml)er of Literature for November 6 of last year con- 
tiiino<l l)riof mention of tho action brought by M. Dubout 
agiiinst M. HrunotiiTo, as editor of tho Reriie (/« Denj- Mimdt; 
for his refusal to insert a reply to tho criticisms on his drama, 
Freilciioiiilc (which M. Lomaitro wroto in tho AVrtu), together 
with tho third act of the pioco in question. M. Brunotiero, 
when tho case camo before tho Court on December 15, conducted 
his own defence. French law is explicit in protecting what is 
called " tho right of reply " in tho nowspajwr. But M. 
Brunotiiro arguoil that a review like the Reriie den Deux Motulea 
is in no sonse a journal, but " a book, a collective book, a 
fragmentary book, which is complete as a volume only every 
two months." He insisted also that tho law guaranteed tho 
right of reply " to imputiitions cither insulting or relating to 
tho private life." Ho arguod ingeniously that tho '• right of 
reply " really existed only for the critic, and not for the author 
at all, provided tho criticism was a serious one : and he asked 
tho Court what Frenchmen would have thought if the victims of 
X'oltairo or Boileau had appealed to tho f'aris Parliament to 
rehabilitate them, or if Chupelain had asked that a Hoyal decree 
sho\dd be promulgated declaring his Pneelle a masterpiece, and 
that this decree should appear in all subsequent editions of 
the Satiren. 

« « « * 

Tho Court has now roaflirmod the " right of reply," but 
declared that it should not bo abused, and that M. Dubout had 
abused it in claiming the insertion of his letter and of tho act of 
his play in the Retiic <lfa Deux Afoiules. The reasons given, how- 
over, were peculiar. M. Dubout had summed <ip the judgments 
of his critics by citing extracts from their articles, showing their 
contradictions, and, in tho words of tho Court, "presenting to tho 
mind eager to arrive at an opinion as to tho piece <inlv chaos 
and confusion." This, said tho Court, is a process calculated to 
" compromi.oe in their literary consideration and their critical 
authority those to whom public opinion is accustomed to accoixl a 
superior competence, discernment, and tact in theatrical matters. 
It pointed out that if M. Duboiifs letter were published, all tho 
authors cited might demand the publication of the articles from 
which tho extracts were taken, of, at all events, claim tho right 
of explanation. By this rnluftio ad <ih»iirdum tho Court arrived 
at its decision to contirm M. Brunoti^re in his resistance, and to 
condemn M. Dubout in costs. In Franco, where e.tf>i-it reigns, 
tho decision has been hailed as delightfully judicious. 
• »  « 

To celebrate a new society by an inaugural banquet seems a 
perfoctlv rcasoniiblo and proper coiu'so ; but to signalize the 
death of an institution with a dinner seems almost indecent. 
This is tha way in which M. Octavo Uainno's " Socii'ti! des 
Bibliophiles Contempornins," after a brilliant career of alK)ut 
tivo years, is to terminate its course on tho 2-4th inst., the "wake" 
taking place in one of tho salons of the Rost-aurant Marguery. 
Boulevard Bonno-Kouvelle, Paris. Tho publications of this 
society are of tho most rechcnhf description, beautiful in type, 
in pajier, and in illustration : tho impressions are practically 
limitetl to tho number of members, about 'JOO, and their market 
values are largely on the incroiiso. All tho loading French 
bibliophiles are members ; only three Englishmen are on tho list, 
Mr. R. Copley Christie, Mr. Joseph Knight, editor of Sutes and 
Queries, and Air. H. S. Ashbco. The oidre du jour for the 24th 
inst. is twofold — first, to discuss the advisability of depositing 
the archives of the society in one of the public libraries of Paris ; 



an' 
dv 



Th*- -V'w 



o menib«n of Um aoetoljr of Um 
'1 othart. 
* • • 

Drtititrh* JtHntitrtutu ttnUT* with Um eumat 

lUid may be eon- 
it h>4 sown it* 
oraka of tho fnw 
: e tun* whoB til* 



1. With 

VO- 

fnMilom of tl »» 

anarchy. It >•'- 

metit in art. 'I 

the title of ti ' 

prefix Nrue ; and it nuikv uuw ttutuiig tiiv tir»t of %Uu >  
magazines. 

We regrut tlmt in LiUrafure of January 1 we aaai 
aiii' "f Miss Charlotte Bain'a " Ace of Hearts '' lo jin. 

Jl'; k^on. 

. * * • 

On Friday next Mr. William Archer will lecture before the 
Society of Women Journalists on " Homo Living Poets," at 
8 30 p.'m., at the Society of Artd, John-street, Adelphi. 
« • •• « 

On the 2oth inst. tho Vnicom Press " <• first of 

" The I'nicom Books of Verfo," vir. "- nfliet," 

by Mr. Louis Barsac. About t! 'iio same 

firm will begin a now scries on i. •- Toluroe 

being " Tho Fringe of an Art," liy -Mr. \ Lruon Blatkbum, the 
musical critic of t)ie fall Mall ila.'Hr. 

A timely work is being publi ' ' ' Afcssrs. )(cthiian, 
entitled " The Niger Sources." It : lel J. K. Trotter, 

the British Commissioner on the i - ; . • to mark oat 

the boundary between French (■.::ui.i .: I joone agreed 

upon l>etwcen (iroat Britain and I'lai.cu e..... ... 1;:^, and gives 

an account of tho country and tho expedition. 

James Thomson, tho author of " The Seaaons," is the 
subject of the new volume of the " Famous Soota " series. It 
has been written by Mr. William B.tvtio. 

Messrs. Plon, Nourrit, et ( "h on Febmary 15 

Vidume II. of the " Souvenirs •; ry " ; on the 1st 

of tho same month M. Ernest iJaialLi's li-iok on tho Dtic 
d'.\umalo ; and on Jonuary '.'5 Lieutenant Hourst's " Voyage 
au Niger." 

In the early days of February will appear the second and 

last volume of the " Corre-:: • ' ' ' • - "•- " ' -hich 

tho last number of tho "ag- 

ments. The book will iii.,v... „.. , ... . ^ . 1-ng- 

lund, and tho United States. It will include letters from 1836 
to 1882. 

A history of the Oreat Nortl.' ' H. 

Grinling, which will shortly bo put. ;''n, 

promises to give a complete account of the ••t\ ry, 

and development of that Railway. Lortl Gri: nnd 

Lord Colville of Culross have revised a considi t ion 

of tho work in manuscript. Sir Henry Oakley has K tior 

volumes of the company s holf-v '  jhtls i.i pro- 

cee<lin;;s on its Bills l>eforo Pat ■■o«. 

Mr. S. A. Strong, librarinn i ' ^ -'- will 

contribute to I.t>nijman' s Ataijn-.inr ■^etl 

on the Duke of Devonshire'" • -" ■■'■■^ ^ ....:.. ...„ tbo 

connexion between tho ^ " and »< • leading 

writers of his day. In thi' : ill apj>ear  r«t timea 

letter from Thackeray to the duke, m which he skettiies out tho 
further fortunes of the leading characters of " Vanity Fair " 
after tbo close of tho story. 

The new novel by '"' Z. Z. " (Ixtuis Zanirwi)1>. whi'-h Mr. 
Heinemann is publishing, is entitlwl " Cleo i' ^■' t or 

the Muse of tho Real." and, in atmosphere, w be 

rather • ' ' tn " Z. Z.'s " p,v«t work. r. :ib- 

lishod in -America and the colonies lan 

and It.'i 1 .lui.'iis arr -'- - '■ - — •«. 

Mis'; Mtliuen ar i- book by Major 

Gibbons, entitled " Exp: — ...nting in Ccattal 

Africa." 

.A posthumous volume by the late Phillips Brooks, Bishop 
of Massachusetts, will bo iss\ied shortly bv Messrs. Serrico and 
I'aton. It will be entitled "The Best Slethod-! of lYomoting 
Spiritual Life," and wdl contain a |>ortrait of 

Mr. Harry do Windfs bo..k. entitled  the Gold 

Fields of Alaska to Bet -ts," will Iv I'lil'lished in 

Febmary in London by M' tto and Windus, and siraol- 

tancously in New York. 



D6 



LITERATURE. 



[January 22, 1898. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

H> l-<o roUlot. Tr 

Itto Kiuiiiui by A)l:... . :^'. 

U «8ilii„ S pp. Umdon. laM. 
BMUMrtMMidP«bU<ihlnKO& la. 

.. ASariwxif 

J DmwiBffiL Br mn 

. But DL CoataiataiK 

INMtmiU at Mn. Mernell. Mr. 
CliMlM RleinUa. aai Mr. Cbariat 
H«a*iwon4 StenMm. liondea. 1MB, 
- —  «U MTaiLn. 



OmtRMianU. 



BIOGRAPHY. 

H. R. H.Th«> Prinro of Wales. 

A*i «''.-•■ ' -^ 

I.;- H;r' 

>I,»rTi.ik'> 1 

\\..rk. ■'. "■ 

<1 >!i. K>. •-■ - - 'JJ. 

Oeoriro Thomson. The Friend 

of Hum*. Hi- I. if. I'l! ("orrsBnon- 

dciwe. Hv ./ Itaddt^ 

9K5]ln.. X. .t'J 11, Un. 

. >4. 8a. n. 

Tha RmU Sheridsn. A Replr 

t . Mr Kr.i-. r n... ■- •• shrrid.in : 



London. I  



Madrid. LS*. 



Olpl wh 

Father 



Th» 
M 



-i. pn 
II 



 G;:n . n I>p. 
Uriffltlui. 



ItiillU're. T*.«d. 



BOOKS FOR THE VOUNO. 

The Wm»th oT Achillea: or. The 

- ' 'III- liiii'i. Keloid by 

i./?>i/. 'i  .Mti.. Ifil I>p. 

.-.'4 V.iuKlian. 3«. 6d. 



FICTION. 
Tbo Stor  " Beautiful 



lay*. llora* c C'uX. I< 

The Life of Wliinsle ^Vauoh. 

T«ilor 111 t'V 

Hiin~lf ''• 

i'tnt.'narv pp. 
London and Ui:>'-i irvii. l-ui. 

BUckwood. II. 



NiRh- 

Wll 



'- . Hlvh- 

Polrn, 

A.M. l<,6d. 



The Fourth Napoleon. A Ro- 
mance by ChnrlrK Htnhnm. 7Jx 
SUn.. >00 pp. Lend nn . 1 «K 

Ilcincmann. oa. 



■itar. By Mnru K. 
'  Samnnab.'fte.l 






•od by hep 

A It>r- 



Di». DumAny's Wlff "» 

JAkaL Aiitborixed Vcrrioiu zy* 

Un., rUL-t-SlS pp. Lnodon. IMS. 

Jarroid. t*. 

Miss Balmalne's Pmst. By 

//. ^^ Irok'r. TJ'Jiln.. nS pp. 
lyundon. Kf". thaUo. b. 

The Oown and the Man. A 

finrr "' Tmii.:"! TinM*. By 
/'rrtl'rSI. <ifrj' " • .'<in.. MS pp. 
IwMlon. I-"" !''ic'- Ixmt. ai. 

 1. 



Queens n 

Hy Oh, 
lyi  
ThO W<.'. of 
// 

M 

PP 



OEOORAPHY. 



linwia ID ". nverx 

^■■K V :i>ndlko. 

m V. X. lliinl. '.'! i;ip.. XT111.+ 
Hi pp. I.4iiidon, Now York, and 
Melbounie. !)««<. 

Ward & Lock. ;8.6d. 



JANUARY MAOAZINB8. 

The Studio. An IMu-trnted Maun- 
The EdInbuPKh 

iial Jmui-ii.i1. ( \ii. 

1.-. Apchltec- 

IUP«. ( \i'- Jt.t TjillK)! HoUHO. iH. 

MoClupe's Ma^razlne. Now 

York, llleenln. 



LAW. 

Somepsetshtpe Pleas. Vol. II. 

(Civil hikI (riininiill. Kponi the 

1;..';. .,( il,. I'in.Tiin! .Iii-ii.-... 



iAt up. ^Sotuenel. l&H. Tim doiiier. 
•et Reoord Society. For Sub- 
acrllwn only. 

The Yoarl.v County Coupt 
Ppaotlce, 1B98. Founded on 
Archlxilil -iiu.t I'in l>>wi.s■"t'o^lnlJ• 
<'o^lrt I'ni.ti.c-s." Uyli.PUt-r^irl.i. 
Q.C. Hi-"r.!.r of I'oole. and C. 

Aril' H.A. ThoChiipter 

of ( I'reeodcnU of CoHt. 

By I Turner. 2 Vols. 

8tx6nii.. iv\\iii. + 7J6+xxiv.+4M 
pp. l»ndon. 18UK. 

nutlerworlh & Shaw. 2jm. 

The Elements of Mepoantlle 

Law. I!v T. .V. .S/.r.;is, D.C.I,. 

of ChrUl C'hiin-li. Oxford. 2nd FA. 

Sxljin., XXV. +KK pp. l»ndon. 1897. 

Buttorworth. 10b. 6<1. 

The Annual County Coupts 
Practice. 1898. hinmdc^d on 

INilliH-k uii'l V: ■•il^ Miui IlivwoodV 

••l>nuili.. 

Jvok. K: /. 

Q.C. Sj .- 

4J7 pp. I^inlou. ISfi. 

Sweet <E Maxwell and Stovena 
& SonH, Ltd. 2S«. 

Rullnff Cases, .\rrnnitcd. Anno- 
l«l<.<l. mill fjlileil tiv llii'irrt Camp- 
Itrll ^' >  I 'iKniv other Mem- 
ber With Amcrienn 
No" .: Hn>wne. Vol. 
XIll. ....... .ii-unince. 10)x611n., 

X(.-t-7l'> pp. Ixindon, IHOT. 

.Slevon.s mid SonH, LUl. 2S«. n. 



LITERARY. 



The ' 

hv 
Inn 
licniiu. 
Ixindon, ."^ 



. I. 



I TouPKubnefr and his Fpenoh 
; Ctpcie. VA. hy '■-'• Hulitrritu- 
f Ktiminjiku. Tnni.<lHte*l hy Klhel 
i .M. Arnold. rj-'SJIn.. xv.H a«pp. 
l»ndon. l*.**. Inwln. 7k. (Id. 

Bupns: Life, Oenlus, Achieve- 
ment. Hv It'. /•:. rtrnlr,/. Hr- 
prtii ' '  ' ' V IlurnK. 

U T, & K. 

Ja. Ix. 

The ' n. Vol. IV, With 

In' I note- hy Hrorffc 

,li' .Jln., vm.^377 pp. 

LoiiUuu. Uytb Nlmmo. Ja. n. 



j-.»»l. 

la. Br 

t.i'Tirne 

TO 



xy 



'■*. I 



MILITARY. 



The 

!.»■ 

D.v 

IlelDMoailli. 6*. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Portentous Ppophets and 
Ppophetesses. HvlZ-x. .W.-.ViV- 
/iMi. Nl.,\. ,H ' .'till.. ri.'> pp. Ixiiidoii, 
IHH. I'iKhy l/OHK. 'ia.M. 

Hints to Younir Valuers. A 

I" " Illation 



H. 

xxl\ 



M At;: n; 



.l»mo8 
. &lln., 

Iteeord. 



Some American Opinions on 
Fire Prevention. <<■■■■■■ > '. 
slniel-.* from I'lijiers. ' 

.( ^Ain..*Ofi. I'hnrh.-i tf ! 



.1 i^n I 11. 

niittee. 



So.i.) 



.Ill Com- 

iK. 



MEDICAL. 

Seiver Oas and Its Influence 
upon ■-•'■-''th. Tr.iili-i. hy //. 
AI I-/. ( K. HI ..'.iln.. 

lull. i<K. IllKifH, >. 



The Paris Charity Bazaar 
Flpe. Hy AV/inn (). Snrht. \ 
Paper proprtr<'(l for tlie .\reliiIoc* 

1 1..- .1 \..-,..i .1 w,.!'.4 .<eeond()rtliimr%* 

:i l«l7!«. With 

Uielmnl HoImti. 

i.A A ...i.cri^. (PiiblicJitions I 

of the UritiHh Kiro IVeventlon 
Committee. \o. 3.) iHxSJin., 52 pp. 
Ixindon. I89S. 

Britiah Firo Provontlon Com- 
mittee, la. 

Book of the Yeap 1897. A 

Chroniele of the Tinie-i. and a lle- 
eonl of Kvent.-i. I'ornpllod hv 
Kilmund Uoutlfdm. 7jx.Mn., 3lii 
pp. London and Now ^ ork. ISts. 
HoutledKe. 

Raid and Refopm. Hv a Pretoria 
Primmer. Airrnl I'. IfiUUr. B.A., 
M.I).. f.M. ' !li lo6 pp. 

London and Nev 

. 6b. D. 

The Oxfopd En^rllsh Diction- 
ary. K'l. h.v />r. Jomt-H A, 
Mtirniy. Frank-Ijiw-Fy/.— ti-tlaiii- 
Coniinif. Vol. IV. Hy llrnry 
Itradlfu, Hon. M.A., Oxon. 
VM y I04in. London and Oxfortl. 
1898. Krowde. Sn. 

The University Correspon- 
dence and University 
Correspondence Collei?e 

Mavazlne, 1>»7. Vol. VII, 4to, 
London. 1837. t'llve. Sh. 

Whitakep's Directory of 
Titled Persons for li!«. 71 x 
6in., xii. i I'll pp. London. IHiW. 

WhiUkcr. 2m. Od, 

The Antiquary. A Matcnzlne 
dovol<Hl to the Study of the Pant. 
Vol. XXXIU. 1897. inx7Jln.,aS8pp. 
London. IW. .Stock. 7n. 6d. 



NATURAL HISTORY. 

Wild Nature won by Kind- 
ness. Hy Mrs. llritihttren, II- 
liiHlrHled. Hth t^d, 'ix.Mn., ZVlpn. 
London, 18S7. Unwtn. Ik. 6d. 



POETRY. 
Domestic Vcrsoa, Hy 

.VoiXDel' 11 

Jlin.. viii 
KdinburK* 

Ephemera. A Collection of Oc- 
ejwlonal VerKC. Hy J. M. CoMtttt. 
SI xttin,, 70 pp. Oxford, 1838. 

Alden, 2m. (kl. n. 

Voices In Verse. Hy Hnrrirl M. 
M. Hall. OlxSln., 101 pp. lA>ndon, 
Kts. Allenwn. 2«. fH. 

Twonty-flve Cantos from the 
DIvlna Commedia of Dante. 

Triii>«Ule.| ...I..! .. -1 -lilivC./'oftcr. 
New an.! VA. ttxAln., 

lIHpp. I 

.. I/ong, 8a. n. 



The Obsepvep's Atlas of the 
Heavens. Hv William I'n-k. 
K.H.A.S., K H.S.K, Ci.nlaininu SO 
Ijirjfe .S-ule .star Chiir!-*, etc. 
17 -. 13iin. Lonilun and KdinliurKli. 
IWtt. Uall and IngUx. 21k. n. 



SOCIOLOGY. 

Allen Immigrants to Eng- 
land. Hy H. Cnnninuhum. 1>.1>. 

(S(H*iftl Kntfland Series. ► K.I. hy 

Kenelni II. Cote-. M..\. iDxon.l 

With Maiwniiil I: 7*  

Sin., xxlii, * 2Sii p. l-i^iT. 

Son:i I-. I'»l, 

Social Questions of To-day. 
Workhouses and Pauper- 
Ism, anil WoMiin's Work in tho 
.-Vilniinii-lntlion of the Pixtr Ijiw, 
Hv Louisa 7'iriiifiif/. 7i^Hiu., 
X.V27B pp. London, isas. 

Slethuen. 2k. Cd. 



SPORT. 

Elephant' Huntlnfr In East 
Equatorial Africa. Hein'.; an 
aee.miif ..f iln.r >.Mr." l\-ory- 
Huir .1. and 

.f tho 



n. M. 

and 
:<.«d.n. 



My 



Ilelnemann. M, (d. 



SCIENCE. 

The Physlolofcv of Love. A 

study InStirpi.'illiire. Hy llmry 
Srumour. "l/<iin., 10ft tip. l<on- 
don and Sew York, 1838. Fowlur.lit. 



Lor...;-:! 



■/nir II. 



XiHiiuiitii. ill .-.tiiiii.. xi.\. 1 :i.w pp. 

London, 1898. ItowlandWairl. 2lK.n. 

Oolf. I With 

C.mr I kern. 

(The - I I'M. 

hy the Karl of .--illliilk ami Hork- 
>-hlre. "Jxljln., KU pp. London, 
ISSM. 
Lawrence & BuUocuCLIb. Papcr.6d. 



THEOLOGY. 

The Early History of the 

Hebrews. Hv /i. r. .(. //. .SVi|/rr. 

"JxSlin., xv.-HlHpp. iMnAim. iai7. 

UivinKtun, Sh. Od. 

The Church of Christ. Ily tho 

Late /f<-r. /•;. .1. /,i«ori. MA. With 
an IntrodiK.'tion by Rev. F. J. Cha- 
vasse, M..\. 7J \5iiii., xvi. + 327 pp, 
London, I8!)8. Nishet, Sh. 

The Orthodox Confession of 
the Catholic and Apostolic 
Eastern Church. Kroni Ihu 
Ver.-ion of Peter Mo^ila. Tnms- 
lated Into Kni?lish. Kil.. wilh a 
Prefaeo, hv ./. J. Orrrlirrk, II.K,. 
With an Introdiietion hy J. N. 
UolK^rtsou. 83 >.5iiu.. 112 pp. Lon- 
don, isas. Haker. 3s. Od. n. 

The Bible True from the Be- 
KlnnlnK. Hy Kdiranl Homih, 
H..'\, liOnd,, Con^n-ifrtiional .Mini 
Ktor, Barrowford. Vol. VI. flxjjiu., 
xvii.-tflil pp. Limdon. IH<»7. 

Kejfan Paul. Wrf. 

The Queen's Diamond Jubilee 
Bible Text-Book. The TvxIh 

i-.irrelated for every day In tho 
year, Hy John Jarkaon, F,K.I.S. 
Sixiiln. London, IKSK 

SampKon Low. 2s. 

The Queen's Diamond Jubilee 
Birthday Bible Text-Book. 

ThuTexi- I'll. 1 .'■ 1 f..river\ day 
Intheyoai ' ' so;i.F.k.I,S. 

SJxljfn. I 

. Low. 2k. Od. 

Through the Dark Hours. 

Sti'if* .\.Mr.--es on the Seven 

.' Crotw. Hy Jirr. 

|^ .M.A., Viear of 

71>.'iln., 47 pp, 

I..)iiilun. 1--J-. SkelHiiKlon. In. Od. 

" Banished, but not Expelled ": 

or. Steps in the Path of Life. Hy 
/f.r. ir. Ilnilr, A.K.C. 6|x411n., 
M pp, I^ondon, I8!X. 

SkefHngton. 2<. 



TOPOGRAPHY. 

The Cnthedml Church of 

-■ • . of ltJ« 

of thu 

, . I (/<//<■- 

 '. i"'. M. \. 7' • ■iin.. X. • 112 pp, 

London, 18IM, Ooorgo Bell, Is, Ud. 



Edited by 3R. J>. 7raiU. 



1£itciiituic 



Published by (Tbf Sittfl. 



No. 1... SATUKWAV, JAiNLAK'i 

CONTENTS. 



PAOR 

Leading Article— Buriw Anniveranrios, nnd Othora ... 1)7 

"Among my Books," l>y Arthur Machwi 112 

Reviews - 

Korea iiiiil Ilor NcinlilMiiirs IN 

Twi'lve Yi'jirs in u Mommtery 1"1 

l/Altj(^rit' I't liiTimisic 1"2 

lljiid mid Heforui W2 

Aniiiimtions HW 

Voces Aciidemieip 101 

'Itiiins and Kxeivviitions of Anciont Rome IW 

HIstoploal Blog-paphy 

I'hiirles the (iie.il 105 

'I'lie True (ietiixe Washington and Martha Washlngfton 1(>l'» 

Sir Henrv Wotton 100 

I'ulklaiuls 107 

rhilip 1 1, of Spain...— 107 

Oliver Cronnvell 108 

Tpanslatlons 

Aueassin and Nicolette 108 

Poems of Walter von der Vogelweide 100 

.Ueiiaiul of Montaiiltan 110 

The Miracles of St. Katherineof Fiorbols 110 

Theology- 

A Vindication of the Bull Apostolicie Cura> 110 

.Side Iii^;lits on t'hureh History Ill 

The Papal Conclaves Ill 

Fiction- 

The Triumph of Death 118 

Kiinlnsifttt mid Symphonies -Lord DuIIborough— I'caco with Honour 
A Knight of llio Ni>l«-BiiHhlKram!i—.\ Limited Success -Under 
lliu Dnigon Throno-.\ Piissloniite Piltcrim— Kalth, HoiJO, and 
I'harity^Thc Missionary ShuriflT-Tho Adventures of St. Kevin — 
•Ihe Story of the fowboy 1 l."i, 110, 117, 1 1,S 

"London and Other Capitals as Birth-Places of Genius IIS 

American Letter 110 

Obituary-"'-"" I-iddell 120 

-' Liddell and Scott," l>y Mr. F. Madan 13) 

Coppospondonce- Tlie MiUais Kxhibition (Tho Sooretiry of the 
Itoynl .\i'ft(l«iny)~'" Pupils of Pct«r the Great"— Ilook Illiislration 
1 Professor Roger Smith)— " QuiesUo do Aqua ot Terra" (Mr. Paget 
Toynbcel 121,122 

Notes 122, 123, 121, 125, 120, 127 

List of New Books and Reprints 12S 



BURNS ANNIVERSARIES, AND OTHERS. 



Last Tue.sday wa.<! the birthday of Burns. Tlie an- 
■niversai'3' was ci»U>brate(l as usual in Scotlantl with 
those remarkable festivities which are surely the most 
various testimony that any modern nation has paid to 
its affection for the memory of a great writer. 
Kiif^land has producetl nothing quite parallel to the 
•dinners and supjiers of the numerous Burns Clubs ; but 
even in England the celebration of centenaries, literary 
iubilees, and even anniversaries is quite a fashionable 
Jimusoment nowadays. One of our loading magazines has 
made a prominent feature of the provision of a monthly 
calendar and an " anniversary study," and the less seriou.s 
students of literature would seem to have caught from ^Ir. 
Vol. II. No. <.' 



ln-iiiin Jlulii^wii Hill 111. I'usiii,,^, iii.ii.l... till' tit«t«* for 

devoting every |>oB«iblc day to meuiorien of Mmte writer 
who wa.s bom or died, got niarri«-<i, caught the measles, 
or publixlied a Ixtok on that |>articular date in the calendar 
In itxelf, thi.s is a liarmlc.xs aiiiiiseinent enough, though Uie 
cjniic may inquire why a great writer should be commemo- 
rated on the anniversary of his birth or death more than at 
any other time. A rational explanation is easily to be found 
in the same tendency which leads us to greet New Year's 
Day with acclamation, and to chojse the Hrst rBthr>r than 
any other day of the month for making g«Jod resolutions; 
the second i.s usually set ai>art for breaking them. 
In the present day, when tlie presses groan so busily, 
the danger is not that writers of the jiast will be too much 
discus.sed, but tliat they will l)e buried from sight under 
the awful avalanche of new Ixwks. It is to 1m» fcare<l tliat 
few modem critics have the courage of their pri-di-ces.-tor 
who said, " When a new book conies out. I nwl an old 
one." And so the custom of keeping centenaries deserves 
much favour from those who would be sorry to see the 
public quite forget that English literature, a^ some re- 
viewers ai)i)ear to lielieve, did not really begin to flourii-h 
about the year 1837. 

.Several literary anniversaries have fall<>n due within 
the present month. To begin with, .Scotsmen, and jiar- 
ticularly the inhabitants of Mu.sselburgh, were engaged 
in commemorating the birth of that gentle soul David 
Macbeth Moir, commonly known as " Delta," which took 
j)lace on the 5th of January, 1798. Musselburgh ia 
chiefly famous for golf, though its once aristoi-ratic links 
have sadly declined of late years. But to the follower of 
literary by-ways, it is connected with the names of 
"Jupiter" Carlyle, that candi<l aut<> it, and of 

Moir, whose statue stands in the tov. .. .. Iijs whole 

life was spent. A " centenary edition " of his chief work, 
" Mansie Wanch," indicates the best jiossible way of cele- 
brating such an occasion. The story of the little tailor 
of Dalkeith ought to find plenty of favour with a public 
which is so fond of straying into the kailyard. Moir's 
book, which was probably modelled on t!»e l)etter-known 
works of Gait, may certainly be taken as one of the 
earliest and best examples of that now famous school, 
nor does it bristle with repellent dialects. Its author, 
it is true, used to complain rather pathetically 
of the popularity of the book of which he thought 
least, yet which alone has kept his name alire. 
"Delta" was a somewhat sentimental gentleman who 
admired "The Man of Feeling," and would gladly 
have grasped at what he called " the jKietic laord." 
Instead of which, his name ran over Swtland as that 
of a funny fellow. "After all," he wrote to his future 
biographer, " how prec.irious a thing is literary fame ! 
Things to which I have bent the whole force of my mind 
and which are worth remembering — if any things that I 



9S 



LITERATURE. 



[Jsinuary I'K, 1898. 



hii\c d.Mu- iuf M all worth rpinembering — hnve attracted 
but n vrry ilouhtful shnre of «iij>lnii.<e from critics; whilst 
tilings daslietl off lik«* • .Mansie Wanch,' as mere sjwrtive 
fn>«k-!, niul which for years and years I have hesitated to 
a.knowleilsn'. have Ivt-n out of siyht my nuist jwimlar pro- 
ductions." We have heard a somewhat similar eomjilaint in 
our o«ni day from Mr. «irant .\llen, and Madame D'.\rblny 
if said to have wonden^l why a public that had shown itself 
e:»»^r for her novels should refuse to jump at her memoirs 
of her revered father. Hut Moir was certainly in the 
wrong; his iK)etry, which was " kind of sweet and 
>nd<lish,'' is forgotten even nioi-e completely than that 
of Mrs. Hemans, which he edited. Ilis "Domestic 
Verses,' though they are republished, will never be 
domesticated again. And if iwsterity rememliers Moir at 
all when the centenary of his death comes round, it will 
lie solely on the strength of that agreeable rattle " Mansie 
Wauch," with whom it is still worth while in an idle hour 
to make actjuaintance. 

It is a far cry from Moir to Metastasio, from Mussel- 
burgh to Home ; yet the worsliipi)er of centenaries had 
to make such a transition, for Metastasio was bom on the 
' f January. 1G98, in the imi^erial city. "The liacine 

ily," as .^vhlegel called him. had too ample a meed 
of fame in his lifetime to complain if Time has washed 
awav all but his l>are name from our memories. Xot 
again will *• all the gi-eat cities of Italy " take pride in 
huqta.<(sing one another in the pomp and splendour of the 
mounting they give to his Didonn Aljbandonata, as they 
ilid in 1724, nor will the i)easantry again flock in from 
the neighbouring country to hear it as thickly as, in 
Macaulay's lay, they did at the threatening approach of 
I^ars Porscna. .Vmong the various tributes which have 
been offered to Metastasio's memory, we may here recall 
the interview which the adventurer Casanova alleges that 
he had with him at Vienna in 1753, and in which he records 
some lifelike touches of the old jwct's character. "His 
modesty was so great,'' writes the lively Venetian, " that 
at first I doubted its reality. But I was soon convinced 
that it was genuine, for when he recited his own verses to 
THf. he i>ointed out their striking effects and beauties as 
-iiiil.ly as he condemned their weaker lines. I spoke of 
his guardian (iravina, and he recited some unpublished 
 --as on his death. He was so moved by the memory 

- friend and the sweetness of his own verses, that as 
he read them his eyes filled with tears, and at the end he 
said to me, with a pathetic amiability, 'Tell me the 
truth : is it i)0«<ible to say the thing better?' " Metastasio 
told Casanova that he worked with difficulty and thought 
himself lucky to pro»luce fourteen verst's in a day, which 
would hardly do lor a modem librettist. He thought 
tl»at a prose tran>l.'ition of a poem could Ije only ludicrous, 
which shows that he did not know the Knglish Bible, 
and explaine*! that he never wrote verses for a composer's 
music, but made the composer wait for his poem. "The 
French are odd fellows," he said, "to think that it is 
j<f»ssible to write verses for a ready-made tune." Vet the 
tank in one that Bums performe<l with some success, nor 
does it appear tliat he ever thought tlie plan unnatural. 



The last anniversary to which one may call attention 
ought to l)e dear to all " literary journalists." What would 
they do, one often wonders, without their well-thumbed 
copies of the " Curio.-ities of Literature " 'f The .\utoiiat 
of the Breakfast Table has warned us niniinst hvtures of 
which "nil the ennlition was taken renily-inade from 
D'lsmeli." There is a gocxl deal of that M)rt of thing to 
be seen in our own time and country ; yet it is sad to 
notice how little gratitude has been spent on lominenio- 
rating the fiftieth anniversary of Isaac D'lM-acJi's death, 
which occurred on the 19th of this month. It is true> 
that, as a rule, those writers who owe most to IVIsmeli's 
learned collections are by no means the fondest of 
parading their obligation. Yet there are surely very 
few students of liteniture who do not admire his wide- 
reading, elegant humour, and facile jien. Nor was 
D'Israeli by any means the mere " intelHgejit com- 
piler" that many lielieve him. It was always liis aim 
to show how " literary history, in its enlarged circuit,, 
becomes not merely a philological history of critical 
erudition, but ascends into a philosophy of books where 
their subjects, their tendency, and tiieir immediate or 
gradual influence over the people discover their actual 
condition." It was his design, he tells us, " not to 
furnish an arid narrative of books or of authors, Init, 
following the steps of the human mind through the wide 
track of Time, to trace from their lieginuings the ri<e, the 
progress, and the decline of public opinions, and to illus- 
trate, as the objects presented themselves, the great 
incidents in our national annals." This was surely no 
unworthy task to which to devote a long life, and only 
those who know D'Israeli's works intimately know how 
fully it was carried out. .\ jvirallel has lieen sensibly 
drawn between D'Israeli and Bayle, whose work served 
him as a model. In D'Israeli we find " Bayle's multi- 
farious reading, his pliiJosophic spirit of speculation, his 
contempt for merely popular ojjinion, and a very ajipre- 
ciable tendency to jianidox." These qualities contrilnite 
to make his Irooks as delightful to " browse in " as the 
" Critical Dictionary " itself. Unfortunately those who 
use D'Israeli most are apt to invoke the curse of Donatus 
ui)on him. Yet there are few literary jubilees that more 
deserve to be lionoured than his. 



IRcviews. 



Preface by Kir 
(vonHul-OehernI 
2 vols. 8x5^111. 



Korea and Her Neighbours: A V.iir.ilivf i.f Travel 
Willi fin Acioiiiit of I 111' Hcii'iit \'l(issitiiilcM iiiul I'li-scnl Position 
of tlui C'ouiitrv. Hv Mrs. Bishop (IsnlH-lla L. Hinl). with a 
Willt.r <■. Hilli.r. K.C.M.ii.. lato H.RM.'s 
for Korea. With .Maps mid llhistrationH. 
xvii. i-M\  X. : :{21 i>p. UmuIoii. l.sits. 

Murray. 24 - 

Anew l)ook of travels by Mrs. Bishop'is one of tho 
few events in current literature to which even the reviewer 
looks forward with tmalloyed i>leasnre. l*'ver since — we 
will not say how long ago — Miss IsaMla Bird took flic 
public by storm with her adventures in the Rocky Motm- 
tAins. she has lield their unwavering affections. No oik- 
could help admiring her i)huk and resolution, her con- 
temiit of hardship"^. .'"hI (Icfi.incc of olisl.nlc-: whl'st. to 



January 29, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



99 



I 



men eHpocinlly, thfro is a potont tlinrm in lipr frank 
C'lmfiraderie, which Hharfs their jKMils, and jwxsihly 
«h«m»'H their ooiirage, but never let« them foryet that hIib 
is a woman. Another element in Mrs. Kislioj/H KuecesH an 
a writer of travels is her deliberation. She never " rushes 
into jirint "; there is no si;;n of haste in her work. She 
selects her country — an unknown anil dangerous one for 
choice — and, once there, notiiinf^can turn her back till she 
has fully and minutely carried out her jjlan of exploration. 
Mrs. Bishop never hurries; she possesses invincible 
patience; anrl when her journey is done its reconl will 
be found to bo complete, balanced, and (»nsidered. 

In the present case her book represents threo years 
of study — three years sjn'nt chiefly in Korea itself, in 
such contact with the peo[>le as must have left almost 
nothing concealed from her close and accurate observation. 
^\'e may say at once that Mrs. Bishoj)'s gifts have not 
deserted her. She is as observant, as minutely faithful in 
(l(>tiiils, as syiufwthetic and as appreciative ns ever. If 
jwsnible, she is yet Tnore daring. Had she recorded no 
other adventure than her braving the deluge in Manchuria 
in the manner she did, and forcing her way in a gale 
to !Muk-<len over submerged villages, her courage would 
still be amazing. But the book is full of risks of every 
sort, and Mrs. Bishop evidently enjoys them in the sj>irit 
of the born cxjjiorer. We fidly expect to hear some day 
that her camp-bed and oil-paper carjiet have been com- 
fortably spread on the exact point of the North Pole, and 
that she will Ix? pleasantly satirical concerning the 
exaggerated ])erils of the Arctic Sea. If her new 
volumes are not so lively as some of her others, it 
is the fault of the subject. Journeying by Iwat or on 
horseback from village to village must be monotonous, 
when the villages are all alike, and the same primitive 
barbarism is seen in every hut ; nor could risky rapids or 
the unpleasant proximity of man-eaters furnish much 
("xciting material to so veracious a traveller ; since, how- 
ever alanning at the time, the rapids did not sink her, 
nor the tigers so much as show their tails. The interest 
of the book, apart from political and historical considera- 
tions, lies more in its careful description of an almost 
unknown country than in any very stiiTing or very 
amusing adventures. Humour, indeed, is curiously absent : 
-Airs. Bishop takes the Koreans too seriously and sj-m- 
])athetically to make fun of them ; and aj) for exciting 
passages, she is too accustomed to danger to care to write 
about them. 

As a picture of Korea and its inhabitants, however, 
the book will always be valuable. The traveller was 
exceptionally fortunate in the jieriod of her visits. Her 
original motive, we may guess, was the attraction of a 
country still comparatively unexplored, with the prosjject 
of cheerful rubs and satisfying dangers. But Jlrs. Bishop 
got more than she exi>ected. She came in for a sweeping 
revolution. Between her first visit in 1894 and her fourth 
iu 1897, Korea had suffered rebellion, invasion, nsur])a- 
tion, protection, and theoretical reformation. At the 
beginning she was able to depict the old r&jime, with its 
gorgeous barbaric ceremonies, its frankly oriental govern- 
ment, its cruelty, its superstition, its " grooviness," and 
j>ervasive corruptness. In her last chapter she describes 
the changes which Jajmnese initiative and Kussian 
adoption have already begun to work in the ancient ways i 
of Korea. One has but to contrast the picture she draws 
of Seoul on her first arrival with the picture it presented 
on her depaiture to realize what wide reforms, in external 
matters, have followed upon revolution. In 1897 !Mrs. 
liishop says she could not find in the capital a good 



healthy slutti of the old S>oul tyjie to pbotogrvph. Mr. 
M'l>"nvy Brown had Ihh-u too quick for her I 

Seoul, in m»iiy imrta, iiHtoially in th« <lir«<Hinn nf tht •otiih 

on 



ilia 

I ml 

of 



'1 a 
itr 



^iiitj k<f ^11. 



lilt 
Im' 

wl. 

will: . . 

loil;.'' 1 :|>8 " for 

broiiil, :■ 'M. " I'xi  

noar fiituru, yiv] 

Frem;h liotui in .> 

nr«ct«d . . . uuil S«uiil n 

now on tin way to twin;' tli'- eli' 

oxtraofl n Ui« •*■ 

is duo t' ;y nf tin- 

Cuatoiii.t, ir I iiy thr , 

of tho city, !i!, who 1 

wor'  - ' '■ afTaim in m 

roF' to tako any • 

inii , ™j..,j,' that it waa u.*, 

Hrown. 

Tliese improvements certainly read'. '' 

Mrs. Bishop's graphic description of th« : of 

the towns and villiiges of Korea. 'I !ly 

primitive land would seem to d ..t a 

i/ogi and the tem|>er of an archangel. As one reads on, 

the ixjssibility occurs to one that the traveller ir fgjj 

the invaluable gift attributed to a distinguish. ter 

to Peking, the gift of sustained, sil " ,n. 

It must bean unsiK-akable relief i .,n 

travelling, a.s Mrs. Bishop did lur ^onie time, witli an 
innocent young missionary for a comjanion I In the first 
place there are usually no roads, in any ordinary sense of 
the term, no bridges, nothing worth <;dling an inn. Vou 
sleep in n pajier-walled, windowless comjiartment (if you 
can find one to yourself], hardly ' i your 

bed in, on a floor swarming wii ,-, and 

heatinl to suffocation by underground dues. The whole 
IK>pulation endeavours to survey your toilet and try on 
your " things." The night is enlivened by the prowling 
of tigers and the srpiealing and fighting of the 
characteristic stallions of the country, stabled next door. 
The early morning is cheered by the a^ of the 

entire village to admire you again, and by t , of the 

women drawing the drinking water from the well in the 
middle of a reeking, pestiferous yanl. Payment for this 
entertainment must be made in copjjer cash, of which 
3,200 go to a dollar, so that it takes six nil ](» 

worth of money. .Mrs. Bishop had to use as 

ballast for her boat ; there wils no other way ol it. 

Footl was not always to be procured, and dii ,_ a 

precarious meal, except in the pheasant season, when the 
birds are obtained in great numbers by hawking, and can 
be bought at 4d. apiece. Toujonm prrdn'jc, however, u 
proverbially disenchanting, and it is the same with the 
pheasants <ind chickens and eggs of Korea. 

There are redeeming features, nevertheless, in this 
monotony. Mrs. Bishop ha^ probably seen nearly all the 
famous views upon earth, yet she is alile to rrrow enthu- 
siastic Ujwn the subject of Korean :i 
she visited the quaint seclusion ol 
Diamond Mountains, which provide the same ornni 
contra.st to Seoul that the Blue Mountains do to S; 
except that they are very much hanler to get to. ^\ 
of the torrent-lxxl above (*hang-an Sa, in this romauii. 
region, Mrs. Bishop says : — 

Surely tho beauty of that 11 r 
where on earth. Colossal clilTs. 

;;nil gray gleaming peaks, rifte<l to >;ivc i 

maples, otttimos contracting till tho 1 ;i 

uairoweil to a strip, boulders of pinkgraniic lutt. anU Xtt. hi^h. 



100 



LITERATURE. 



[January 20, 1898. 



pinM on tboir erosto and fenis aiid lilios in their orerices, roand 

which Um desr waters cwirl Wforo slidiiij; down ovi-r sinnoth 

■orfacee of pink ftranito to rvst a\«'liilo in doop pink pool.s, uhcro 

ther take :k 'Id gr«pn with tho Hash- 

iut Inatfe ' '< ovor whioli tlii' crystal 

Btre«m '-• " ' ■' •■ "liioli 

thedc >">'<. 

alTorli..- .... .^.-...i : , :_.' for 

determine' br IioIoh drilic<l )>y tho monks, niiil litteil 

with pegs :. v'l-ks wiili I>:iv ii'liif'-. or small slirinos of 

HodfuM dr. with n li.is-reliof of 

n<il(tlia. 4" i. rocks curve<l into 

1  -li otitlines are sof t«ne<l by moasea 

a- timber and fantastic {X'aks rising 
Ibiw 

The summer heaven's delicious blue. 

A dMcriptioD ctui lie onlv a catalopuo. The actuality was 
intoxieaung, a canyon on tiio graudest scalo, with every element 
of beauty pn-sent. 

Mrs. Hishop does not often "let herwlf go" in this 
rhapsodiia! f;i>hion, so we must believe in the witcher}' of 
the Diiunoml Mountains, the view of the "Twelve Thou- 
sand IVnV-." ami the i>ass of the "Ninety Nine Turns," 
] ' "over the bare shouklers of a bare hill into 

r 

From a purely practical point of view, too, the scenery 
of Korea is interesting. It is a magnificent agricultural 
••■luntry. When up thehithertounexplorcd Han valley,Mrs. 
]'■ Uision that this riverpiussesthrough 

«,. live parts of Korea. "The crops 

of wheat and barley were usually sui)erb ; it was no un- 
common thing to find from 12 to i 8 stalks as the produce 
of one grain." The land was carefully cultivated and 
cleared of stones and weeds, and " the climate, with its 
abandant, but not sujicrabundant, rainfall, renders irri- 
gation needle.«s, except in tho case of rice." "The soil 
is mo6t prolific, heavy crops being raised without the aid 
of fertili.sers." So in the north, on the Russo-Korean 
frontier — 

The V)lac'/C.rich soil.tlie pnxluct of ages of decaying vegetation, 
is alMiol * ' • ' ' ^^t all crops can bo raised on it. 

Itosifit - i.;r.il country, the rcfjion is well 

suited u>i ' inure were largo herds un the hills, 

and hay-st; itterod over tht- laiulHca]>o indicated 

alandance ( : ........ _ ,, Tne potato, wliicli flii!:rlsli, s mul is 

fre« from the disease, is largely cultivated. 

Tlie '■" ' to the development ol thi.> pro iuctivc 
country, vk , agriculture or in the working of its 

almost untouched mineral wealth and its coal mines, lie, 
according to Mrs. Bishoji, less in the character of the 
ji«ople than in the corruptness of the Government and the 
e\l '■ of tax-gatherers, officials, and nobles. The 

K nier i> hanlworking and understands his busi- 

nt-- ; 11 : t study of his condition when settled in 
liu- laii t' :. t >ry lias convincetl her that, under a wise 
Jrovemment, h<* is capjible of marked improvement. But 
in Korea be is the "ultimate sjKjnge" of the nobles — a 
conipulsorily idle class — and of the officials, who are 
!;■ and live at Seoul, leaving their work 

ii> \f- done by even more corrui)t and 

f;i The word which means " work" 

in ;. — : ;..an also "-loss" or " misfortune," 

and the synonym i» significant. The more a j)easant 
••ams. the more he i« (i<|ueezed, and the result is that the 
mnn who works harder than he need, or earns more than 
hi ' for his pain". H'-form 

tti  1 111 the coinitry cannot 

help developing enormously in ]irodnctiveness, and the 
]ieo](|p in indu.«try. cleanliness, and prosperity. The 
picture ahe draws of their present condition is certainly 
not eii. 

.a: als with the i>olitical questiou in a very 



moderate — ]>erhaps too moderate — spirit. She has seen the 
working of tlie recent n'volut ions, and has been lieliind the 
scenes mor(> tlian any traveller could jws.sibly c.xiK'ctto be. 
She has had long informal conversations with the King and 
liie late murdered (^ueen, of whom she writes with consider- 
able adniimtion, not ignoring herfaults; she has stayed in tho 
house of the Hrilish ("onsul-tJeneral, and iM'en in the c(ni- 
fidenceof many prominent actors in recent events, of which 
she relates the tragic history with force and in detail. Sir 
Walter Hillier himself endorses her credit in the clear and 
outspoken jireface he has written for her lx)ok. It will be 
remembered that it was Mr. Hillier who prepared the 
Chinese text of the first English treaty witli Korea — the 
treaty concluded by Sir Harry I'arkes at Seoul in 1883; 
and it was also largely Mr. Hillier's eflbrts that led to tin* 
appointment of Mr. Al'Ijcavy Brown, the man who has 
done more than seemed credible towards purifying the 
Augean stable of Korean corru])tion and malversation. 
In the preface, Sir Walter fully confirms Mrs. Bishop's 
conclusions as to the recent past and immediate future of 
Korea : — 

The nominal independence [he says] won for her by the force 
of Japanese arms is a privilege she is not fitted to enjoy, while 
she continues to labour under the burden of an adininiatration 
that is hopelessly and sujierlatively corrupt. The rule of mentor 
and guide cxtToised by China, with that lofty indifforenco to 
local interests tlint charactcrisioR her treatment of all her tribu- 
t.irios, was undertaken by Japan after the expulsion of tho 
Chinese armies from Korea. The otTorta of the Japanese to 
reform some of tho most glaring abuses, though somewhat 
roughly applied, were undoubtedly earnest and genuine ; but, 
as ifrs. Uishop has shown, exjiericnce was wanting, and one of 
the Japanese agents did incalridable barm to his country's cause 
by falling; a victim to tho spirit of intrigue which seems almost 
inseiarablo from the diplomacy of Orientals fin Iosh diplomatic 
words, Miura corrupted the guard, murdered the yueen, and 
made the King a prisoner]. Force of circunistance.M oonipollud 
Russia to take up tlie task begun by Japan, tho King having 
appealed in his desperation to tho Russian Representative for 
rescue from a terrorism which might well have cowed a stronger 
and a braver man. The most partial of critics will admit that 
tho jKiwerftil influence which the prusence of tho King in the 
house of their Rei)rcsentative might have enabled the Russian 
Government to exert has been exercised through their Minister 
with almost disappointing moderation. Nevertheless, through 
tho instrumentality of Mr. M'Jjeavy Rrown, I/Ij.D., head of tho 
Korean Customs and Financial Adviser to the trovemment, an 
Englishman who^e preat ability as an organizer and adminis- 
trator is rocognized by all residents in the Farther East, the 
finances of tho country have been placed in a condition of equi- 
librium that has never before existed ; while numerous other 
reforms have been carried out by Mr. lirown and others, witli 
the cordiol support and co-operation of the Russian Minister, 
irrespective of the nationality of the agent employed. 

Tliis testimony to the serN'ices of Mr. Brown is 
peculiarly imjwrtant at tho jircsent moment ; but it is all 
that can be cited in favour of British influence during the 
recent convulsion in Korea. On the jMjIicy of the British 
Government Sir Walter Hillier jK'rforce is silent: !Mrs. 
Bishop also maintains great reserve on the subject; but 
she hiis dro])])ed one pregnant paragraph : — 

Tho ofracement of liritish political influence has Ixion ofTected 
chiefly by a policy of /<ii«jw:-/uut, which has prfKluced on the 
Korean minil the double impression of inditron-nco and feeble- 
noss, to which the dubious and hazy diplomatic relatitmship 
fcomhined with the China liegationj naturally contributed. If 
England l.os no contingent interest in tho political future of a 
country rich in umlevelojied resources and valuable harbours, 
and whose possession by a hostile I'ower might be a serious peril 
to her interests in the Far East, her ]H)licy during the last fow 
year* h^s boon a sure meth(Kl of evidencing her unconcern. 

Tho British Government appears to have l)een ns 
indiflferent to imjierial interests in Korea as British 
manufacturers have l>een to Korean trade, in which .Tapan 
has fairly worste<I them. The British mercantile flag is 
scarcely known in C'heinulpho roads. British interests are 



January 29, 1898.] 



LITERATIKK. 



101 



represented by a ConiiuKieneral, where other I'owem 

luive .MiniHters l{rsi lent or l'l(>ni|><)tciitiiiry. Tlie fuftiit' 
(It'stinicn of Koreji would .sccin to lie iK-tAvt-rn l{u.-<sia ami 
Japan, and of the two there is no (luection which Mrs. 
Bishop adiniren. Her vivid aciount of Vln<livostok and 
HuHHian ])rof;resH in its Pacific Kinpiro will be a revelation 
to many readers. Nevertheless, Ja]Min has not ahmdoned 
her lonj^j-coiisidered plans, which the over-zeal of Miura 
baffled for the? moment, and Kiissia does not apjK'ar 
anxious to take over Korea — her desij^ns are elsewhere, at 
present. There is an evident opening for a third Power, 
and it is not ditfieult to divine which Power Mrs. Bishop 
would like to see j)animount in the land she has brought 
so vividly before the eyes of her i-eadera. 



Twelve Years in a Monastery. Hv Joseph M'Cabe. 
8i;<oj|in., 2iJ<)|>|>. l^Mulon. 1MU7. Smith, Elder. 7.6 

This liook deserves the attention of any one who 
would study one of the most curious i)roblem8 of contem- 
porary history. The author, .Mr. M'Cabe, was, till very 
latt'ly, a Franciscan monk. He came to the conclusion 
that the doctrines of the ClimTh were not credible. He 
therefore resif;netl his position, and has here given an 
account of his experiences. He will, of course, be sus- 
pected by those whom he h.os left of allowing his i)ersonal 
grievances to colour his narrative. It is imixissible for an 
outsider to check his statements of fact ; for the interest 
of his book lies in the revelation of a mode of life of which 
Protestants know nothing, and of which even Catholic 
laymen can, as a rule, have but a very superficial know- 
ledge. It must, therefore, be taken as an ex parte 
statement by an interested i)erson, and it must be allowe<l 
that, granting the sincerity, we cannot assume the 
completeness of his statement. Any fair reader, however, 
will be convinced that Mr. M'Cabe is both an intelligent 
and an honest witness. He will not help the vulgar 
rhetoric which might tind favour in Exeter Hall. He 
gives such an estimate as is (|uite consistent with an 
appreciation of the intellectual anil the social greatness 
of the Catholic Church, and of the services which it has 
rendered in j)revious stages of history. On the other 
hand, he holds that its dogmatic system is committed to 
an hopeless struggle with rea.son, and that its institutions 
really corresiwnd to a state of society which has passed 
away. The book then may be regarded as a study of a 
vast and still enormously powerful institution, which is 
slowly losing its hold ujion mankind, and hampered in 
spite of vigorous efi'orts to retain its position by the 
necessity of keeping up an impossible conservatism. 

Many of us must have had a passing sense of wonder 
at the monastic institutions which have risen in the last 
generation. Besides the great orders, innumerabh' minor 
congregations are represented in London: ''Ohlates of 
Miiry" and of" The Sacred Heart," "Servites,"" Barnabites," 
''Mariots," " Passion ists," " Kedemptorists," and so forth. 
What should we see if we could tind admittance to the 
sacred precincts'? Should we discover the ideal ascetic: 
the holy man who has retired from a world unworthy of 
him to cherish celestial visions as a fit follower in the 
steps of St, Francis of Assisi ? Or, should we discover a 
mass of abuses, hyjwcrisy, sensuality, and mean intrigues 
of priestcraft in its ugliest form'? Mr. M'Cabe's reply is 
substantially that you would tind neither. The true saint 
may certainly be found, but he is a nirity; and here and 
there may be a scandal to his Order, but he corresjxiiids 
to the exceptional case to be found in any large 
body of men. What you would find is what perhaps one 



nhonld have ex|)ect«l to tijid — th« eotnrnonj 

:iian can i < • 

,il) of th<- - 
l)lace material put under very jM-cuiiar 
monk is jKirt of a va-st machinery nii><idu<'ii 
governed by an elalwrate code of laws. 
! ' I', Iwen as ii ruh' ' ' 

il enthusiasts 11! 
pulse which drove men U> hum 
spiritual exciUnnent is now compani 
has been attractetl, as Mr, M'Cabe was 
ecclesiastical school at a very early 
the meaning of celibacy could be in' 
His imagination is imjiressed by the carei r. 
begin. At the age of Ui he is allowed to ' 
vows, for which a disjjensation may lie gratitwl 
he has gone through his novitiate and may thf-n 



!■(■: 




...1 


The 
Riwl 


He 


•if. 

1 . 


in 


th« 

 f 




• f 




at 


1 


liim'-< 


' f; ,1- 







At 
take 



tie 



As he ha>i dnring the 

'e rarely fak< s 

Iff i* )vin<r 



" solemn " or indisi>ensable vows 

interval imbilxxl the spirit of his t 

advantage of this opjKirt unity for 

eilucatetl with a tlion'i: '. 

is unaj)proachable by > i • i i .• 

"Humanities" for some tive years; then he is imbuid 
with scholastic philosoi)hy for two more; and he afterwards 
is put through moral and dogmatic theology. He is 
supposetl to learn the general principles and the " ..f 

the code of spiritual law which he will have to ,. r 

in the confessional. According to Mr. M'Cabe, iii<ie.-il, 
this becomes for the mass a system of mechanical 
cramming. A lad of 20 c.innot really learn " philosophy,'' 
scholastic or other, in two years, but he may learn what are 
the projjer ])hnises to use in order to eva<le thinking. The 
novice, to<j, has gone through a strict ^ At 

Killamey, where Mr. M'Cabe was  day 

lasted from .5 a.m. till O.IiO p.m. Seven or eight hours 
were devoted to religious exercises.and discipline was main- 
tained by a system of humiliating ix»nances. The monk 
is tinally turned out a thoroughly finished article of its 
kind. What his life afterwards becomes in a Trii-ria^tery is 
the main topic of Mr. M'f'abe's IxKjk. 1! 
ployment in the way of hearing con; ,g 

masses, and Mr. M'Cabe, though he denies t!ie tnitli 
of certain vulgar Protestant prejudices, declares tli<> 
influence of the confessional to be anythini: but favour- 
able to moral refinement and elevation. L'l" d»ject 
he has some temperate but very forcible The 
monastic life,perhaps,strikes theprofanereai!' -i 

jwrtentous dulness and jn^ttiness, A small j.... - 

lors, mechanically drilled till all genuine intellectual 
siKjntaneity has been destroyed, is naturally foree<l to talk 
incessant " shop " (if we may use the i)hrase), to find 
amusement in a perjx-tual series of jx-tty jiersonal in- 
trigues, and to solace itself by such outside gossip :is is 
admissible, or by modest feasts which, though they do not 
lead to intemperance, are solaced by a vast quantity of 
beer in Belgium and by a fair allowance of whisky in 
I more mercurial Ireland, This, however, is tively 

a small jiart of the question. The eflect >; : the 

average human being into a mould, which v>-\'.' • 

the sjKmtaneous activity of men of romantic -a- ^ ■•< 

and abnormal spiritual elevation, is a curious subject of 
s{)eculation. l>ut ujxin that and ui)on many r[UPstior« ■;••• 
to the actual working of the Catholic system in Engli 1 
we can only refer to .Mr. M'Cabe's very curious book. It 
has the eflect of letting the common light of dny into a 
region genemlly seen, if seen at all, • ' t' 

romance, and that effect is far too i-are au' : 
heartily welcomed. 



102 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



L'Algjirie et La Tunlsle. Ttv Paul Leroy-Beaulleu. 
Secoctd Eilition. ]{«-\ixtl and Iuil:ii>;r>i. O. l',iii.. UJl |>|>. 
Paris. ISDT. Qumaumin. Oft-. 

This u a ne»* edition of n book first iiublinhed ten 
jears ago, but so elaboratoly revi^xl and eulargoil tliut it 
has become essentially a lu-w work, and n.s such constitutes 
at {tresent the mo«t iH>m]itete and lucid exjiaxition of 
 T -Mble. M. Paul 

1 , ;;-t, 1807, hut the 

1  Uii- Ani;li.»-Tuiii>ian tivuty of this year, 

vi ,. r.''^'*^ on the 18th of September. The additions 

amount to some hundnnls of fresh pages and attest the 
care »ith which M. Paul Leroy-lJenulieu — in spite of his 
active duties as editor of the EcouoinisU Frain'ais and 
! " t' ' ion of other works, and in 

1 imd Practical Treatise on 

I'oiiiical Kconomy " — ims followed the development of 
the two great French colonies of North Africa. For the 
last twelve years M. Paul Leroy-Iieauli«*u lias six"nt 
<•'' *' or the autumn in Tunis or Algeria. 

! :e, is not a compilation at second-hand. 

>\t-r, no one familiar with tiie best thought and 

iig of France is ignorant of the quite unusual 
power of clear exjwsition which characterizes all the 
members of this talented family of great economists. 

On the whole, in spite of his preface, M. Paul Ijcroy- 
T- iimi.'>tic with regard to French colonization 

i.. - ra. His great wish is that France shall be 

jmtient. 

Tkcro will still be phosphates fsays he to his cotintrTinen] 
in our Trans-nicilitciTaiifau ]Kjsscs->i»ns wkon there is no longer 
ar.T gold in the South African bearings. 

But he does not hesitate to state the truth, the sober, 
pessimistic truth, w hen occasion offers ; and tliis very 
question of the Algerian phosphate ap[>('ars to him such 
an occasion. 

TfiL- bureaucratic in.inia fsays he] hampers Algerian 
<' 't. . . . Aft in 00 ycai-s of our occupation, 

• : h thr soil of A vo for a fi>w iron bearings, liad 

1 ' iiiincral resources, suddenly was 

<' at once considerable and unex- 

of general rejoicing, and instead 

every olietacic was thrown in the 

J iji' jealousy and envy of politicians 



i.t. 



jifcctcd. I 
nf facilita' 
way ' ' 

on tl. 1 the endless administrative fonuulas on the 

other j'iir:iii fi:cu-> to prevent the working of these natural 
treasures, or to limit tlio lieiiefiu to be derived from them. 
\\. ,-.. i^,..^f. errors to be ro{>cat«d it would Ihs to despair of French 
' 11. 

'liu- 1- Hitter and severe enough, and in general M. Paul 
Leroy-Beaulii'u does not mince his words in nnal3'sis of 
t' \ ria, which he considers to be less 

• 1870. 
A inents of the p<i[iulation [gays he] are in a 

■tite I  , al hostility and defiance, colonists, natives, and 
Jews. The administration also apjiears to bavo deteriorated. 

The new Govenior-(ieneral, M. Ix'pine, has certainly an all 
but in8Uj)erable task liefore him. IJut not all the book is in 
Si' ' . M. Paul licroy-l' '' i is a fearless 

]' iM>l tnitliful in hi- . c, becau.-<e he 

I '1 scientific mind. No one in 

I ' ^ (y than he. it is to be hojMjd 

that his book will l)e as widely read in his own country as 
-' - Kjund to be abroad. 



Raid and Reform. IJv A Pretoria Prisoner, Alfred 
P. Hilller, B.A.. M.D., CM. Willi Two i;.ss,iy> on ll.e 
N of Man in South Afric.-i. 0> r>i'in., xi'i. : ITiO iip 

I »«. Macmlllan. 6/-n. 

<V Mirary of books has been pnxluced by the 

•«citi' .. <• last yearn ID Koiitli Africa. " EvorybfKly 

who b anybody" in that livsljr country lias had hia say about the 



rai 1 and its consequences, and a goo<l many European travellers 
HI olxjervers have folt it a duty to record tlieir opinions. Not 
mi re than one or two of the works so pr(sluco<l, however, can 
lie thought at all likely to survive the moment of excitement 
which gave birth to them. Dr. llillier's little work can hanlly 
Ih) anp]M>seiI to bo amongst the lucky ones, if (with deference 
to Mr. Stephen) wo may hold that it is fortunate for an author 
to avoid oblivion. " Raid and Reform " tolls us little that is 
fre.sh, and wo gravely doiilit vhother Dr. Hillicr's abstract of 
Mr. Thoal'M historj' of the Transvaal was at all worth reprinting 
at this time of day. Dr. Hillior, who was onco Dr. Jameson's 
partner in practice, hanlly seems to appreciate the distinction 
in hittorical writing which should bo made between an opinion 
and a fact. His second chapter, which describes the circum- 
stances of Dr. .Jameson's raid and the abortive " rebellion " of 
Johannesburg from tho point of view of a member of the inner 
circle of tho Keform Committee, is more valuable. Dr. Hillier 
writes throughout as a strong partisan, yet ho a])narently strives 
to be i>erfoctly fair. Ho fully acknowledges the goo<l qualities 
of tho IJoei-s, though ho cannot see any reason for their strange 
dislike of the hardy financiers who had done so much for civiliza- 
tion in tho Transvaal by unseltishly develo])ing tho gold minus 
of tho lland. His' picture of tho Uitlandel-s as " an outraged 
democracy demanding tho common rights of man " is a little 
too high-llown, but evidently drawn in good faith. His account 
of the circumstances of the raid harmonizes in all essentials 
with that of Captain YouEghusband. Tho bulk of the Reform 
Committee, ho says, " with the excejition of a few of their 
number, of which I personally was one, were entirely ignorant " 
of the negotiations with Mr. RIumIos and his lieutenant. When 
Dr. Jameson's start was announcwl, its effect on Dr. Hillior and 
tho other initiated 

Was one, to use no atrongcr term, of BStoniRhment. They uw their 
plaiii' blown to the winds— tbcnwelvcs tliKcrt'dited and apparently dis- 
trusted by their ally— the worst |iossible hour for action forced upon 
thcin ; and to what end, for what i-cason ? 

Dr. Hillior suegests that tho reason was that Mr. Rhodes and 
his colleagues carried tho sound maxim, " Respico fincm," to 
an excess. He thinks that there was " too much lofty con- 
templation of tho end and an insufliciont consideration of tho 
means on tho part of all tho originators of tho Jameson plan." 
In this no one who is familiar with tho whole melancholy story 
can fail to agree with him. At tho same time, his spirited defence 
of his Johannesburg friends from some of the charges of 
cowardice and bad faith made too hastily against them deserves 
all respect. But tho most interesting chapter of Dr. Hillier's 
book is that which is taken from his prison diary. Tho three 
months which ho sjient in Pretoria (.iaol after the failure of the 
" revolution " are simply Init picturesquely describetl. After 
leave was granted for tho Reformers to be treated as political 
prisoners, their lot does not seom to have boon a very hai-d one, 
as ]>olitical jjrisons go. " The greatest drawback to our life," 
writes Dr. Hillior, " is tho throng; there are C3 of us all crowded 
together, and anything like oven momentary seclusion is almost 
impossible." This is a curious inversion of the general com- 
plaint of prisoners. However, foinl, books, and visitors were 
freely admitte<l to Pretoria (iaol and made tho life tolerable. 
Dr. Hillior 8tudio<l Plutarch and Macaiilay, and criticizes both 
authors at some length in bis diary. "The extremes of virtue 
and vice, crime and high nobility of character in these old Greeks 
and Romans are astounding heights high as hoavoii and depths 
deep as hell, as Oiiida puts it in reference to some of hor 
heroes." Klttewhere Dr. Hillier lamentx tho Hollander's 
ignorance of the literature of Whyte-Mclville and Shake8i>earo ; 
his taste is truly catholic. Among tho prison visitors was tho 
genial Mark Twiii I > »1i', took a characteristic "av ..f consoling 
the prisoners. 

Ho spoke of pri<'>n iiii- as in many respects tin I'lr u rxisti'nce, the 
one he liail erer sougbt, and ncrer found — healthy, undisturljcd, plenty of 
•epoae, no fatigue, no distraction— such a life a« enabled Bunyan tn 
write the " I'ilKrim's Progress," ami Cervantes " Don Quixote." 
. . . I''or hiiiuiclr (Hark Twain continued) be could conceive of 
nothing better than surb a life ; he would willingly riiange places with 



January '2'J, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



loa 



nny on« of u», anil, with luiob an opportanity «• InkI navsr yt b«rn offend 

liini, woulil write a iMxik — the book ■>( Iiih |it>. 

And ho wont awny ]>ri)iiii<iiii){ t<> (l<> his iHmt t<> get 
the aeiituiicos extended. Dr. Hillior's prixiii diary in an 
iiitoroxting d<>ciiiiioiit. Tlio OHauys mi tlio African stimo ago with 
wiiic-h his IxHik concludes are jileasant. Imt I'lcinontart'. 



Affirmations. By Havelock Ellis. '•> ."iiiu., v^i. 
l^mdon, ISIt^-i. 



Scott, 



T. 



" So far as i«>»sil)lo," runs tho friink confoH-sion of tho autbnr 
of this volunio, " I dwell most <>n those as|)Octs of my Nubjocta 
whicli are most questionable." Well, it is " po.H.sible " in 
•those days to go very far imleod in dwelling on these aspects, 
liut if tho world is now tolerant in its practice, it is as 
■crnsoiious as over in its judpments, and wo arc not surprised to 
loarn from Mr. Havolock KUis's next sentonoo ti:iit lie has 
•• oiioo " boon chargoil with having '• a predilection '" for tho 
iispects roforri'd to. " Assuredly it is so " is his calm 
•oonuaont on tiic imputation. 

If a Bubjcct ih nut nm;«tion«l>U-, it m-cins td me a wa»l<' of time to 
Klisciis.*! it. The ttieat fact:* of tile world are not iitie»tii>nal>le ; thme are 
Oiere for ua to enjoy or to iiulTrr in »ilene<', not to talk about. 
Nothing could Ik) truer as a pr(>ix)«iti<>n or more damaging as a 
•■;riticism on tho school of wrilors witli wliora Mr. Havolock Ellis 
must be cla830<l, and many of whom dovote their whole time and 
onorgios to " talking about " ono of tho most unquestionable of 
tho groat " facts of tho world " — tho fact of sex and ail that 
■flows from it. No ono phenomenon in tho whole range of human 
Xifo more exactly answers tho description given in the text, nor 
is there any of which tho vast mass of mankind — reasoning 
instinctively from an experience of many thousand years —more 
thoroughly rooogni/.o that tho blessings and tho curses in- 
aepsrablo from it should bo '• enjoyed and sutfcred in silence." 
Yot this, as we have said, is tho one phenomenon of life 
•which a cortoin fraction of tho very small '• literary " minority 
of the human raco endeavour, at all times and soasona, to compel 
lis all to discuss with them. We invito Mr. Ellid to consider 
this curious anomaly at his leisure, and esjiocially to examine it 
in relation to tho uuimiieachably sound proposition which wo 
Iiavo (piotod from his Preface. 

It is partly, of course, to bo accotinte<l for by that instinct 
■svhich tho author of " Aflirmations " shares with this school of 
■writers an<l which lie justifies by the characteristic sophism— or, 
at any rate, confusion of thought — which is to be discerneil in 
<iis nso of tho word •• quostionnble." For it is easy to see, of 
course, that ho has. in Parliamentary language, confounded the 
-' main " with " tho previous question." When we speak of a 
-subject of discussion as questionable, wo do not mean nierely 
that it raises ilisputiiblo issues : wo moan that it is open to qnes- 
•tion whether it should bo discussed at all. And honco Mr. 
Ellis's candidly avowed " predilection " for those subjects is 
iiot, as ho seems to implj-, a disinterested — or, at any rate, not 
an unmixe<l— passion for the settlement of controversies, but is 
"largely a natural or acquiro<l tasto for what tho unscientific world 
describes as " tho risky." And, like tho author of the " Studies 
in Frankness," a volume wo reviewed tho other daj- in these 
■columns, ho paj's the penalty of that predilection in a total 
loss of literary perspective and a derangement of his critical 
sense of " values." Mr. Whibley contemplates " tho frank," 
•that is the indecent, element in certain great, masters of litero- 
ture with so much intentness of interest, such prido of himself 
ill not being otl'endetl by it, and such contempt for the miserable 
'htiiiri/rni.i who is, that at last he persuades himself that the great 
•masters aforesaid are to bo honoured not in spito, but because, 
of their indecencies. 

Much the same thing has befallen Mr. Ellis in his study of 
.Jacques Casanova. Ho has so admiringly followed that impudent 
Tomanoer through the recital of his flagitious adventures that he 
i\ns at last arrive«l at an estimate of the literary and psychological 
•\alue of the " Meiiioires " which ho is much too capable a critic, 
And oven wo think, though this is more doubtful, too sound 
a psychologist, to have reache<l by any other route. " That this 



history is n«rT«t«<l h ^ 
hinuwlf," says Mr. I. 
Thi!), to begin with, atrikus lu aa r.i 

for tlioru ennnot bu many things Mill' k 

ua«rt«<l if it hod suitotl his purjKiM to do so. Moreuver, so far 
•s a writer's pur|H>so, not ux|ira«sly svowa<l, ran l>« ioforrad 
from his manner of writing, tho author of tlie " Mrutuirs* " 
(loos intend the reader to credit thcni witi> " prsciaicrti vl 
detail." Nor is it tho fact that " tliore is no reasun t<> 
doubt his go<Hl faith," and that " there is excvllsnt 
reason to accept tho aiilntantial accuracy of his narrative " 
nioro is Mlirayx 
riVc.i, whether t: 

is os|H)cially '* e.\celleiit reason for not 
stantial accuracy of a nonalive tho writer  : 
himself as tho hero of some extraordinary advoMtiiru on almost 
every (lago, and as having lieen continually l.ii.n ■].( ],v t.ni.. 
chance into contact with one colubrat«<l por^ 
in every country which ho visits. Hut tooloMto' » 

work of mysterious prmenanre, and tlio authenticit . has 

not yot been Olid is never likelv ' ' ' Jyostaoiinnea with 

" tho great autobiographic re tho a^roa haru li<ft 

us " is sheer extravagance. If, iiidcuU, tu U - 
ing is to bo " great," tho attribute of proa' 
catod of every work of scandalous »elf-i • 
been or ever will bo published. From t 
later volumes of the unoxpurgatod •' Pepys " aro uin 
"greater" than all the previous ones : although th> . .. ; 

more, but porhaps rather less, valuable as a picture of livstora- 
tion manners than their predecessors. Hut this does not rank tlie 
worthy ijecretar^* of the Admiralty amcng tho rare and precious 
spirits of tlio world. It does not, for instance, ret him beside 
St. Augustine or even beside Rousseau, with both of whom Mr. 
Ellis boldly classes Casanova, merely on tho ground that all 
three wore writers of " Confoisions." Casanova's place in 
literary history is at best by tho side of Cellini : and that agree- 
able cut-throat still awaits the ratea mi-er who shall elevate him 
to the preposterous position in the hierarchy of letters which 
Mr. Ellis has claimoil f..r tin. inbject of this too appri'^i.-ttiv.. 
" appreciation." 

The lucid and ioj^emous study of Frieili ' ' ^'  . iiio 
longest and, we have no doubt, most carefully-^ ; .■-.H.-vy in 

this volume— is also marred by the san Tiiin- 

the 6i:arr^, tho morbid, and even the ni ■- its 

own sake. Here, again, it is to be i is's 

interest in Nietzsche's views increases u to 

the mental abcrrtition of their author. The more plainly they 
foreshadow tho ho{>eless <leincntia by which that unfortunate 
philosopher has been overtaken tho more deeply they seem to 
impress tho critic, and tho concluding passage of his essay signi* 
ficantly indicates his final point of view : — 

It is a miuolatiott to many — I have nrpo it ro >tatr<l in a rr«prrta>I<- 
rrvi<-w— that Nietxschc went mad. No iluubt aliio it wax once a comola- 
tiiin to many that Swrate.i wa.^ puinoiml, tb.'>' '. that 

Bruno was burnt. But hi'nilook anil the cros« ->nT 

wea|>oni« against the might of iileas even in in"^*- lui^^. ai' i torrr ix no 
reason to sui>pose that a doctor's rrrtifioate will be more effectual in oar 
own . 

Wo do not know what was the " respectable review " to which 
Mr. Ellis refers, but we would undertake to say at a venture that 
ho quite mistakes tho imjMirt of its remark. Assuredly he mis- 
conceives the spirit in which humane and rational men m 
a quite legitimate assent to it. There is a sense in v 
proved insanity of the propounder of anarchical bti! ! ; ; i. lnv 
theories of human life and conduct must alwa^ - .\;,ii >:i<>nl<l 
always *' console " his fellow-men ; and that not becanss, as 
Mr. Ellis seems to imply, it may be regarded as a jndgnMnt on 
the wickedness of his opinions, but because it may be taken as a 
proof of their unsoundness. Mr. Ellis continues : — 

Xietiscbe has met, in its most n^Ienlless form, the fate of IVaral oa^ 
Swift and Rousseau. That fact may carry what weight it will io any 
final estimate of his plac« as a moral teacher ; it caaoot toodi hi* 
position as an aboriginal force. 



104 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



No doobt : hot iIixm not Mr. Ellii sec th«t the (U«fr««ilillng of 
th« man «» a iiioral t«achcr is the vory soiiroe of the " i-ojiBola- 
ikMi " agaituit which ho tut ituliciiantly vxclaims .' What exactly 
h» ■— «  by the t«ach(>r°8 position " as an atmriginal force 
remaining untouohMl is not quite clear : but, if it merely moanR 
that tbe insanity ol Swift doee not detract from our admiration of 
the literary ^.-cnius dis]ila7P<I in the "Voyage to the Houyhnhnms, ' ' 
w* agree. Yet aaroly it is a relief to know that the view of 
hoMHi nature rvvealml in that famous satire was not tho iirntlmt 
of a aane mind. 

This " obaecaion *' of the abnormal— to use a favourite 
ex|imaion of Mr. Kllis's school— is the more to lie re- 
gretted, because, wherever he is able to free himself from it. tho 
au t hor of " ilflinnations," at all times an eminently readable 
writer, reroals himself as an acute and sagacious critic and a 
thinker of no httlo spec ilative power. In his essay on Zola 
and, to some extent, in that on Huysmnn, ho has fortunately 
•oooaeded in emancipating himself from the besieging influence, 
and tiie welcome result is to be found in two admirably sug- 
geativ* atodiea, which makes us all tho more gravely deplore Mr. 
Klli«' •••>n at other times to his '• lixc<l idea." The desire 

to es.. jiower of discussing repel Ipiit subjects without any 

signs of ix'pugnance is usually a wuukness of literary youth. It 
is aldn to the propensity of the young medical student to dis- 
cr neert the shuddering layman by minute accounts of the apjwll- 
in^ surgical operations which he has himself witnegse<l with un- 
shaken nerre. But 3Ir. Havelock Ellis, as there is internal 
•ridMice to show, is a man of mature years, and should long since 
baTaoatgrown this little foible. 



Voces Academicas. By O. O. Robertson, M.A., Fellow 
of All S<>uls College. 6| x 4in., viii. -t 2UI) pp. I>>ii.l<>ii. |S!»S. 

Methuen. 36 

Mr. Robertson's " Voces" will undoubtedly be a severe 
shock to persons who only know tho Oxford of 30 years ago ; 
probably they will at once remove their names from the books of 
their respective colleges. Better so (they will ray) than to be 
invited to a f.'audy and tlien f nd yourself cluck by jowl with 
dons whoso eoi» intere-.'s apparently are (ea |arties in North 
Oxford and feminine fashions ! Here, for instance, is a snatch 
of convcrfoticn on the cricket ground : — 

FiasT Don [noiictiaUntlyJ.— Oh! I'm merely goiuR intolhe inrlonuri' 
to pay »py rf «|K cts to Mn. Circe. I hIjihttp tliat, like f'ntherine ilc 
IfMliei. ihe hu her "Flying ."vnudron" with her, an<l I ««nt to inspect 
ber latest attnctiTe recruit. Sbe rombinen, }ou know, eompulsor}- 
romeription with the ■<lraotages of the voluotary ayatem. 

8EC0NU IhtS. — t'lnt rxyrrimmlum .' Let me know the resulu. So 
far, the gitU fhe Ixi b»i up tbia t«rm have lean very uninteresting, 
mainly the pink and »hile tailor-made tyye from Kennington, or lUc— 

PiKMT Don [thouKhtfully).— Yea, I f<ar Mn«. Circe i« gettin|t into 
tbe f€Ufit ataxe. When they bexin to indn'ge in rif/ae nociety of the 
■rrioaa claaa, it meana that the peoitci.tial [.eriod ia not far off. 

In a like vein the Fellow at tho Eights is learned on the 
subject of •' Bows at the back of the neck," "Chorles Nil. 
collars," not to mention bodices and skirt bunches. Wherever 
the don plays his part in " Voces Academicie " it is always the 
same ; be is hovering round the beauties (generally the 
married ones) of tho Parks ; as for the Common Room society 
of a former generation, rpi srently it is regarded as extinct. At 
least, its existence is scarcely hinted at by Mr. }U>liert8on. We 
can hardly suppose that the subject was too sacred for a writer 
who has pried into the innermost sanctum of a ladies' college ; 
it is td be f e re I that tlie ancient collegiate life is now con- 
sidered as a ne;;ligiblo sajiect < f modem «»xfotd. Aidni tcinim, 
autrts maiira. Within living memory a Follow of the old r^'/imr 
lias been hear J to mantain that the conversation of gentlemen 
knows but three subjects— wine, women, and horses. His modem 
Booosasor retains tho second topic, with a difference ; but for 
win* and horsrs he reads (rarniwts an<l bicycles (made for two). 

Nor is the undergraduate any IkIUt than the don : in fact, 
ba is worse. He, too, sports with .\marylliH, and singes his 
winga at tba candle of mors or leas raihl flirtation. Even in tlie 
aatrcd pncinets of an undergraduate club he must needs btt live 



to one in half-crowns on the sire of a lady's waist. A group of 
men outside the schools on the morning of an examination talk 
atxnit hardly anything except tlio lady candidate!*. In short, hi.s 
only liooks are women's looks, and slang of tho latest and most 
vulgar description is all thdy teach him. Seriously, tko 
I'niversity has a right to consider itself libelled. One can only 
hope that the world will accept these liramatis itemoitir as freaks, 
not ty]<es ; for certainly tho priggish and epicene Follow and 
the incredibly slangy and un|>lcasantly amorous undergraduiUo 
cannot yet claim to be representative of Oxford. 

Mr. Hobcrtsin is a coricaturist who is alwaj-s corica- 
turing tho same thing ; ho is engrossed by the Eternal Fominim-. 
It is true that this may l>e said of tho " Dolly Dialogues " : 
but " Anthony Hope " is justiticd by his skill ; while Mr. 
Robertson is as yet but a moderate artist. We have been taught 
by the Ansteys and Hopes of our tlay to require something 
better than mere caricature. Mediocrity in " Voces " is no 
longer tolerable ; and " Voces Acadomicio " rarely rise above 
tho mediocre. They ore smart and iwcasionally — onlj* occasionally 
— funny ; but tho fun is rather forced ; it is not good enough to 
comneiisato for a certain -ignorance of what shouhl and] what 
should not bo said. Tho author has learnt something from tho 
works of lii.s jiredecessors ; but ho has still to learn that wit is 
desirable, tliut lightness of touch is indis^ ensable, and that it 
is possible to amui^o without transgressing the limits of good 
taste. 

The Ruins and Excavations of Ancient Rome. A 
Companion B<M)k for Studont.s and Triivollfrx. Hy Rodolfo 
I.Ancianl. 8x5iin., xiii. i UU pp. l^ondon and New Voik. 
1SU7. ' Macmlllan. 16 - 

Professor Lanciani is so well known to Engli^ll students and 
travellers that his name is a sullicicnt rcoomnunidation of this 
handbook. With an unrivalled knowle<lge of Romon topography 
he combines the power of expressing himself succinctly and yet 
in an interesting way. The method which he adopts of disposing 
his complex material is, if not consistently ecionlific, at least 
admirably suited for tho requirements of tho visitor to Rome. 
The arrangement approaches the guide-book foiiii. and at the same 
time tho volume may be regarded as supplementing rather than 
Bupcrsodiiig the author's " Ancient Rome in the Light of Recent 
Discoveries." An intrrMluctory book on the physiograjjliy of tho 
city and what may bo callc<l its framework -its drains, aqueducts, 
walls -is followed by a l>ook dealing with the I'alatino. Tho 
third book takes the reader along the most fascinating of all 
streets — the Sacred Way. Tho fourth describes tho remainder of 
tho city according to the fourteen rcyionei into which it was 
divided. Finally, there are useful lists of the existing monu- 
ments, of tiio Roman Emperors, tho I'ojtes, the varieties of 
ancient marbles, and tho like. The descriptions in each section, 
partly historical, partly technical (yet not too technical for the 
reader of average intelligence), are accompanied by illustrations 
and B»lmirably clear plans and followed by bibliographies which 
tho most advanccil students might profitably consult. Such a 
map as that of tho ancient parks and gardens is worth pages of 
text. 

The method of tho book Iwing, as wo havo said, good, 
criticism must concern itself with tietails. Where tho author 
discusses the monuments ot sculptiu-o which tiavo l)een foimd in 
the course of excavations, or are known to have decorated ancient 
sites, it is occasionally evident that ttiia is not liis strong point. 
Tho sculptor .-Vrkesilaos (wfioso date might have l>eon mentioned 
instead of merely Iwing implieil) did produce a Venus <ienitrix ; 
but with reference to that statue ono would l.avo liked to see 
some notice, even if cmdemnatory, of tho theory that tho type 
goes back to .\lcamenes. Again, the inscripti<ms up\s fidke and 
opvs rKAXiTELis staro us in tho face from the {lodostals of tho 
Dioscuri, as illustrated on i>age i'Xi : and a word as to the worth 
of the ascription, with jiossibly a warning reference to Furt- 
wiingler's view, would not havo 'ooen out of seoson. The Ixtauti- 
ful relief from the Ludovisi throne has Vioen discussed, 
though briefly, in tho " Journal on Hellenic St'.idies " in a pa{*r 
apparently unknown to Pr<jfessor Lanciani. In the list of Roman 



January 29, 1898. J 



LITERATURE. 



105 



Kmpororn at thu on<l of tho Vjook we notice »i<>m« ali(;ht i>mi*ai<>n», 
iiunh an tho names of Uraniua Ant4>ninua, anil avvoral nthurn, who, 
howovur, hanlly oono'jrn tho hiatory of the city. Tho appcoclix 
on tho Itomaii coiiiagii i» miHioiuling. From it the render mif^ht 
nuppoao that tho Roman coppor (or rather bronjw) ooina(;u Uirhh 
in tho earliest p>'iio«l of Roman history. Aa a matter of fact, 
until tlio fourtli century, ii.r., the Romana uii«<l no ciiiua);eat nil, 
Imt only nmanoH of mot:il th.it circulatotl by weight. Tradition 
m.iy l>o against this view, but the extant coins are a Uitter ^uide 
to tho truth. Tho stiUimont that the want of a gold currency 
before Julius Cmaar was auppliotl by " Oroek I'liilippi " ia loia 
than half accurate ; foreign coina wore rogardo<l by tho Roiiians 
loco mercM, and tho ovidonco of fnida shows that the only form in 
wliich gold circulated waa in uncoined bars. If wo mention small 
points of thia kind, it is chiefly beoause we fool that on questions 
of topography -tlu) main subject of tho book— no criticism is 
rei]uiro<l. For tho now eilition, which will hardly tarry long, we 
may suggest throo things. First, that tho book l>e revised by an 
English hand, and such quaint phrases as •' kingly perio<l " anil 
•• designed " (for tho sketching ot an ancient monument by a 
niodorn artist), not to spnak of worse solecisms, be remo(re<l. 
Secondly, there should Ih) a general index. For instance, there 
is no moans of discovering whore the three pieces of sculpture we 
have mentioned are descrilwd. Finally, one moat valuable source 
of nvulonce— the contemporary coins- -has not l>een drawn upon 
f.ii- illustrations. Such representations of ancient buildings as 
occur, for instance, on Trajan's coins are as valuable an 
Uonaissanco skotches. In any case, whoie coins aro mentioned 
tliev should not bo called " medals." These few changes would 
leave the book in most ro-sptscts a moiiol one. 



HISTORICAL BIOGRAPHY. 



Oharles the Great. By Thomas Hodgkin, D.C.L. 
V^XJ^Jin., X. i 2.">1 pp. Ixindon and Nt'W York, l.S!»i. 

Macmillan. 2, 6 

Tliough Mr. Hodgkin's reputation as iin historian 
wiLS made by his great work " Italy and Her Invaders," 
he can, i\» he proves here, not for tlie first time, write a 
little book excellently well. The picture that he gives 
us of his subject, though on a small scale, is complete, his 
treatment of it broad and effective, and his narrative by 
no means lacking in picturesque detail. It is impos.«ible 
to form a satisfactory estimate of the character and work 
<if Charles the Great, or ('lmrl(>magne, without some 
knowledge of the achievements of the earlier members of 
his house, and Mr. Hodgkin has accordingly traced their 
history from the time of Pippin of I.rfinden and Amulf, 
the two Austrasian nobles that were foremost in the over- 
throw of Hrunechildis. This introductory sketch is not the 
least interesting or valuable ]i;irt of his volume, and we 
cnnnot wish any of it away, though, a.s it takes up alx)ut 
a third of his pages, it certainly leaves a disproiKtrtion- 
ately small sjmce for the biography of his proper hero. 

The three chief jiolitical events of Charles's reign are 
,«tated here as the conquest of Italy, the consolidation of the 
l""rankish kingdom, and the revival of the Empire. While 
cDiiimending the King's conduct with regard to the king- 
dom of Italy as wise and statesmanlike. Mr. Hodgkin 
])oints out that he committed an error which liore bitter 
fruit in after times in failing to define the position of the 
Pojie in the territories granted to the Roman See by 
himself or his father. In speaking of Charles's extension 
of the Frankish jMswer, which gave the Teutonic race its 
supremacy in Central Euro[X', he notes the imjwrtance, 
not infrequently' overlooked, of the subjugation of Bavaria. 
It prevented the separation of (iermany in medieval 
times into a northern and a southern kingdom. The 
l>olicy of Tassilo, the Bavarian Duke, in holding aloof 



from the affairs of the kingdom, t : in the 

attainment of indeiM^ndenie, uixi . n ««• 

thi-refore a more rnomentouj< event •> cnn- 

n{ till- SaxonH, w! ' Id !,■ ' .-n 

1 M>M)ncr or later. ,ii w.i . .-a 

c.i! "i-d wilii g'xxl jui; ili« 

en .^^K' are relat<*<i in a ^ , . 'wl 

the continuance of the war is kept before the remder'B 
mind by references to it elsewhere. 

In an interval in this long otruggle Ciiarlen led hi* 
army on the exjK'dition into -  ' " ||, 

song for the disaster at h .in 

argues with much force that, tiiougli tiie ) doulit^ 

less pleaded to he marching against < of the 

Cross, the determining motive of his invasion was not 
religious; that he thought most of the ■■: ^ ifjr 
offered him of extending his king<lom at the of 

the Mussulmans. The later S|i;i :s of hi- 

may, it is suggested, have ]•;■.• the S.' 

from crushing the infant kingdom of the Asturii:-. 

In the revival of the Empire the glories of tin- reign 
reached a fitting climax. Some interesting remarks will he 
found on the influence that the Engli-i ' ' '' i he 

heir, through the School of '\'ork, of V. !e, 

evidently exercised in bringing alKiut tln^ i-.»-nt. Tiiul the 
act of I /CO. III. was displea.siiig to Charles is now generally 
allowed, and Mr. Hodgkin thinks it probable tliat Cliarles 
not only foresaw that troubles would arise from the prece- 
dent of a coronation by the Pojje, but had 8carc«'ly 
determined whether it would Iw wise to a.ssume the 
imj)erial dignity. This is, we think, going too (ar; his 
annoyance may sufficiently and more safely be accoiintefl 
for by a not unwarranted feeling that the Pojie tcok too 
much u]x}n himself in thas suddenly and on his own 
motion crowiiiug bis mighty protector as Emperor of the 
Romans. 

Charles's character and private life, and his work 
in promoting literature aiul science, are plea^nntly 
described. We notice one sliji of little consequence ; th<> 
Eanbald who sent Alcuin to Rome was f! <• • • -f'* •'■•■ 
second, Archbishop of York of that name. 

The True George 'Washington. Bv Paul Ford. 
8i > ."lUn., :j11» pp. Ivondoii, 1KU7. Lippincott. 7j6 

Martha 'Washington. By A. H. 'WTaarton. 7} • 5in.. 
xiv. rSiXJpp. lA>ndon, I8I/1. Murray. 5- 

The title of tho first of these books may perhap* rrnatA tumio 
unfoundetl expectations. It might snggMt a : 'T 

an iconoclast in contrast to a false George Wa- : »g 

hitherto figured in history. Nothing is further (rrm the pur|Mi«p 
of Mr. Ford's work. It contains no revelation of !.ict. It pnts 
forth no theories at variance with those which have hitherto 
passed current. Tho truo Washington in the author's sense 
might best be paraphrase<l aa \Va.shington iu undress. The book 

is an estimate of Waehington's character, snpy'- ■—.to that 

whicli has been forme<l by historians, and ba •,■ on his 

private life, though of nccussity not wholly cxi; i' ' lie 

career. For with Washington al>ove almost any >if 

history tho two aro in their essence idi • nd 

directness of character, self-revelation, now 1 a 

certain reserve, were as much the loadin: ;- 

ten in private life as they were among ti • iis 

public strength. 

It has lieen said that Wa.'hington waa more nearly vtnpid 
than any great man ever was. " Stupid " ia a pomcwhat vague 
wonl. bat it must be a strange application of it which can in- 
clude the practical, clear-heaileil soldier, statvsoian, and man 
of basincsa, who always ha<l a purjiose and  mcanir ' '.U\ 

always translate that meaning into definite an<l 1 n- 

gnage. But if stupid m*an commonplace, there :> a sensu in 

8 



IOC 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



whioh th* eharg* is tnio. £v< ' intcl- 

lMte*l gifU may bo fouml iii ch d mun 

who ha«« l«(t no miett nark. Thatwlii>h<< »«i iiim was 

that happUf-baUaoed oombinmtion of tiu-i.l t lie mixture 

of eonoantnition ami aolf-roatraint with uhich thoy wero applied. 
Tbiii maj prarent the book from rising to any very high point 
of biographical int«rMt. But it is very far fron> romlering it 
valuataM. Th« rory unity of character which makes Washington 
from OB* point of view somewhat unintcrosting makes from 
•BoCiMr hie private life a profitable matter of stiuly. 

Two eoaditions wt>rc neo<1fal to ^fr. Fonl for the success of 
his work, a just estimate of his hero's character, nnd not less a 
jtwt estimate of the relations of his own work to the wider field 
«< history. Neither are wanting. Mr. Fonl has ma<]e no strainotl 
elTortii after originality in a field so well worn and so oh\-ion8 
that originality was impossible. Ho has made a full and careful 
study of contemporary authorities, aii<l ho has not nse«l his 
knowledge to ahow his learning or to discuss the history of the 
 Beirolution. but for the one definite pnrposo of illustrating the 
^■racter of his hero. There is nothing specially attrnctivo 
about the style nf the book, but it is unpretentious ond business- 
like. Tlie merely i>opular estimate of Washington does, perhaps, 
need to be modified. The wise and blameless hero did not lock 
sympathy with the taates and pursuits of smaller men. Mr. 
Ford reminds us that Washington enjoyc<l, though ho <lid not 
abuse, the regular amusements of a Southern planter— field 
sports, the turf, tlie card table. Mr. Ford reminds us, too, 
how naturally vehement and impulsive was the temper to which 
the curb of that strong will was applied. When Leo's cowardice 
and treachery endangered the national cause, Washington excitod 
the enthusiasm of an admirer by " swearing like an angel from 
Heaven." Necessity may have made Wa.shinpton'.s fcictics 
" Faliian ;" hut Mnrat lea<ling a cavalry charge did not delight 
more in fighting for fighting's sake. Washington was at times 
precipitate in his judgment of men, and disappointment and 
reaction followed. Arnold's treason would have hardly been 
■ooh a cmahing blow— at least, on the personal side of it— if he 
had rightly gaugo<l the nature of that soldier of fortune. The 
ooooeption of a non-party Cabinet was an attrnctivo and oven a 
noble one. But the attempt to include in it men so alike in 
their ambitions, so diverse in all things else, as Hamilton and 
Jeffonton was the scheme of an optimist, foredoomed to failurn. 
Yet it is no paradox to say that these infirmities of temper 
and judgment should raise one's estimate of the man alike as a 
•oldier and a statesman. Only tho firmest purpose and the 
•trongeet confidence in himself and his ciurse could have led 
aoch a man to wait and trust through all the folly and inertness 
of Congress, the treason and selfishness of his fellow-citizons. Mr. 
Ford shows tluit if Waahington was in a certain sense on 
idealist, as a man who clung persistently to great aims, yet ho 
had also iu him an element of opportunism, of that opportunism 
which practical politics must begot in a man of no acute sensi- 
liTOnees whom neither nature nor training had mode fastidious. 
The maxims of statecraft wore there, though stat<>d not epigram- 
matically, Imi «it)i ""mr.what homely and cumbrous common- 



I  ' licnt to yield to 

>i, tbu« to Bvoiil 

wi.cii 111 apolitical view 



fart wit I 

* » •"». ■■•* ■' V-"' irt<|UC*Dt *li'i U"»t'i|l Ul IIBtl' I 

onffat to be kept * little bebiud the rortain. 

He oonid propitiate an inconvenient adversary by the 
ofTur of a post which hu knew would bo refused ; ond in his 
< arididatorc for the burgcas-ship of the Virginian Assembly ho 
• oiild use the customary electioneering methods to tho full, 
aecuro tho influence of " tho county boss "—as Mr. Ford calls 
him, we imagine by anticijiation and run up a bill of nearly 
fTiO for drinks to voters. 

The biographer of Martlia Washin;.'ton is less fortunate in 
her subject and, |«rha[i« as a consoqucure, less satisfactory in 
lioc treatment. If Washington's taJites, habiU, l>cliefs, and. in 
many points, his thoughts were thoee of an ordinary Nirginian 
planter, ereo mora was Mrs. Washington the onlinary Virginian 



gentlewoman, somewhat narrow, sensible, strong in the self- 
reliance aiul publio spirit which lielong to a society such as 
the plantar aristocracy of old Virginia. Hero and thore, indeed, 
Miss Wharton has had the opportunity of bringing in interesting 
biographical reminiscences arising out of her main subject. Such, 
for example, is tho epitaph of John Curtis, the father of Martlia 
Washington's first husband, who took posthumous vengeance on 
a nagging wife by on epitaph recording that he died " Aged 71 
years and yet lived but seven years, which was the space of time 
ho kept a l)aclielor"s house at Arlington." Miss Wharton, too, 
like A(r. Ford, has shown that businossliko exactitude as to 
dota'ls and that freedom from florid vagueness winch mark so 
many of the historical monographs now written in Aniorioa. 



Sir Henry 'Wotton : a Bioffmphlcnl skii.h. Hy 
Adolphus William Ward. 7ix4Jiii., 172 pp. W.-.siniiiis(<T, 
18UH. Constable. 3/6 

Sir Henry Wotton was certainly one of tlie ' ' worthies ' ' of 
the reign of .Tames T. Moderately distinguished in tho fields of 
literature and iliplomacy, he is better known as the author of 
" Vo Meaner Beauties of tho Night " and as tho friend of Isaac 
Walton, than as tho diplomatist who was tlirico Ambassador ot 
N'enico, and who was employed in delicate negotiations with tho 
Emperor and other Princes on behalf of the Kloctor I'alatino and 
his wife, tho Princess EliKalieth of England, at the lieginniog of 
the Thirty Years' War. Mr. Word holds thot Isaac Walton, in 
his life of Wotton has not done justice to one who was a man 
of action as well as a man of thought ; and, finding in this 
duality of temperament a jiroblem which he pro|>o8e8 '■ to illus- 
trate rather than solve," he has dwelt upon tho di]ilomatic work 
ot his hero with a fulness to which Isaac Walton makes no jiro- 
tence. On almost every page tliere are references to authorities, 
and copious footnotes about persons ond events connected with 
Wotton 's career. 

Some of these footnotes had bettor have lioon incor|K)ratid 
into tho text, especially whore they refer to Wotton himself ; 
and there ore ]mssages in the text which might hove been role- 
gateti to a note, as the somewhat irrelevant but very interest- 
ing account of Caspar Scioppius. Mr. Ward does not lielievo 
with Isaac Walton that Wotton- went with the Earl of Essex 
cither to Cadiz in 16!»C, or to tho Azores in iriilT, or to Ireland 
in 1590 ; ond ho puts his retirement from diplomacy obout 1622, 
and his appointment to tho Provostship of P'ton in HiL't, while 
Isaac Walton seems to put both events vaguely in " tho year in 
which King Jamca dyed." Mr. Ward, in fact, has taken infinite 
pains ; yet his book lacks something of tho charm and flavour o( 
tho older and shorter biography, which somehow seems to bring 
the man more vividly before us, perhaps by its more anecdotal 
and gossiping character. In spite of many well-writton po-ssagos 
and shrewd observations Mr, Ward's style hero and thore is 
open to objection. Ho is too fond of parentheses, which give 
his sontoncos an uncomfortablo length. Sometimes he is so 
metaphorical as to he enigmatical, and even tho context does 
not throw much light nj>on such expressions as " the gcntlo 
temptation to suppose that the curfew-l)oll implies a vote of 
thanks " ; rrbilo phrases like "it is interesting to find him 
assure her," or " selections uf seeds, the fruit of which wo havo 
all soon so many boatloa<l8 passing under the Kialto Bridge," 
or " we may ottacli no very special tributes paid to tho abilities 
in question," are certainly straiigo. Nor is it necessary to use 
such words as " unsofety," " velloities," " ascosis." 

Wotton 's literary ani diplomatic work is judged with calm- 
ness and iiiodcration ; but his abandonment of Esse.<c in the hour 
of difliculty, his hesitation in taking a step which might have 
helped towards enlisting Venice on the side of tho Hoformed 
Churches, and his taking of dcacnn's orders to enable him V> 
hold the Provostship of Eton nru actions which, although justi- 
fiable, seem to nee<l a more elaborate defence than they have 
received. Vet, olthough the siibstanco of the book was " put 
together during a holiday," Mr. Ward has produced a learned 
anil readable account of a typic.il Jacobean gentleman, wIikho 
professional career is inteiohting becatise it began so late in 



Jamiary ::y, iHys.j 



LITERATURE. 



107 



life, and bccnudo, in (ipito of much worldly (iiipcosn, ho ainnsiicd 
so littlo of this world's f^nodti. It cannot lie said, howorttr, 
that Mr. Ward's ha« rendered Isaac Walton's biography of 
Wotton 8iip«rfiuou8. 

Palklands. By tho Author of the " Life of Sir Kcnelm 
Dlgby." lt-r>;iii., xii. I lU't pp. I^uulon, New N Oik. ami 
lioiiilKiy, 1KU7. Ijongmaus. 10 6 

This is a book that mnat needs put any rrader into a ba<l 
temper. The preface is us irritatinp to the mind uh the dfiptrorM, 
ixsterisks, stars, »tc., that clisfi^^uro the printed pngn arc troiil)le- 
Komo to the eyos. The writer, whoso epotism sooms to swallow 
up most of the capitals I's in a fonnt of typo intho profaco, gives 
lis his method for memoir-writiripf, and cniinot bo confn°atulatod 
on his rccijio. Ihit the reader who cares to know ont-of-the-way 
bits of hij»h life in the Knplnnd of the 17th contnry will find much 
to interest him in a penisal of the 15 chapters of " Kalklands. " 
Ho will certainly meet with remarkable characters, and will 
probably conclude that the women-folk were the better part of 
English wit, eiimestncss, and religions ?onvietion in nn age 
•when, for nil thoir affectation of poetic power nntl enso of 
rhyminc, the mon seem to have heon littlo inclined to anything 
more than scheming for Court favour and mixing philosophic 
discussion with much canary. 

It is not of Henry, first Viscount Falkland, ono thinks as 
A>no closes the book, notwithstanding tho beautiful reproduction 
•of his portrait by Vansomer, nor of Lucius, his son, " the 
inartj-r of sweetness and light," so much as of that remarkable 
woman wliose lifelike figure kneels in st(^ne in lUirford Church 
Kliznhcth, wifo of the first viscount. Any one who turns to her 
jiortrnit at tho end of tho first chapter, and thinks of the years ' 
■of study and self-education in French, in Spanish, in Italian, in j 
Hebrew, and in Latin that went to the making of that clover, 
"keen face, will not ho surprised to know that Klizaheth Tanfield, 
when, as a girl of 15, she woddod Honry Cary, was found to be 
.giving tho Burford Priory servants no less a sum than £100 for 
the candles they had supplied thoir young mistress with, against 
her mother's will, for suireptitious studj' in her bedroom at 
nights. And none will read of tho ups and downs in life that 
fell to her lot, her poverty nobly borne, her courage unqtionch- 
-ible, without a sigh for tho fnto that made her the wife of so un- 
symiMithotic a husband and tho favourite of so uncertain a Court 
as that of Charles tho First. 

Nor is tho portraiture of Lotice Morison, who afterwards 
became the wife of Lucius, tho second Viscount Falkland, less 
interesting. How Lotice, tho strict Protestant, kept tho house- 
hold servants to their many prayers and yet managed to get 
them through thoir much work, in tho days when every litcrarj' 
idler at Oxford felt himself sure of hospitality at Tow-hall, is 
littlo less than a miracle : but that she had more wit than 
•common may be judged of by her victory over all tho King's 
Council when called to give an account for the spiriting away of 
lior two boys. 

Of Lucius Viscount Falkland's (/i7<'</<i)i<'' friends, chapter 
gives intorostiiig particulars; of how he left " thu library for the ; 
battlefield, and war for politics " wo may read in chapter 0. Tho ! 
speech that brought tho insignificant, weak-voiced man suddenly 
to tho front in Parliament was his impassione<l imjieachment of 
Finch. Tho next chapter brings before us Falkland and his 
i'riouds in tho Long Parliament. Wo trace tiiere. in his dealing 
with the v.iriouB drastic measures introduced, tho slow moulding 
of tho earnest Radical and Reformer to as earnest a Reforming 
Conservative, and wo find tho statesman wlin was once afraid of 
the power of the King now bocominc as fearful of tho power of 
the Parliament. Then we are introduced to tho political trio-- 
Falkland, Hyde (afterwards Lortl Clarendon), and the blunt but 
forcible Sir John Colepeppor; and wo watch tho seed of Falk- 
land's love of liberty— " as a gentleman would have it" — 
ripening into loyal determination to help his rightful 
Sovereign. As Secretary of State we find him a modera- 
ting party between King and Parliament, loyal to con- 
science as to King, blunt and sharp with Charles when 



netnl lie, but r. t«<.n Propoai' 

with veheiiii'ii. !• u' I;.,v.i st.. ., 

Vork.Tb. ;.. 

but to bt- I.., t...-. .... - t 

Maddened with tbo norrow of thu' 

could not avert or bring to nn <'n . ,,> 

advantage, botwoon Parliament and Kin^.'. \<r 

among lii« friends, ami, " i,t 

8ighi,witha shrill, sail nr^-f ', 

now bravo as a lion in ' n 

liold oven to tho death <' ' i or 

gives us a very oxcollont account of that battle the ' \il 

at picturotu|UO writing in tho tnomoir. " I nm . . . lU^ 

times ; I forosoe much misery coming to nr , and I 

lioliuve I shaiJ be out of it ere night .' " said 1 .i,-....ri,i, as be 
ro<lu, dressed as for some great occasion, to the cliarge, and to 
his (loath. Ho foil at tho d< " in tho fencu below tho bill 

by the '• Wash Common," u is ho had livoil, " a rery 

iwrfi  man," on tho l 

I V that tho nric ,n\; fthmiid 

havu III' ■:i\ 

ot " Mi.M ..., 

of such a man as Aubrey, and it is a distinct ominsiou that, 
seeing how admirably illustratotl tho memoir >s,that there sboald 
have l>een no illustration of the monument on the NcwbatT' 
battlefield which was raise<l to Falkland's memory by tho late 
Earl of Carnarvon, Mr. Mount, M.P., an<l Mr. Walter Money a 
few years ago. The monument is, we ' ' ' ,. hancU 

of " Tho National Trust," and has Iiii ..air at 

the charges of Mr. Mount. After all, u 'lis 

best monument, and this hook, with all it.'- ily 

brings iKjfore us a sincere and gentle nobicumn of whom the 
17th century might well bo proml. 



PhiUp n. of Spain. 
:307 pp. London, 1W7. 



By Martin A. S. Hume. 7,- x.'.in.. 
MacmUlan. 26 

A worker among Spanish State pa]>ers is well qualified to bo 
the biographer of Philip II., for no King was over such a jierti- 
nacious scribbler. " Stick close to your desk and  to 

sea " was his motto, and he trie<l to rule tin- w. iiis 

study— from a cell in t' i: . From 

l.">59 to his death in lo'.' tnid to do 

everything himself. He wasted time on irirtes while his fleets 
were rotting, his armies starving, and hi'; suLmrt. ,„ w>v,,lt. 
As every order had to be givon by him ] < n 

was in arroor ; and ho was no match for £1 ue 

de Medici, or for Henry IV. His iong i -e, 

and yet, becanso he was a Spaniard of tn< 
popular in his own country. 

Philip ir., Louis XIV., and Napoleon were 
they oil aimed at European snpreniacy, and in i- 
stoo<l in the way. Philip had a hazy r 
the first. Bigot as ho was, ho discouragr.. 
tion, and for a long time after bis wife's death he was extremely 
imwilling to qnarrol with Elizabeth. English rovers prfyed 
upim his commerce, tho Queen herself soize<l his tre.vmre, and 
the Dutch wore encouraged by the sympathy, and at last by tho 
direct help, of tho IVotostant power beyond Channel. Wo can 



■<paiii.ir<l», Ll- waa 

ut 
d 
m 
u- 



1 tho English 

nd .James 1. 

bad no 

, -ul 
:iS 



seo now that the Spanish power 

power rising daring the whole El 

mado no greater mistake than in uuckliii 

longer anything to fear. 

Few biographers altogether  
Colonel Humo has more to .-. 
generally. "He was." we are told, •• n, 

cursed with mental obliquity, and a lack v. , , f- 

tion." It will seem to most people that mental obliqoity 
is the very qu.ility that makes men naturally 1-"' -.■• ' i'i-k^-, 
iiattu-al goodness did not prevent him fror !ie 

Inquisition to tho utmost, ovr- =• V ; snme 

Popes. Ho was not merely res; i • * " ' 'sofhia 

serranta in the Netherlands — and iKne it may bo aakcd whether 

8-S 



108 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



it i* worth while in an Etipliah book to •ubititnU> Alba itnd 
Don Juan for such wt-ll-know-n namvs «• Alva and Don John of 
Anttria — but he had no scruple about aasaasination. Ho calmly 
diaooaaed •obsmet for the murder of Klicabeth. and desireti their 
 W B B M i , " not for his own iut«rest, or for any worldly object, 
but pmlT and simply for the senrice of Go<l." He 
MitboriaMi the murder of KscoImhIo, put Moiiti);ny to death in 
prison, and Bub«idi>cd rariou.^ ntt<>mnta on the lives of IK>n 
Antonio and William of <)ran(;e. Wo may search iu vain for 
•ny act of clemency, or for niiy sign that he felt pity. 

Charles V. had adviited his successor to take each miin's 
e«>nsure. but to reserve his judgment. Charles was not a very 
great man, but he was much winer than his Kon, and would 
nerer have carried his own principled to such n length. The 
abler a man, the le^s Philip trusted him. The death of the (treat 
Admiral Sant* Crux was hastenetl by his harshness. The last 
days of I>on John and of Alexander Farnene wore clou(U>d in the 
same wtty. In his own kingdom no ditfcrenoo of njiinion was 
allowed. Six thousand Morisoo women ond children were 
alaa^htored in cold blood on one occasion. Un another, 13,U00 
at the same unfortunate race were sent into penal servitude. 
and nothing was done without first consulting the King. The 
liberties of Aragon were crushed. Colonel Hume has marshalled 
his facts with great ability, and if he sometimes takes too 
lenient a view of Philip wo may a|:;reo in the general estimate 
eontained in the words, that " where his reasoning was weak 
was in the assumption that the cause of the Almighty and the 
intareata pf Philip of Auatria were necessarily identical. " 



Oliver Crom'well. A Stjulv in Personal Relifrion. Bv 
R. F. Horton, M.A., D.D. 7x44in., x.+2trs pp. Ix>ndon. ls()7. 

James Clarke. 3,6 

Tliis is, in many ways, a disappointing Ixiok. Wo are bound 
to say at once that it is not what it claims to be. For some 
ohaenre reason Dr. Horton stylos it " A Study in Personal 
Religion "— s point of view which, in the case of so deep and 
romplex a character as Cromwell's, must always bo full of 
iTit«rcst. Such a " Study " already exists, from the opposite 
1...].. of prejudice, we allow, to Dr. Horton's, in Mozley's 
iMa.otorly Essay on Carlyle's Cromwell : and we think tho present 
work would have had more weight with others besides •• the 
Young Free Churchmen of England," to whoir. it is dedicated, if 
it had contained at leant some reference to that searching analysis 
of the Protector's character. 

As it is, Dr. Horton has produced a short and fairly 
readable biofrraphy from the "Christian and Independent'' 
■t«r.dp<<int. which might have fitly iiitro<1ncod a new series 
c.f '• Heroes of Political Puritanism," but is too much of 
a p»ne!ryric to Imj in any sense a " study " of Cromwell's inner 
life. Imloetl, except for the j lentiful <|notntion of his pious 
"experiences," allusions to ]rovidences, &c., and for a 
digre^«ion on the power of prayer, there is nothing about 
personal religion in the book. Dr. Horton says, truly enough, 
that Cromwell was a roan to whom his religion was everything. 
But tlien the crucial question in, what was his ''religion"? 
The term '• religion," as Moxley reminds us, stands for two dis- 
tinct things— the one ethical, the other metaphysical ; and 
if a man's "religion " is so exrhiHively tho latter that 
It clouds his moral standani, and leaves him always free 
to chooso the course to which )>olicy and inclination point, 
be cannot be called religions in any comi)loto sense. No 
view of Cromwell's character which omits to ask whether he 
was sincere enough to aacrifiue his interest and even his |iolitical 
" ideals " to what is morally right can be fairly calle<I " a study 
of bis religion." Dr. Horton summarily disposes of this ques- 
tion by saying that, if Cromwell be reganlod as a hypocrite, the 
laason of his life is lost ; and ho deals in much tho sumo way with 
the rharge of ambition, which was brought, ho admits, by " all 
but a mere handful of discomin:; souls." He tells us at the 
ontaat that he does not mean to oxciiso his hero : yet tho whole 
book reads as a laboared " Apologia " for the man who, 
atartinj as the champion of freedom, ended by establiahiDg 



a military dos|K>tism. and by selling his opponents as slaves 
(" survanta " our author calls them I) to tho planters. Er. 
Horton adows that Cromwell "hod groat faults," but he doea 
not point out one of them ; that "he made great blunders," 
yet he himself stoutly defends him, oven where tho world had 
agreeil to condonni. Cf tho supreme blunder of all (from tho 
moral standpoint)— tho execution of the King— Dr. Horton 
thinks it enough to 4oy that " the high-h.inded method " wae 
•• tlie only ono available," sublimely unconsrinus of tho fact 
that this is the ond justifying the means. Ho Bhould have re- 
membered the remark of the imimrtiul Hallam upon tho plea of 
conscientiousness, that " private murderers have often had the 
.same apology." But does he not rather overtax our credulity 
whon he writes — " No Royalist in England felt more keenly tho 
anguish of tho deed than the iiuin who . . . had boon the 
main instrument in perpetrating it " — and, it might bo addoil^ 
was to be the chief gainer by it ? The enthusiastic simplicity of 
the sentence quoted suillciontly indicates the spirit in which 
the whole book is written. It contains sundry fervent aspira- 
tions after a good time coming, when Cromwelliau " ideals " 
shall be more fully rcalizod than they are at present in Church 
aud State. As each chapter of the book has its up) ropriatu 
motto, we may jMsrhaps bo (Mirdonod if wo suggest to " I'ho Young 
Free Churchmen of England," as a motto for the wbolu,tho liuea 
of Crabbe : — 

Cromwell was still their Saint, and whon they mot, 
Tliey mourned that Saints were not om- rulers yet. 



A short monograph, which should prove of interest to liis- 
toiical students, has lately been issued by the New Amsterdam 
IJook Company of Now York. This is tho biography of Major- 
tionoral the Earl of StirlinL',by Ludwig Schumacher. The histtiry 
of the house of Stirling, as given by Mr. Schumacher, iii 
romantic in the extreme. The founder, William Alexander, th& 
poet, was greatly esteemed by James I., who demonstrated hid 
affection by creating him Viscount of Canada, Earl of Stirling, 
aud Karl of Dovan. With those titles there came, by charter 
or letters patent, tho following tracts of land in tho Now World 
— Nova Scotia, Canada, " includnig fifty leagues of bounds on 
l>oth sides of the St. Lawrence Uiver and tho Great Lakes," und 
a " tract of Maine and tho island of Stirling (Long Island) and 
islands adjacent." These pi sseEsions, however, soon disap- 
p(arc<l. The third Earl of Stirling sold his right to Long 
Island to James, Duko of York, in lObll, and in IOC" Nova Scotia 
fell into tho hands of tho French. Tho immediate oncestor of 
Major-General the Earl of Stirling was an oflicer in the army of 
the Pretender in tho rebellion of 1710. After tlie defeat of the 
I'rotender he took refuge in America, and his son, tho hero of 
this biography, was born in that country in 17'J0. Having regard 
to his ancestry the career of Major-General the Earl of Stirling 
is particidarly interesting. During tho war he sided with the 
ci>iintry of his adoption, aiul took a vcrv active part in tho fight 
against tho English. He was at one time Conimandor of Now 
York, and was tho president of tho court-martial that found 
General Lee guilty of " disobedience to onlers and misbehaviour 
before the enemy." Tho edition of Mr. Sehumochor's mono- 
graph is limited to ITiO copies. Tho price is one dollar. 



TRANSLATIONS. 



~ Aucassin and Nlcolette: An Old Fri-n<li lyove .Stoiv. 
Edited and Transliiied by Francis 'W^iUiam Bourdilloh, 
M.A. Second I-ilition. the Text Collatod Afresh with the 
Manuscript at Paris, the Trnnslntion Hevised, and the Intro- 
duction Kcwritten. 02x4iin., lxxii. + 22Uiiii. l.<>n<loii, I.Slt7. 

MacmiUan. 7/6 

In this dainty little volume, which is a beautiful stwciinen 
of Clarendon I'ress typography, Mr. Ilourdillon presonts us with 
a new edition of the text and translation of " Aucassin ot 
Nicoletto," first published some ten years ago. Neither text nor 
translation is a mere reprint. The text has been collated 
throughout with tlio uniipio MS. preservo<l in the Uibliotherpio 
Nationalo at Paris, of which Mr. liourdillon recently published 
a photographic facaimile, tlioreby rendering a very real scrvicu 



January I'U, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



109 



tf> lutUirs. Ho lias, wiaoly wo Uiiiik, followwl tlin ri-a«liti(; of ilic 
MS. more clo^oly tlinii has hitherto htion ihnio, and ho* uUoweil 
to stund many littlo inaccuracius of );rainMiar and tho liko which 
may (piito conooivahly ho original, and not inoro copyiat's errora, 
na his hoen aoniowliat too hastily asaumod t)y provioiia editor*. 
\Vo iiotiue that ho introdiu'oa arconta in certain i-aaos, as woll ^a 
the cedilla, hut atranguly onou);l> ho liaa omittud what is pi-rliaps 
iiioio nocoasary to the unluarnod reader than oithi-r -viz., markx 
of diii-rosia. Thus verso of § 21 is printtol, " l>ix ait 
Aiuasinot," which to tho uninitiatud (who, taking; ait as from 
'iroi'r, will douhtluati rcmk-r it, with Mr. Lang, " Ciml koop 
Aueassin ") rea<ls simply om a hnltinf; lino ; wheroas tho rorh ia 
not ail from aroir, but itit (dissyllahlc) from aitlier. Distinctions 
•of this sort ought at any rate U> have been noted in tho glossary, 
where occasional help of tlie kind is given. While on tho subject 
of tho glossary wo must enter a protest against tho slipslxxl 
practice, countenanced by Mr. Uourdillon, of not supplying 
references to tlio text. This omission deprives tho vocabulary of 
at least half its value, reducing it to a mere register of words, 
which, wo may observe, even as such is far from complete, if tho 
int<ution was to include a list of " tho most pu/.zling gramnuitical 
forms," ns appears to hove boon tho case. Moreover, wo have 
looked in vain for any remarks upon tho peculiar dialect of tho 
piece, which to " tho general reader,"' for whoso use. we are told, 
tho book is intended, will certainly prove a deterrent. What is 
ho to make, for instance, of the dialectal use of U, me, »c, Ac, 
for the feminine (as in "Nicole le bien faitc," " visconte do 
/'• vile," " ae mere," " le tere," and so on), which is nowhtro 
explained ? 

Tho translation a.s well as tho text has been revised, but it 
does not seem to us that in this ca-so Mr. Uourdillon has ert"ecte;l 
an improvement. In fact, charming as nro certain of the render- 
ings, wo <'ann()t help regretting on the whole that he xlid not 
harden his heart ond cut out tho translation altogether. Mr. 
Lang's version now practically holds tho field, especially since 
its recent reissue in a cheapt>r form ; and even if the present were a 
first-rate performance, which it emphatically is not, there would 
hardly bo room for it now, whatever might have iR-en the ca.so«rhen 
it was first published. To tell tho truth, Mr. Uourdillon coidd not 
have dealt his reputation ns a v.riter of verso a mure damaging 
blow than ho has done by tho present publication. His muse as 
-exhibited hero i.s sometimes painfully ill at ease, and on one 
occasion he is reduced to such a desperate shift as to scan 
*■ dungeon "as a trisyllable — an etymological impossibility, ns 
his knowledge of Old French might have taught him : — 
In a deep-digged dun-ge-on (.lic), 
That was made of nuirble wan. 

In comparison with this wo are inclined to regard as venial such 
vhj'mes as loviJr— her, lordfng — sing, maiden— ken. fort^st — 
jiressed, &c. , which occur far too frequently ; or such outlandish 
phrases as " a castle good of faro," " Nicoletto I ah, pretty 
Waring," and " lording lad " (for datiaellon, a word of no par- 
■ticulnr virtue over which Mr. Bourdillon waxes somewhat scnti- 
mentiil in his introduction). Xor is it only in the verse that tho 
translation bre.iks down. Tho delightful picture of Nicoletto 
tripping barefoot tlirough tho daisies, which appear dingy against 
her dazzling white skin, is travestied as follows : — 

'llic lilosBoms of the dBisies which she broke oflf with the toes of 
her feet, which Iny en the narrow of her foot above, were right black 
iif;ainiit ber feet and logs, ko very white wks the msiilrn. 
Had tho ■' waif from Carthngen " really such an extraordinai-y 
arrangement of toes as is suggested by this translation ? If so> 
wo must supjwso that tho epileptic pilgrim who was recoveretl by 
a glimji-so of her ankle — " tant quo sa ganbeto vit " — ^was cured 
by tho shock I 

!Mr. Bourdillon adds some useful notes and a very complete 
bibliography, l)esides several interesting appendices on subjects 
connected with tho romance. In that on the medieval hours of 
the day (appendix iii.) ho might have quote<l with advantage 
tho account given by Danto in tho " Convivio " (iv., 23). We are 
sorry to note a n\isquotation from Shakespeare on the last page 
of the introduction. 



ha 



Selected Poems of ^' 
Mlnneainffer. I)<iiie ini' 'od 

Six llluxtnttionx. bv Walter Ali»ou PkllUp«, MA Ut • Tin., 
xliil. f 135 pp. I/indon, l'4r;. Smith, Elder. 10/t) 

Although ho IS at some pain* t<> diiriinnti^tu Walthor 
roll der Vi gelweido from the i-^ iik! nu .,rl lA iniiiiitoinger, Mr. 
Phillips's introduction ii an if>' !ea^ to W alther's in- 

comparable lyric than to Minn ,., ... ^iiieral. Wu do not 

ilispute tl'0 wiiuloin of this course, becauiw ne boltevo with Mr. 
i'hillip* that in Kngland but little ia known of tho lubjoct, aiMl 
that, without a far-reaching Burvey of bia tiino* and circum- 
stances, VValther von <Ier Vogelweide would b« simply an 
otiipma. A« nn historical rfmimf .Mr. l'hilIi|M'i introduction is 
U.HI ' ting;as a literary a; it« 

anil . Ho would have l» i-aA 

mergetl his Preface, his Introduction, ainl Inn I'l ' t« 

into a single compartmei.t. While >.e alluden in I to 

the jatriotio ring of Walther's verse, wo might : .ce 

from tho Introduction that his patriotirin was i;» ., ,. m- 
poundetl of political party passion. This we do not l>clieTe. 
It Would have been a great advantage if Mr. Pbillii>s hotl addwl 
to his table of contents an index giving tha first line of each 
|K>ein, and thusfu '-' isuii with the original. 8o 

far, however, as n ' i e has not included in his 

selection a I'ft which might l-' h;ive b< ich 

breathes the purest love of countrj- — Ir » n. 

In it it is said that, *' from tho Ithine to tl ' ur 

again as far as Hungary," the imm.ii are I" or 

Indie.t. The force of this antithesis will not I e lost un Mr. I'hillipa, 
who has translated a poem of Walther's eIal>orating tho distinc- 
tion. In this connexion Mr. I'h.llips might well have mentioned 
in his Introduction tho contest lietweon Henrich von Meissen 
and R<'genbogen, which respected this very theme and eame<l 
for tho former tho name by which he is be^t kin'wn — Frauonlob. 
We think also that Mr. Phillips is rather ti<o liberal in giving 
all tho lest things to France. We have always understood that 
Gothic architecture was largely " made " in Kngland and 
Normandy, but possibly he comprehends those countries, as be 
does Provence, under the former denomination. Mr. Philli|«'s 
prose style is lucid and correct, but we have note<l some slip*. 
With regard to the translations, Mr. Phillips speaks aa 
follows ; — " I have endeavoure<l to keep closely to the original, 
in form and metre as well as in spirit, though the completely 
different genius of modern Kiiglish and medieval Ueriiian Itas, 
as will bo readily understood, maile an exact : on un- 

attainable." Mr. Phillips's versions nr«> easy t, but 

they are certainly far mere ro<l"lent i : of 

medieval German. If this waa tho tr ii 

congratulate him on a good moasuro i 

ho has given to Wolther von dor Vogv i _ s 

that will be acceptable to the casual reader. Lot us see exactly 
how he has wrought. To this end we will choose a stanxa at 
random and translate it, as far as wo can, literally. 

When tho flowers force tl.eir way from tho graaa «■ if they 
laugh towanls tho glittering (•' coruscant ') sun, in a May early 
in the morning, and the litt'  i -• i "■ -  -  <v..n ;.. •),..;.- i..^i 
melodies which tt-.ey know, w ' 

It is iiidec<l half a kingdom ■; .. . !: ".. , > it 

eipials it, then do I tell that which lias often done better in 
[resi'ect of] my eyes, and does also yet, if I see it. 

With this plain translation compare Mr. Pbillipa's mora 
florid version : — 

When flowers through the grass begin to spring, 

As though to greet with «'ni'e, in. iim « l.ri -lit r.ivs. 

On some Moy mom 

Small song-bird 
With a shrill clioru.H of fnv 
Hoth life in all its store . 

'Tis half a paradise on earth '. 

Yet. ask me what I hold of eijual worth, 
And I will U'll what better still 
Ofttimes before hath pleast^l mine eyes 

And. while I see it, ever will ! 
This, we venture to think, is a good modem rendering. 
The inevitable new touches and prettiness ore there, but tbcy 



110 



LlTERATUflE. 



[January 20, 1898. 



•I* iiMTiUble if yoo we to liars rfajrme and rhythm, and not 
bald proM. Ner«rth«l«M, arer)- one will feol tbu loaa o{ 
•trsngth. " (Irect with smiles tho sun's brijiht rays " —how 
limp after " laugh towanln tho »un I " How <umo Mr. ihillips 
to omit from his stleotion " I'in tnli tea* grlf, rot, uwlc hid '' ? 
We hara aaarehad in vniii for this pom. Lazily, we must say 
on* word aboQt tha il' s. Th»>y impart to tho volume 

aomawhat tha appaara' lild's book, but tlicy add to our 

admiration of Mr. Philli]ts as a man of varied accomplishments. 

Renaud of Montauban. First Doni> into English by 
Willijun t'lixton. I{4--Tran.slut<><l hv Robert Steele. «>;7in.. 
2Spp. London, IHUT. Allen. 7, a 

In his graceful dedicatory letter to Mr. Walter Crane, Mr. 
Steele hints at tho source of this romance. He calls it •' tho 
Matter of France," meaning by that " tho story of Charlemagne 
and his peers." Pprhaps no more was necessary for tho piirjiose 
of this parti ' to those who are not familiar 

with the fact- ~ Octavia Itichardson's introduc- 

tion to her e<lition of Caxton's translation (Early English Text 
Society, estra series, parts 10 and 11), a little more information 
would not have boon amiss. Caxton's translation, of which ilr. 
Steele's version is a variant, seems to have Inton made from an 
undated edition, said to have been |>rinted at Lyons in 14«0. It 
this be so, then this first English translation was printed, 
probably, nine years after. A tliinl edition came from the press 
of William Copland in 1654, and in its colophon we find a state- 
ment to the ctTect that Wynkyn de Worde issued the second 
>t. All that is extant of this second edition is a 
Jiich Mr. Henry Dradshaw discovei-od in 18)^2. It is 
not generally known that William Hazlitt ma<lo a translation, in 
ISil wo think, which was published with tho title, " The j 
Four Sons of Aymon, or the Days of Charlemagne : A Romance 
of Chi\T»lry. " Of French versions there are, of coui-se, verj- 
many ; but the best, perliain, for the serious student is to be 
found in the r." " ,o of tho " Bibliothck des Literarischen ' 

Vereind in ^ It was proi>ared by Dr. Heinrich 

lumo of tho same society's publica- 

ition into Oerman, in rhymed verse, 

by Dr. Fridrich I'iart. Almost every £uro|>ean language has its 

version of this fascinating romance ; in Iceland, even, it is 

popular, and kno«-n as " Tho Saga of Eorl Magus." 

Mr. Steele's enthusiasm for medieval lore, and more particu- 
larly for the early French romances, strong as it is, in no way dims 
his literary acumen, or his foresight in believing that an early 
romance, to be appr«»>lated, neo<l not bo smothero<l in introdnc- 
"liccs. In his doilicatory letter to tho 
■1 " Hiion of Bordoaii.x," Mr. .Steele con- 
'' "' r of Dr. Furnivall. It speaks 

""■'■ ■- ^ • ^  .'it that, neither in that transla- 

tion nor m this of " Tho Four Sons of Aymon," has ho emulated 
the master. If he owes to Dr. Furnivall tho habit of accurate 
attention to details and tho exact method of the laborious 
•tnlent, it is surely William Morris who has taught him how to 
ooooeal these qualities in a hapjiy literary expression. 

' ire. they yet exhale an aroma ever 

'"•' I of men who sjioke and thought as 

•■•. and of gracious ladies who 
; found it no dishonour to servo. 
Thvjr have •• the spirit touch " to which even so oomplicatu<l a 
society as that in which wo live to-day must yet respond, and in 
the response live an old joy anew. Ho must indeed be indifferent 
who cannot find delight in tho doo<l8 of valour of tho bra*-e, 
chivalraos, bamkomo nonaud, or in tho heroic and faithful 
ttrrieo of th* good borae Uayar\l. Nor may wo forgot Itoland 
and Mangia, and the " saucy castle " of MonUuban. Tho 
preaant varsioo, both in stylo attdfonnnt, would suggest that it 
is intended either for popular rea«ling or for tho delight of 
children. For eitb<T purpose we welcome it gladly, and wo 
oongratalatA Mr. Steele on a translation at onco faithful and 
elegant. It is but an abridgment ; none tho less it is 
wolcomc. anil h'tn prlnf/r .it„7 ■.iiKHshor have given it a dress 



choice enough U> please tho most faMlidions of honk lovers. Mr. 
Mason's illu.strations, in spite of their evident imitation of Mr. 
Walter Crnna's niiuiner, possess dignity and strength, iindovinco 
no little imagiuativo power. In tho copy U-foro us, however. 
they are not properly •' placed." 



The Miracles ofMadame Saint Katherine of Pierbois. 
Trniisliite<l fnnii the Kditiim of the .\1)I)0 .1. .). Moiuiis.s.'-. Tours. 
18&S, by Andrew Lang, "i ■r>iin.. I."i2 pp. Limited Kditioii. 
1807. OhicaKo : Way and WiUiams. London : Nutt. 7.a 

This exquisite little volume owes its origin to a request made 
by tho American publishers, Messrs. Way and Williams, to Mr. 
Lang to '• translate a little book as a companion to his version of 
Aucassin and N'icolette." Mr. Lang translates with a pleasing but 
not exce.ssivo touch of archaism, and his preface is, as might be 
expected, interesting and scholarly ; but what will strike th» 
reader at his first inspection of the book is its typographical excel- 
lence. It is a (lucHlecimo volume printed at tho Do \iniio I'ress, and 
is ornamented with headjiieces and other embellishineiits by Mr. 
Selwyn Imago. So beautiful is tho typo that it cannot fail to 
impress tho author with a due sense of the importance of his 
utterances, and it appears to sober even Mr. Lang, who 
becomes almost periodic in his style, and in deference to his Ame- 
rican publishers gravely and without a murmur drops the " u " 
out of " colouring " and one " 1 " out of " marvellous." His 
reason for translating for the first time into English tho 15th 
century text of tho Fierb«)i8 Chapel Chronicle, as edited by thfr 
Abbtf Bourass^, is that " tho love of tho spectacle of life makes 
us treasure every hint from book or manuscript concern- 
ing details of existence which are rarely mentioned by 
writers to whom they seemed over familiar and over trivial for 
record." Tliis excursion into tho byways of niotlieval history 
certainly adds something to our knowlodgo of the 16th century,, 
and especially of its violence and superstition. It also rai8t+. 
again the puzzle, about which Jlr. Lang writes with sense,, 
ns to tho origin of these miraculous legends. Tho usual exjila- 
nations certainly do not exhaust the subject : we can only say 
that they represent " a jiersistent facttir in human character. A 
Catholic ago gave them a Catholic coloring, that is oil." Thi- 
theory of intentional falsehood has, a.s he siiys, been generally 
abandoned. It is worth jxiinting out that the view has a 
significance for theologians. To show that a narrative, even by 
a contemporary witness, is not a conscious forgery, docs not 
carry one far in proving its truth. The chief interest historically 
of St. Katherine of Fierbois is her connexion with Jeanne 
d'Arc, whose sword was brought from a six)t indicatoti l)y 
" voices " behind the altar in tho Fierbois Clia|)el, and whew 
wore a ring dear to her, so sho said at her trial, because with it 
she ha<l touched tho bo<ly of tho Saint. 

Of St. Katherine herself nothing is certainly known. 
Tho legend ilcrives her from Alexandria, and some writer* 
have actually identified tlie Catholic wonder-worker with tho 
rationalising Jlypatia, She is, in tho earliest writers, not 
Katherine at all, but tEcatcrina— the name by which sho is still 
known in tho tJrcek Church. Her emblem in art is a spiked 
wheel, representing the martynlom which formed part of tho 
mass of legend which has grown up around her since her first 
mention by name in the ninth century, and wliich has encouraged 
a French priest to suggest that in Fierbois mij-lit Iks found another 
Lourdes. 



THEOLOGY. 

A Vindication of the Bull Apostolic» Ourse. I5v i Ii<- 
Cardinal Archbishop and Bishops of the Province of 
Westminster. «i .".Un., 122 pp. I^ondon, isiw. 

Lone^mans. 1- 
Tlip appearance of this bulky ]>aniplilet iimrks 
anotlier ftnj^o in tho wcari.somc but inevitable controvorsy 
betwoen tin- iCiifjii»li and Kom.in Churches. It was only 
to be exp«;t<'d that tho Koman hiemrchy nhould bike 
some foniml notice of tlie Archie])i8copal " ResjKJUsio " 



January 29, 1898.] 



LITEKATLKE. 



Ill 



l)iihli«hcd Innt March ; but wo cannot feipl that the prcHont 

iii;,'t'iii<)im nnd liif^lily tecliiiiciil prfxiuction contriliuti-s in 
any iippn'ciiil)!^ (Icfjrrc to tlui Hi'ttlfmont of tiio grave 
(jut'stions in disimtn lu-twoen the (lliurflics. 

Tho Htrcn^^tii of tlu^ Koiniin iwsition is evidently fi-lt 
to lie in the defects of "■ form " iind *' intention " which 
ninr the An^^lican rite of ordination. The main conten- 
tion of the " S'indiciition " is .simple enough. There are 
eertiiin elements essential in ii "Cntholie" ministry. 
Tii(>s(! eh'meiits were not only held in ahhorrence by 
individual divineri o( the Ueforniaticni jwriod ; they were 
expressly exchuhd from the reformed ( )rdinal. "The true 
Sacrilice and Priesthood . . . your Church, sjK-aking 
through the same representatives, has, with e(jual j>er- 
sistency and in the moat stringent terms, repudiated 
altogether." 

The " Vindication," however, ignores the fact re]ieat- 
edly pointed out by defenders of the Anglican {wsition, 
that the intention of the ( )rdinal lies on its very surface. 
Its compilers declare that they desire and intend to 
IHMjK'tuate those very offices which were instituted by 
Christ Himself. It seems to us that the impoitance of 
the " Vindication " lies in the fact that it brings into high 
relief the real jwint of divergence between the two 
Churches. It can be no longer disguised that they differ 
in their conception of the priesthood. In their apj)eal to 
.Scripture and primitive anti(juity the Reformers aimed at 
convcting a one-sided doctrine of sacerdotal power. They 
boldly challenged the prevalent idea that the essence of 
the sucerdotiwm consisted in the mere function of 
'■ offering sacrifice." They desired to assign to other 
aspects of the office their rightful significance. This 
jioint seems to be inadecjuately met by the authors 
of tho " Vindication." Doubtless, however, their work 
will impress many as a piece of effective dialectic ; 
a facile and not very scrupulous advocate of the Koman 
claims has already challenged the Archbishops '• at the 
bar of logic." I?ut ajMirt from the fact that the "extrinsic" 
and " intrinsic " reasons for the I'apal decision have 
already been fairly weighed and found wanting by experts, 
it is impossible to notice without a smile the assumj)tions, 
expressed or implicit, which underlie the arguments of 
the " Vindications." Of these a-ssumptions we shall only 
mention one which seems to us of far-reaching importance. 
The authors take it for granted, not merely that our 
Ix)rd left jirecise directions to His disciples liearing upon 
the *' valid administration of sacraments," but that He 
instituted a i)ersonal "authority on earth capable of 
deciding " technical disputes that might from time to 
time arise touching the "matter," "form," and "intention" 
necessary for such valid administration. " If no one," 
says the " Vindication," " can give a final judgment as to 
what is and what is not valid administration of a 
sacrament, as to what is and what is not the Christian 
Priesthood and .Sacrifice, in what a condition of inextric- 
able chaos has Christ left His Church ! In short, to deny 
Ijco XIII. 's competency to define the conditions of a valid 
sacrament is to strike at the very roots of the sacramental 
system." This passage is instructive as throwing liglit on 
the habit of mind which seems to be inveterate in Roman 
controversialists, and it touches the fundamental point at 
issue — the nature and seat of Church authority. The 
Romanist assumes that authority is either absolute and 
peremptory or non-existent. The Anglican holds, with 
SVilliiun Law, that authority is not denied because it is 
declared to have degrees and limits. The relationship of 
the Church to the individual is pan>ntal ; her authority 
acts in the moral sphere and wears a moral impress ; it 



rhero merr ' 
: a |uimil 



<»1 
 r- 

UN 

■ly 
In 

.in 
of 

in- 

ti- 
ia 

■in 



mosis III II r'" 

though it Ii 

theleMii tru' 

Ky«tem is, C 

inspire)*, at least in euitivati><l minds. 

the .iii.i....ition that the tei'l"'i. "' 

ori: wen* minutely i 

the LiuiRii. Til' 

selves recognize 

cal tradition in 

a (jtiestion wlii( 

apiM'al to the " highest religious in 

is irrelevant, while the suggesti».ii  

Xlll.'ri comijetency to define the c 

sacrament we '• " ' 

system " is a cii, >n. 

We are incHneil to iiojw tiiat the ' .ill 

leave the " Vindic.ition " unanswered bo 

gained by the continuance, at least under present circum- 
stances, of an acmlemic ' .n which ' '  '■ • rt 
men's minds from the di I'-.sJnvol, m- 
ingly jierennial controversy between England and iioute. 



ol U.I- 



11.111^ i>."0 

of ft valid 
ha<jnuncDtal 



Side Lights on Church History. Th.' I.iturKy anfl 
Rituiil of the .Viite-.Nicciu- < liiinli. Hy >'. B. Warren, B.D., 
P.S.A. Hi X 5iin., xvi. + ^A^ pp. London, iHUi. S.P.O.K. 6/- 

Mr. Warron has brought together in this useful ami handy 
vulumo all that is known rcapoctin;; tho wnnhip of tho early 
Church. Tho lirst chapter, on " Tnv'' •> in 
the UUl and Now Tuatamuiits," is so iLo 
various items of inforinutioii under alpliaUstical In ;/., 
" Baptism," " Holy Km Imrist," " Sunday,"" \'c^i \c. 
(AYo observe, l)y tho way, tliat Mr. Warren sets asiiie tho curioua 
notion that in 2 Tim. iv. 11$ St. Pnul imnti ^m ;i . 1:.-iviiI lo.) 
Tho second chapter collpcta all the ml 
respecting tho linage anil ritual of tho >ile 
the third dcaln with liturgical roinains. ns 
a translation of some colubnitod prnyer- mo- 
rally familiar to ordinuiy riaderH, such . riit 
comiKiscil by Clement of Aluxandrin ami  " 
of 3lothodiu8. Mr. Warron .al>'i ^- 
tion how far tlioro exists any ooi 

Jewish onil '" ' . •. i ,, n,. „,, 

traces of " • i of .lev rt 

ofthoChristi . .i,,., . .) 

resemblani-o exists." Tho fourt 
gestivo criticism of the tin-- t v i 
in his " Hilibort I.e. 
usage of the Church w 

mysteries. I)r. Hatch's view was in. !iat 

narrow induction, inasmuch .ns tho  t*- 

inoiit itself was dolibor.itoly excluded. -S-,. ■■.• e, 

as ^uriff/iof, iffpayi%f and fivnriiptov wore e\. icli 

without any rt^ferenco to tlieir usage in the >■ In 

his appondi.x Mr. Warren hns collecte<l .i »>-. ing 

iiassages from tho .\i ' ' ' • t|^o 

liturgical practice an<l on 

is to t>o congratulat«>d mh iiu.mi; <.i.iii^ ly, 
accurate, and serviceable Ixmk. 



nt 

b« 
, If 

no 

ho 



Canon Pennington in Tiih P.vpai. < 
Is. 6d. ) gives a brief but interesting ski;,., 
and practical working of the Conclave 
election of a Poiic. The recent work of • 
has thrown considcrablo light on tho subject, a: 
attempt has Ikhjh made in Td'cni year"! t . — 
intricate points connoct4'd v> 
tions. It is |)crhap8 not ••■ 

of Franco, Sjjain, and  -•• 

upon tho election of ; ' 'U 

Pennington surmises, it is " 

bo claime<l l>y Italy <.d i 
may bo that tho Pope ma_i , wmi 
indignant farewell to Italy," for tb' 

bo at one witli his predecessor in tho ... - 

all possibility of future interfcrcnco on tho part ot the ci»ii 
power in Pajtal elections. 



n2 



LITEHATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



 — 

UNCONSCIOUS MAGIC. 
The iacsimile page of Lonl Tennyson's handwriting 
in the second volume of the " Memoir " gives us some 
ition ns to the symbolism of the " Idylls." 

..:i(i Table," it seems, we are to understand 

" liiberal Institutions," and it must be confessed that to 
some of us the interpretation is not a little tonifying. No 
doubt the poet would not have had us t«ke his words in 
their strictly literal sense ; we are not for the future to 
n^ad into his lines references to Equal Electoral Districts, 
Payment of Memljers and the County ( V>uncil, but from the 
high and mystic order of the Round Table to " Liberal 
Institutions" i.-. their mildest form there is surely 
a frightful and abominable descent. I may admit at 
once that Tennyson never meant us to associate a " Pro- 
gram" of any kind with Ijincelot, that wo are free to 
enjoy the session of the holy knights without a thought 
of Local Veto, and yet, when every allowance has been 
made, those of us w ho had dreamed of .something inpffnble 
beneath the sacrament of the words are left chilled and 
desolate by the pcet's exjilanation. We will give the 
most favourable gloss to the ]>hrase, and confess how good 
and joyful a thing it is that brethren should dwell to- 
gether in unity, under equal laws, ruled by noble kings, 
while freeJ< ni broadens slowly down from jirecedcnt to 
preccMlent ; but still, I, for one, must ."ay at the last that 
I have loet my earlier heaven. Wordsworth could be 
prrsaic. even to absolute bathos, but he never paraphrased 
"heaven lies alx)ut us in our infancy" by " wiiole.'some 
maternal influences surround us in our childhood." Let 
us make the distinction once for all ; the important things 
of life are to the jioots foolishness ; freedom, justice, equal 
law.*, all that lights the cheerful glow of our household 
fi lut dead nshes whf*n we look through the magic 

< - and beliold the knights arrayed, and the glory 

streaming from the Vessel of the Grail. We do not wish 
(   ' then that the Magic Kark symlx)lizes increased 
I. of locomotion. Clearly, if Tennyson knew what 

he meant we are Ix^trayed and undone ; while we thought 
the poet had be<'n chanting to us of certain awful and 
hidden things, lie has really been ex[»ounding the 
principles of an amiable Whiggery; the enchanted towers 
of Carhonek shrivel up into a Mechanics' Institute. 

But did Tennyson know what he meant ? The 
question sounds an im]>ertinence, but it must be asked 
quite seriously not only of Tennyson, but of many other 
great writer.i. Perhajis if we could have examined 
Cenantes and asked him the true significance of the 
" I>) . ' • " he would li.'ivc told us in all sobriety that 

it Wii .; more than a -atire on the foolisit Iwoks of 

Knight-errantry then in fashion. It seems highly pro- 
li:i)i!<- (liat 111- would have made some such answer; through- 
out lii< IxKik he insists that his object was merely to 
reform a current perversity of literary taste. And Rabelais 
too — he woidd not hax > ' ' ' .'<'d, we may be sure, if one 
could have taken him .i^ i inquired into the meaning 



of his magic lantern visions, as Coleridge calls them. He 
would have remembered the e\ il days in the convent of 
Fontenay-le-Comte. the ignorance, the bigotry, the 
brutality of tlie tireyfriars, and no doubt he would have 
replied that in " Gargantua " and " Pantagruel " he had 
wished to express his hatred of " clericalism " and monks 
and monastic rules. Sterne set out on " Tristram Shandy " 
with the idea of laughing at some local enemies ; Dickens 
tells how he began " I'ickwick " in order that Seymour 
might have a text for his pictures of Cockney sportsmen, 
how he continued it so that bribery and corruption at 
elections, unscrupulous attorneys, and Fleet Prison should 
be no more. Hawtiiorne was in a way a conscious mystic, 
but it is doubtful whether he realized how small a jrtirt is 
borne by the moral tragedy in the grand achievement of 
the '« Scarlet letter." 

Did they know what they meant? I will return to 
my first example of the late {wet laureate with his " Liberal 
Institutions," and so far as he and liis symbolism are 
concerned I must answ( r " No " at once, and without 
hesitation. It is true that we cannot say in words what 
we seek as we go down to Camelot, we know not how it 
may be when tlie trum^jct sounds and the Knights of the 
Round Table are gathered together, we bow in silence at 
the Elevation of the Grail. It docs not yet appear what 
these things signify. But we do know tliat while we read 
the " Idylls " our attitude of mind is wholly mystical, 
that our hearts lie stilled under endiantment, that we 
are never troubled by the thought of any *' institutions,"' 
however valuable such things may be in themselves. To 
us, indeed, it must seem astounding that Tennyson should 
resolve our doubts in such a manner, but our amazement 
would i)erhaps be less if we could have breathed the 
atmosphere of the thirties with the ytoet. Then, as in the 
early time of Wordsworth and Coleridge, as through all 
the days of Shelley, " poetical " and " political " seemed 
almost synonymous adjectives, and Mr. Snodgrass, the 
"great poet," spoke quite in character when he alluded to 
the Revolution of July as " that glorious scene." They 
thought highly of " Freedom " in those days, not quite 
knowing what they meant, not at all understanding that 
the word usually stands for jobbery and corrujjtion of 
the most offensive sort, and perhaps the mistiness of the 
concej)tion mad<> it glamorous and poetical. I am thank- 
ful that Keats did not explain his poetry. Perhaps if he 
had done so he would have told us that by " faery lands 
forlorn " he meant to signify the countries oppressed by 
the Holy Alliance and the Roman Pontiff. 

And perhaps the case lx>comes stronger if I leave 
Tennyson and jwiss to others. For though we have the 
unimiHiachable evidence of the jwet's hanilwriting as to 
the fact of his interpretation, yet I, at all events, cannot 
(juite believe that tiie Parliamentary ideal was in his 
mind as he wrote the great lines of the " Idylls." It was 
probably an afterthought, or perhaps a forethought, but 
not the [lalmary thought of the creative moment. Witii 
Or^'antes, however, it is different. Again and again he 
interrupts the s^jlendid passage of his knight to assure 
the reader that he means no more than a little satire —  



Jiinuarv 'JO, 1898.] 



LITEIUTURE. 



lis 



tliiit 111.- only object i« to writ^ flown Jhooe te<1ioti!i 
romiinccs of chivalry. In litemtiire all tilings aro con- 
jcctnral, but, if anything is certain, one may be sure that 
Cervantes iiiciiiit "Don (iuixote" to be a burlf!«|ue on 
AniaiiiH and ISclianiM, ami the rest of tlieni ; he intended 
the best lx)ok in profane letters to be a " skit," as we 
shoidd call it. It will be hardly necessary to show at 
l('n<jth liosv much more the author accomiilished, how 
utterly nonsensical is the line about laughing Simin's 
chivalry away. To me it seems that Cenantes distilled 
as into a <iiiintessence all the marvel and wonder and awe 
of chivalry ; that even the " Morte d' Arthur" is containe^l 
ill "Don (Quixote" as the less in the greater; that this 
masterpiece is one of those books written within and 
without. To the gross eye, to the formal understanding, 
it is a witty history of comic misadventure, but the elect 
listen through its golden iiages to th«^ winding of King 
Arthur's iimgic horn, to the chant of the choir that guards 
tiie (irail. 

My original <jucstion was, perhaps, too iinrshly 
framed; I will not ask "Did they know what they 
meant ? " hut rather inquire as to how far the fine and 
rare effects of literature were consciously devised and 
produced. As has been stated, there cannot be much 
doubt as tu the intention of Kabelais in inventins his 
extraordinary book. He willetl to run a tilt at things in 
general — to please the vulgar with vulgar words and 
obscene tales — but, above all, to render the Church and 
the monks hateful and contemptible. And how little 
this counts with the enlightened Kabelaisian of to-day. 
It is true, that the baser bookseller catalogues the volume 
with " Maria Monk " and " Fast Life in Paris "; it is true 
that the more inept critics are not resolved whether 
Hrotlier John be a " type of the Christian Soldier," or " a 
good man spoiled by the monastic discipline"; whether 
Panurge be the " careful portrait of a man without a 
soul," or merely a personification of the Kenaissance. 
Hut the initiated heed nothing of all this. They see the 
Tourainian sun shine on the hot rock above Chinon, 
on the maze of narrow mounting streets, on the high- 
pitched roofs, on the gray-blue tourelles pricking upwards 
from the fantastic labyrinth of walls. There is the 
sound of sonorous ])lainsong from the monastic choir, of 
gross exuberant gaiety from the vineyards by the river ; 
one listens to the eternal mystic mirth of them that 
rest in the purple shadow by the white, climbing 
road. The gracious and ornate chateaux on the I^ioire and 
the Vienne rise fair and shining to confront the incredible 
secrets of dim, far lifted Gothic naves that seem ready to 
(«ke the great deep and fioat away from the mist and dust 
of earthly towns to anchor in the haven of the clear city 
that hath foundations ; the rank tale of the (]arderd>e 
of the farm kitchen mingles with the reasoned, endless 
legend of the Schools, with luminous Platonic argument, 
with the spring of a fresh life. There is a smell of wine 
and of incense, of flowers and of ancient books ; and 
through it all there is the exultation of chiming bells 
ringing for a new feast in a new land. For my i>art, I 
care verv little whether Kabelais has overdrawn the 



(hi ofthenii'   'iliffr Brother John 

w.i i >jK)iled I 

We may go far afield and search the moi>i dijttant 



alone vo* designed, that the jewel stipiied in anaware*. 
From the Kngland of the .Middle Ages to the New Eng- 
land of the Initurians there is a far way. Hut Ctmucer 
desired to tell amusing and gallant tales, not thinking at 
all of the great and gorgeous tajx'stry that b; ' ird* 
wi're weaving, of the full descant to which <•:. .ery 

line he wrote. And Hawthorne, though a more consciotu 
artist, scarcely understood that his puritan village tragedy 
but glimmers in the light of Sabtmth fires, in the red air 
of supernatural suggestion which he wrought around it ; 
the figure is hartlly discernible in the midst of it- - ' • 
and terrible aureole. I have pointed out how i 
began a common task, and at the end of it congratulaUtl 

himself and his readers on the gradual m' - ' .n of the 

abuses which he had attacked; but I c^u. over in 

any part that Dickens realized how in " Pickwick " he had 
written perhaps the lost romance of the picaro that the 
world will ever see, that he had closed a great canon of 
literature. In " Pickwick," though the author understood 
nothing of it, we follow our hero into the unknown, with 
the wonder and charm and the laughter, though not with 
the awe, with which we followed "Don tjuixote" as he rode 
towards the enchanted land of his desire, we relish pro- 
bably for the last time the joy of the winding of the lane, 
the thought of what lies beyond the wood and the hill, 
the surmise of the company that will gather in the ancient 
galleried inn. And Dickens, reviewing his book, parleys 
with us of the licence of Counsel, of Poor Laws — jjrophesies 
the School Board even I 

Literature is full of secrets, but jjcrhajw it oflfers no 
stranger matter for our consideration than melodies 
unheard by those that made them, than Siren songs that 
never came to the Sirens' ears. The magicians have 
murmured strong spells and most jiowerful evocations, but 
like the Coptic priest", they have hardly or not at all 
understood the words of might. 

AKTHl'R MACHEX. 



FICTION. 



The Triumph of Death. Translnt^nl from the lulinn of 
Gabriele D'Annunzio by Georgina HardinK- "i » Mx.. :115 pp. 
Loiiilon, 1>!)S. Heinemann. 6,- 

The swift acquisition of a European fame by an 
Italian novelist wlio is invariably referred to as a young 
man is not only a matter of much interest to students of 
foreign litt>rature, but also to believers in the future of 
cosmojwlitanism. In 1895 Gabriele D'Annunzio was 
heralded in France by an essay of unmeasured praise from 
the hand of M. Melchior de Vogii^ : he has been more 
recently in England the subject of a dis< riminating if not 
less enthusiastic article by Ouida. It was to be expected 
that France would find in D'Annunzio a welcome disciple 
of Maupassant, since in - " ' ' t there 

is a strong spiritiml or : he two 

men. It remains to Iw seen whether D'.Vnnunzio will in 
an English dress be receive.! here with ojien arms. Tlie 



114 



UTERATUKE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



diffic 

prfic< 



.1 



ssit 



' IwTijs nr -'. till' 

.. : ..uu. Alli -p 1 . :; and 

1 ■>f a writer such as D'Anminzio ma}-, when ex- 

1 'no Iws to ' ' -liT, yet tliey ore necessary 

! nnderst; tlie man and his methods. 

> inmost 

I ^ '.'' or a t«'  '• 

•tyle, moreover, of such a man t« the man, and without it 
},,.: ,1 .ri ;>—\itabIy hwes luilf of its force. The present 
! wever, of •' II Trionfo della Morte " is worthy 

ranyoin,' * .fltaliiin, and 

1 ami ni:! ■emitted from 

t ipt. V '■■<' use on 

I > ■eobjei'ti . _^ 1 on," the 

translator's English is excellent, and the expurgation of 
certain sentenc-es does not detract fiom the abounding 
interest and vitality of the book. 

The remaining two novels of D'Anuunzio which 
hare attractetl attention — perhaps more fnnn the 
qualities of their defects than from tlieir artistic value 
— " II Piacere " and " L'Innocente," jiossess far 
greater powers of attfaction and sensation than the 
present \ ' ' ' ' lack, on the other hand, the 

more sei i the maturer artistic jxjwer 

which inspiivJ •• Tiie Tiiumph of Death." It is under- 
stood that D'Annunzio has been tiu' object of totally 
unfounded charges of plagiarism. The charges can have 
"-=••■■■•♦ -1 only from malice and envy, for, if his thought 
founded on a study of the greater recent French 
he is nothing if not original. The basis of 
 \e work is passion, and, with the solitary 
exception of our one great living poet, we know of 
no writer whose pen is continually so white-hot with 
the expression of his momentary mootl. Above all 
things he is a champion of Art and Beauty for the 
sake of Beauty and Art, and the virility of his genius 
:i cause which has been liable to inisunder- 
: 11 the profession of many untalented but 

praiseworthy followers. To D'Annunzio alone among 
many is given the ix)wer of expression which dignifies 
and magnifies, and in all things he is an artist. To him, 
on his o\v ' '  .'US to Flaubert, has been given the 

desire of lit word and the right expression: 

but the conciseness and compresfion of Flauliert has 
changed in him to the volubility of passion. In England 
it is unusual for a successful novelist to be troubled 
*' :'. '■* rary conscience. It is not easy, however, 
( »nida that he is "always out«ide that which 
I'  t,hischii rather to be 

I! ;; -rsonal aldi lis work which 

ittitude of the greatest novelists. But it is 
. — indeed it is bad criticism — to judge one 
! :i;i I : I paring him with another, and in the case of 
I    liis |iersonality 

-m. 

it is to ife iiojN-d that it will lie found fMssible to 

transmute " II Piacere" and " L'Innocente " into English 

— at all events the former, which, if more dangerous than 

" ' "--r novel, is less sensational f.r- ' ' "ong, but 

. finer. His last liook, the " Vi: la KfKJce," 

'!•:■- r -'' IS, i» not likely to 

 :.;. :i 14 i as the trilogy we 

It is not only m .le, and practically 

_K/;c, but it contains 111. ....... 

" Triumph of I>eath " is a sombre and serious 
I) j.ti, iinKghfc«i^»#rl bj any ray of hnmoar, heavy with 



peosimism and dark with strange itassion. It is practicuilly 
an analytic account of the n»oiital ruin of a fiH'bie-iiiindetl 
and fi'i'lile-bodied man by a woman of robu.st heaUh and 
sensuality. To label the book "Hamlet and Cleopatra" 
would not be to stray very far from its import. Here is a 
part of IVAnnunzio's jwrtrait of his heroine, Ippolit^i 
idanzio : — 

In her hair she wore a canintion, burning roil ns a dosiro. 
aiul her uyui, iiiulur tho sliodow uf hor lung laslios, glcaniod liki> 
doop ]XH>\a fringed with willows. 

At that luoniont sho was tho typical woman of desire, tli» 
gt' ... iustniiiu'Mt of senHUoiis picasiiro, tho volujw 

t<. t animal niadu to adorn a feast, to swootun 

t' .- .ui.i i-M'ite tlio equivocal images of ;esthotic lust. 

S .'d thus in all tho tninsocndent supremacy of her 

an ..im — joyous, auimaUHl, lithe, lascivious, cruel. 

It is the tyj)e of Cleopatra, Carmen, Dolores. As for 
the man who is the lover of this woman, he ap]>ears not 
only to be physically and mentally bankrupt, a creature 
of unstrung nenes with a suicidal mania, but criminally 
insane as well, and his insanity culminates in his dragging 
the woman, with whom and without whom he is ecjually 
unable to live, over the cliffs of the 6ea-shore. When 
Aurisjia inherits the fortime of his suicide uncle, hi.- 
inherits with it his suicidal mania. 

The thousand fatal hereditary evils which ho bore in his 
flesh— the indelible imprint of the gencratiims that had n'-wr 
before him— oft'octuallv provcntwl him from attaining to iIms. 
heights towards which his intellect yearned. His nerves, his 
bloml, every libre of his substance held him in servitude to 
their obscure and intricate necessities. 

. . . At such times, one thought alone occupied his 
thoughts — the idea of death. It wius his dear yet toiTiblo and 
dominating thou^;ht. It was as if Demetrio Aurispa, tho gentle 
suicide, were calling his heir to follow in his steps. 

The relationship between two Ijeings of such diverse 
natures could obviously and naturally end only in one 
way. 

The slight plot of the story is amplified in every 
conceivable direction by D'Annunzio's immense volubility. 
He digresses into side i.<s»es whicli lead to nothing — 
doubtless not too often, but clothed in a foreign dress his 
digressions are apt to seem needlessly lengtliy. A 
translation may render the sense of what is translated, 
but the style which triumphs over dulness and makes 
each word of value is nev{>r to be transmuted without loss. 
Thus in the present volume the episode of Aurispa's home- 
coming is dull and the pilgrimage to Cmialbordir.o seems 
in need of curtailment. The latter episode, an antici]»a- 
tion of Zola's " Lourdes," however, is a magnificent piece 
of observation and description, an almost unequalle<l effort 
of prose. A brief exceriit may represent the sense of tiie 
whole : — 

A thousand hands were stretched towards tho altar in 
savage frenzy. Women dragged themselves along on thoii- 
knees, sobbing, tearing their nair, Insating their foreheads on 
tho stono floor, writhing in convulsions. Several of thorn slowly 
appro»che<l the altar on all fours, Bupi)orting tho whole weight 
of their Ijodies on their elbows and the balls of their bare feet, 
'riiey crawled like reptile.f, arching their bo<lios and progro8,sing 
in a series of slight propidsions, their homy yellow heels and 

fi  • I:' ' - T  - ' n under their petticoats. 

I Ird the elforts of their 

eii..>. ...,,,,, ,.,. ;, that kissod the dust, oi 

near t which traced in tho dust the sign of the croB» 

with t cd with blood. . . . 

It often happens that a genius brought to full blossom 
in early manhood decays after its first bloom. Whatever 
may be tlic fate of D'Annunzio, the work he has already 
produced demands consideration witliout inquiry int<} tlu' 
indiscoverable jwssibilities of his future. The pre.sent 
volume, laid seriously as it is before the English public, 
is adventurous. The vitality of it, even as it stands, is 



.Jiuiuary 29, 1898.] 



L1TE1UTI^I?E. 



1 1 



sornptlunp new to recent yenrH. 'I'lif iiiiu ol ' 

iKTonlin^ to I)'Aimuii/io, if it 1ms an iiiin, i^ to | 

^'usjH'l of life; uiid tin* Soiillicrn note of t«'i 

(ii^li>,'lit in life, I'mUxlied in IpiHjlitft Sanzio, is n 

in the collier romancoH of our noveliHts. Without in any 

way wishinj; to encourape exces.si'H jKMHiblo in other 

tonfTiies, it may be iioped tiiat the publication of 8uch a 

volume as this will o|»en tiie way to a ' 

view of the world tlinn is f^enerally )■ 

form here. If Europe has acclaimed WAnnunzio, it has 

been in acknowledgment of a man of high genius. The 

time has gone by when we might have reject«'d him on 

other grounds than n simple criticism of bis literary 

ability. 

Fantasias, itv George Bgorton. 8x5in., loOpp. Um- 
tloii and Ninv Vork, isirT. Lane. 8 6 

Symphonies, liy George Egerton. s .".in., i'.o pp. 
Loiulou mill New York. 1.SU7. Lane. 4,6 n. 

Faithful to lior system of musical nomenclatiiro, " Cieorgo 
Egeiton " has fjiven us a volamo of " Fantasiiis " to follo»v hor 
loss ii'oontly publisht'd " Symplionios." Tho two culloctions of 
slioi't storios havo this in conunon with eacli other, and, so far 
us wo know, with every previous effort of tl'.o same literary 
nuisician — tliey are all iwrformances on a single string. It is, 
indeed, much easier to note tliis resemblance between them than 
to say wherein they differ, or to trace in either volume tho 
pocvdiar property from which it derive* its distinctive name. 
That, however, is no doubt a point of little importance. A 
docile public has long ceased to inquire too curiously into the 
special signiticance of the titles of books. The ordinary reader 
in all probability does not trouble himself abcut the matter, and 
as for the " thoughtful " student of literature (who may be 
supposed to devote jiarticular attention to the subject), ho can 
hardly go far in his thinking without discovering that there is a 
plentiful lack of now titles just at present, and that an 
autlior may well be content with one which strikes more or less 
agreeably on tho oar, even though it should in other respects 
nnswiT to that ballad-refrain of whlcli Mr. Calverley wrote that 
" as to its meaning it's what you please." It is, at any rate, 
advisable to approach in this spirit tho works of the author of 
" Key Notes," who, after having since enchanted us with 
"Discords, "has nowin<piick succession produced this substantial 
volume of "Symphonies" and its thinner successor "Fantasias." 
These musical titles must not be pressed too hard for their sym- 
bolical meaning, for wo doubt whether tho most expert of critics 
if confronted witli one of George Egerton's " pieces," taken at 
random from either of these two volumes, would bo able to say 
(iff-band whether it was a symphony or a fantasia. It is possible, 
of course, that he might ilistinguish the latter from the former 
by a certain affectation of mystical symbolism in the language ; 
but tho matter of the two is strikingly similar. For the sym- 
phony is, very often, abundantly fantastic, and there is 
much— or as little— of the symphonic quality (whatever that 
may be) in tho fantasia as there is in tho symphony itself. 

And both volumes alike leave behind them a dreary 
impression of tedious dexterity uninspired by any real 
depth of insight and undirected by any genuine art. " George 
Egerton," as readers of her earlier works are aware, has acquired 
or been endowed with that knack of literary expression which is 
of almost heilgo-row commonness among tho writers of the day, 
and she has placed it at the service of certain quick emotional 
sensibilities which, among women writers at all events, are 
almost as abundantly diffused. It is impossible to read a story of 
hers— or for that matter, a story of a dozen or a score of her 
compeers— without being struck with the singular command of 
language and the intensely symjMithotic appreciation of certain 
facts and asjiects of life which they display. But a little of 
this writing, to put a blunt truth into a homely idiom, " goes 
a long way." One cannot listen for any length of time to the 
musician without experiencing a fatiguing consciousness of the 



ly wcarj- 
«• Mvon 



or " 

it fltVolli 



nl«uncu I'l 
i:.:il life 1 , 

i.uit nor cren all i 

L.. i„u hand of will, and, ..M-.i.ti,  i><>.. :> 

and plangent note is tliat which vibrateit to t 
sexual emotion, wo ' 
ness to tho eternal t 

T it it twiiu^js I 

" syiir  would 1h) a 

tion. It is absent from " I 
however, a etory of a somewi 
and it soimds a little Iosm insistently than e' 
Chilian Kpisode," the first and, in •■■'■.'" •■■•-•■"cta, .... 
sorioa. Hut in " Sea Pinka," in " lO," in " ' 

" At tho Heart of the Apple," ami m i an," it is \i< i]  
hoanl. It not only runs like a " ground-tone " tlir:,. 



of Uie:u KcrajR) and tootle to iiu < ' 

" Pan " is im|«lled by tho strains of ; 

surrender herself to her lover, and afd 

faithless, to commit suicide ; and she u 

with all tho convictiou of a Tolstoi oxiK>unding 

" Tho Kreutzcr Sonata." So, t--- >•'"■•■ •' ■• 

orphan Oony dies forlornly of a ho; 

her kindly guardian, " sobs bitteiiv, * < m i>nn.i - i 

under tho impression that " cui " agreca with " bono.*' 

that tlio question means " What is t' 

"Who profited [by the crime] ?" ---i 

Paddy's flute. Yet here is a story v 

did. Its oiwning scene, in whirl; • 

of her mnrdere<l (Mirents — an ' y man 

beaten to death by moonli;^! tho jx-li  

assistance, is excellent in its tragic force ; and so, in a diff> ' 

order of art, is the sketch of tho " stmT- • '■"••- ' "'■ 

household, into which, at tho instance of 

ness to snatch a little Protestant brand from i 

bereaved Oony is unwillingly admitted. I5ut al 

fatal sex-motivo mako its appe.'u-ai< 

picture of Irish {xsasant life recc<le 

is tlute-playing, and " yearning " : 

[iliony -making," and, fuially ('f  

only these ladies — tho Uoorgr 

tho rest of them- could l)e ^ : 

|)as.sion, though, no doubt, it plays a vastly ini' 

life, is yot not tho whole of life, how great wou... ,. 

both for themselves and for us ! How much better they might 
write, and with how much loss of fatigue, n:'' ' — ' 

stronger a sense of reality, how much fuller a «.. 
the pictures of life which they prosont to us shoulil ue read UiL.r 
writings ! 

Lord Dtillborough : h Sketch. By the Hon. Stuart 
Ersklne. 7^ < oiu., 'J2l pp. Bristol, IS07. Arrowsmith. 3,6 

There is surely no more vicious school in fiction than tliat of 
the ron«in A clef. It has been said that the only good allegories 
are those in which one is able to forget all about tho allagot;, 
and certainly the only good stories uf the cUf class are those in 

which tho key is of no importar. - " "-' ' ' -usoe " is said 

to bo both an allegory and a r^ ' ram Shaady '' 

could be read with a key by t ° ' ~ome 

hundred and forty years ago : i tlio 

" Heptameron " has bei  >rs. But 

in each of these cases the ^ has tho 

key in his possession, is careful not to nest 

lovers of " Robinson Crusoe " would di- : that 



116 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



" th» northern part " of the Dosert Island meau Sootland. To 
road a book with the hnpo of identifying its personage* betrays 
a habit of mind alt«igvtlicr illiterate ; it is at best a trivial 
cnrio«5tT which likca t>» trace the features of prominent 
J  and clerii's through the thin voil in which Disraeli 

<' 'xl his eharai'ters. Some fivo yoars ago a novel 

»:i- « . !y rea<l beoaiiso the heroine was said to be Miss 
Cho5'.>, an>l the interest in s'.jch things simply vacillates between 
chi!di»hnp*« and malij;nancy. 

But Mr. Erakinc's book is a bad example of a 1 ad 
school. It is a rommi a elef, but it has other faults : 
a foolish nomenclatnre (" DulUxirough " and " Heaviside," 
for examplaV and bad taste, and a stylo which is both 
^' ' tod. Hero are some of his disguipes. A 

.ape " who is also a " certain fit man " : 
" Sir Kichard FulstatF," who " preferred his own fireside " : 
'• Placeman," the editor of a newspaper which is fairly namoil 
I y the autlu r in his anxiety that his abuse shall go home. I^fr. 
Krskine's joking is " practical " : ho gives us a little picture 
of Lord Dullborough's coat-of-arm», with two donkeys for sup- 
porters, and jlices a silly funeral inscription on the lait page 
of the book. 

Perhaps some do'ence of the " key Iwok " may ho made 
when tho fcrsonsges are really public men and when tl ey ara 
•  ■■: te<l in their \ nblic capncity, but the offence is un- 

I ' ' when unknown and unimportant individuals are 

travestied in print under foolish pseudonyms. " Lord Dull- 
boroni:'i " I-ol ings to this latter class of '• literature." 



Peace with Honour. By Sydney C. Grier. 7, :>iin., 
413 pp. E<linhui-,rli imd lyondoii, IMJT. Blackwood. 6'- 

This book is the record of Sir Ihigald I^aigh's mission to 
Kubbet-ul-Haj, in Ethiopia, and it is possible that if Sydney 
Grier had Leen content with tho usual Eastern programme, with 
the Palace intrigues, the shifty viziore, tho cup of coffee, tiie 
favotu-ite wife, a tolerably good etorj' would have been produced. 
But, unfortnn»toly, the author has disdained these simple conse- 
crated ways. Miss Georgia Keeling, M.D., who accompanied 
tV • in a medical capacity, was a New Woman, and con- 

s' !ie was obliged to be consistently offensive to Major 

Ncrth, \ .C, the military adviser. At tho beginning of the 
look Miss Ke<»ling meets tho Major, dressed as most gentlemen 
in Loi. 'ressed, ami genially remarks : — 

I < . iiB you a valuing aiivprtispment of the Army anj Navy 

Clab, aixl why artn't yoa gniciog one of tlie windows there, a.* a sort uf 
Mnple, TOO know, to nhow Ihf kin>) of goo«U nithin ? 

And this was Miss Keeling's usual conversational manner : 
an<l throughout the book there are pages of these silly quarrels 
between the shrew and the blockhead. For if the M.D. is inso- 
lent tho V'.C. is boorish, and the two vapour and he<.-tor and 
browbeat one another all through the 413 fAges, and tho author, 
to borrow the phrase of her own beautiful East, does jmyi before 
the complex and subtle feminine heart of (Jeorgia, M.D. There 
is a lirief res|iit)' from these follies : the pages that relate the 
poisoning of Sir Dugald and the olitaining of tho treaty hiivo 
•onM briskness and inuvcmcnt of a<lventure, but tho innno 
sqnabbling.H return all too soon. It is true tlmt the precise might 
object to this, the faintly green oasis in a desert of a book : they 
might enter cavils as to tho validity of a treaty extorted by a 
loade<l revolver ; but improbability is a venial sin in a romance, 
aiMl these pages, as we have noted, are bright by comparison with 
the rest. It is hanlly necessary to state that from the Ixginning 
to the end of the bouk there is no sentence, no phraro to indi- 
cate th« artist'ii hand. There is a very flagrant *' anrl which," 
I '0 will 1(0 almost wclcoine<l by the reader as a 

I II monotony of uninspired paragraphs. For the 

r<-''. V nor scent nor colour of tho East, no impressirn 

of t!,-_ w '.•'!' r:ul atmosphere, of tho mystic walls flushing and 
fading at sonsat, no faint memory of the winding narrow street*, 
no echo of a chanting roica from the mosque tower. Kubbet-ul- 
Haj Is a clumsy transliteration of dspham, an<l Miss Georgia 
Keeling, M.D., is the prophet of Clapham. 



A B^isrht of the Nets. Bv Amelia Barr. Ky.'S^in,. 
314 pp. Ixiiulon, 1«»7. Hutchinson. 0- 

Mrs. Ban- always writes with force and simplicity, and th.o 
Iwst testimony to the viilue of her stories lies in tho appreciation 
of the class whoso ways and works she descrilMJs. In this hook 
she gives us the picture, which wo feol to lie a real likeness, of 
the son of a Scotch fishwife, who had gradually risen to hoisisc- 
hold comfort through the labour of her menfolk, and had brouj:lit 
up her children in the refinement «f tl;e " liinnie Cottage,' 
which had been owned by the Binnies, of Pittcndurie, in Fife, 
from generation to generation, and which stoinl on a little level, 
thirty feet above tho shinglo, facing the open sea. By dint of 
incessant work and tho closest saving Andrew, tho widow's 
only son, has accumulated several hinidred i>ouiid.s, and all 
his heart is set upon a young girl, Sophy Traill, of whom 
it was easy to seo that she "was not at alj like him, nor 
yet like any of tho fisher girls of Pittendurio." Sojhy was 
an orphan, and had loen brought up by an aunt who earrieil 
on u dress and bonnet business, and Sophy wears a dress of blue 
muslin and a riband belt rouiiU her waist. But Andrew has a 
rival who is rich and a gentleman- -Archibald Braoland.s, only 
son to a terrible old lady with a great estate. 

Mrs. Barr spares her readers the agonies suggested by the situa- 
tion, and carries o<it her purpose in a much more diflicult and im- 
pressive manr.er. Little Sophy, whom Andrew had loved since ho 
was six years old, and had carried in his arms all day long, with 
whom, as a hi;; boy, ho had paddled and tislied and played, and 
who was to bo his wife as soon as ho had a house and boat of his 
own, is fascinated by the elegant young gentleman. Kever for 
one moment hud Andrew doubted tho validity and certainty of 
her promise. Yet Sophie broke her promise and became Mrs. 
Archie Braclands, to her own \^veoX hurt. How tho blow was 
borne and how his grief was finally surmounted by tlie 
desertotl man, is very well and convincingly told. Sophy died in 
her husband's arms ; but ho was not at her funeral. Her own 
kin laid tho light coflin on a bier made of oars, and carried it 
with psalm-singing to tho grave. It was Andrew who threw o?i 
the coflin the first earth. And when, 15 years later, Archie 
Braelands was picked out of the sea, all but dead from exposure 
and buffeting, he was tended by the surgeon of a mission ship. 
" It was some hours after ho had been taken on board, when he 
■■penod his eyes and asked weakly, ' Where am 1 ?' and tho 
suigeon stooped to him, and answered in a cheery voice :— ' On 
the Sophy Traill." " 



Btishigrams. By Guy Boothby. 8x5in., viii. • 203 pp. 
London, New York, and Melbourne, 1&)7. 

Ward and Lock. 5/- 

Tho pretentious and ineffective extravagances of " Dr. 
Nikola " had hardly prepared us to expect goo<l work from Mr. 
Guy Boothby ; but the publication of this collection of his short 
stories shows that ho is capable of writing something worthy 
of more serious criticism than was demanded by that much- 
advertised production. Originality cannot, indeed, Iw plausibly 
claimed for him. Of all tho many writers of short stories who 
I'.ave imitated Mr. Budyard Kipling, none ha.s imitated him more 
closely or more con.scientiously than Mr. Guy BiMithby. It is 
not merely that his trick of swift and direct narration has 
evidently ijeon learnt from tho example of this particular master. 
His obligations are far more extensive than that. It was 
certainly Mr. Kipling who taught him the tone which he adopts 
when writing of G<n'oniment-hoU3c ; and even his humour — what 
there is of it —is modelled on the same great original. 

\\'hile insisting, however, that Mr. Guy Boothby is only 
alile to raise the flower lieoauso some one else has provi<led him 
with t!io seed, we are glad to admit that ho has shown some 
dexterity in transferring the seed to a fresh soil and making it 
flourish there. His local colour is almost invariably Australian ; 
and he is very successful in rendering tho atmiwphoro of the 
" back blocks " — the int<derablo monotony of the life there, the 
oppressiveness of the solitude, and its deadly influence first ujwn 
the mind and then u|>on the moral sense. 



January 29, 1898.] 



LITEIIAILUE. 



117 



One story in {uirticiiliu' seonM t<> nit to atand out vividly enoti^'h 
to jtiHtify tlio oxiMtt<noo of tlio voliimo. The iiuenn in a imaU 
Htockadtid hut, tlui central rupairiii^' Klation of thu Ovurland Tolu- 
i;riif)li lino. Notliin;; hiip[H'iH I'X'Mpt that tlio tw > 
laid up, ono aftur tho iithcT, with fovor, and I'-au oi 
udvico, by «iro, from ad'Mt'>r "(CI niiK-s away. lUr 
tliu a);oni7.in){ inolation of t\wtf two (iovtirnmiMit m-' 
HO indill'oroiit to tho ikiwh of t ho world that thi'V hanilv 
tap tlio wiruM for it, boiii;; iiitiuitely more int<.'rf<to<l in I': 
tiim of tho oabbago crop which is to Htavo olF Bcurvy, is no le'* 
coiivincint; than improssivo, ond is not greatly inferior to Mr. 
Uudyanl Kipling's striking doscription of tho cholera camp. 

A Limited Success. By Sarah Pitt. SxSiin., Sfi pp. 
London, I'jiris, iind McltKiurno, 1S07. Oassell. 6 - 

Thoro is some oxooUent work in Miss Pitt's novel. Tho 
author expresses horsolf with commuiidablo lucidity, attaining 
nil her olfocts with tho simplest language, and possesses a quite 
unfominine mastery of tho art of punctuation. Some, at any 
rate, of these qualities go far towards tho suocois of a book. 
From tho fault of straining after ori^'iniility of expression Minn 
t'itt is entirely free ; and sho is gifted, in addition, with the 
faculty of investing hor characters with real flesh and blood. 

Jn spite of theio qualitie.s ono cannot help fooling a acnso 
i<f disappointment at tho later development of " A Liiniteil 
SuooosH." Thoro is more strength in tho beginning than t!ie 
end. Tho plot is simple enough. A young clergyman had been 
promoted from tho cure of a humble village Co an important and 
comparativuly wealthy ministry. During the three years of his 
first charge he had contracted an engagomont with his landlady's 
ihuighter, a girl of tho working classes. In his now surrounilings 
he soon bouame impatient of the old love, and was careful to 
conceal the tie from his more aristo-Tatic acquaintances. This 
act of mL>anno.4.s on his part led to future disaster. He fell in 
love with tlio dauglit:;r of a wealthy parishioner, and hoarth'ssly 
sont the village niiiidon about hor business on the occasion of 
an impromptu visit paid by tho latter to his now quarters. The 
scene, which took place in a public park, was accidentally 
witnes.iod by the other lady. When tho minister proposed to the 
latter .shortly afterwards, sho scornfully twitte<l him with what 
she had seen. The yoimg man, fearful of losing her esteem, was 
then base enough to insinuate that the girl, being in trouble ami 
disgrace, had come to him for counsel in his professional 
capacity. Later on, of course, tho whole thing came out, and 
his wife's love and respect peomcd lost for ever. The manner in 
whicli lie regained the former ifl, in our judgment, a little weak 
and unconvincing. There is a kind of sub-plot connected with 
the minister's sister, which would have been far more interesting 
if brought a little more into relation with tho principal events 
of the story. 

Under the Dragon Throne. Bv L. T. Meade and 
Robert K. Douglas. SxSJin., a)T pp. "London, 1S!)7. 

Gardner, Darton. 6 - 

The Chinese proverb, " You can't open a book without 
learning something," is appropriately quoted on the title-page. 
One expects to gain something more than amusement from a 
volume of fiction which has been produced in collaboration with 
a distinguished Oriental scholar. Yet there is nothing academic 
about this interesting collection of stories, which are narratotl 
in the liveliest and brightest fashion imaginable They ditfer 
from other exciting tales of adventure only in the fact that ono 
feels there is a reserve of intimate knowledge in the background. 

Ono peculiarity is noticeable about them— that they 
are, with one exception, almost precisely similar in plot. 
In each case there are a pair of lovers— ono of whom is invariably 
a tyjiiual Englishman, insular, headstrong, full of pluck, and 
dovoi<l of tact— who, after going through a torrible ordeal of 
peril and separation, aro always restored to one another's arms 
in tho last paragraph. Of course, the adventures diflTcr. At one 
time our crazy countryman carries off the brid-; under the nose 
of her pig-tailod bridegroom at a village wedding ; at another, 



he it inveif^lcd into joining • (liinaee eacrvt •ocietjr, whish eteet* 



him to carry out an af- 
retumod from leave n 
on. Front the«o daiigi'ii i < 
th« able tntorrontion of H, 

who pi ' 
Tl' 



'>n at th« motiM«nt when 
with a loreljr younf; vif 

I' I ill orerjr ineUaoe tiuuoj^u 
I M. ml. u> KiylWi eoiMol, 

-k. 



rioh Chinaman, who i > visit to Kuro[>o. 

their marriage ho tak to hi* native lai. .. 

Chinese soil the hiiabaiid's manner cfiangia. Woetem cw 

Has made but a momentar}' iniprewion on him ; hi* ' 

prejudice* reganling women n-tnm in full force, and 1» i • 

to treat his wife as ono of hi<i own kind. He iii{:.i l-i-. i.  . 

hi* undo n* his " iiiMignificant dull thorn." a 'ii •■ ■■,  - i : 

of presentation which th" 

iv<>eiits. Itiit to lie told t-> 

proved more than human Iksli niid bl<><> 

sho moilo an invot'.Tat*; fnomy of tho ; • 

Chinese hag by plumping hormdf down ujxin tlio 

uninvittKl. The mother-in-law's turn camo when L. 

away to visit tliu Viceroy. iShe heaped cvory (KMeiblo 

on tho luckless girl's head, and ended by giving her ~  ,,,^ 

with hor crutch. Poor Mrs. Li was obliged to set-! th* 

hut of an English missionary. Then came tho inerii.iiiii- .i^>peftl 

to Richar.l Muithind, and the kind-hcartetl con.sul ha<l the 

inifortiinato lady removed to his hmi 1. It is 

hard to believe in Li's grief on len: ''i. in th«» 

light i)f his previous conduct ; but w. 

knowletlgc of tho subtleties of Chin. -. 

tho Dragon Tlirone" is well worth rootling. 

A Passionate Pilgrim. Hy Percy White. "2 ^ ."Viin.. 
.'liu pp. London, injl. Metbuen. 6/- 

\N'hen a novelist's first book is ao goo«l a* " Mr. FUiler. 
Martin." a great deal is oxpt-ctod of him. ^ " 

has since written quite fulfils the [.roniiae tliu 
tliat amusing study of tho " l)<'under " in 8t>c!ity. Juiigcd by 
the standard he created for himself a high ono as mo«lcm novels 
go— the stories with which he has followe<I it up read in eomc 
ways more like earlier efforts than maturcr work. Still, Mr. 
White is always interesting, which is something, and nearly 
always amusing, which is a raror achievoment. 

" A Passionate Pilgrim " is .scarcely a novel of the not-to- 
bo-put-ilown-till-thr-last-page-is-rcachwl order, hut it is fnlT 
of entertainment and shrewd obson-ation of manners and 
men. The crisp cleverness of the writing, marrol once or 
twice Vy infelicities of phrase, such as a reference to a 
lady's " faultles8ly-gn>omcd fingers." would carry off a 
poorer story than that of ti.ikton Klako and Sylvia Carr, 
while tho neat outlining of all the subordinate charactera 
gives it " body," and leaves us tho imfrossion that we 
have as8iste<l at a little como<Iy of real life, not merely reail 
about puppets of the narrator's imagination. Sylvia's develop- 
ment, for instance, is very skilfully handled. Finding her " a 
little pink-and-white traitress," a provincial flirt, lac' 
in opportunity to become a iiniiiyrnr dt corun, wo aro i: 
almost, if not quite, roconcile<l to her. N'or is the  
linking of her destiny v.ith thst of (he man who in tic • . • 
of boyhood had been f 
like the end of most ; 
scenes of life before it comes about. She !•; Iiko Sir Percivale'a 

j Princess ; tho hero con M on'v r-!'iiii Iir>r nftrr 

I One had  

And all 111. . . _ ,......_: ivoro her*. 

I If Oakton Blako hanlly comes up to tho ideal suggested in 

I the title, it is becau.se he has too much sense and too much 
honesty to spend his life in crying for a star set in another'* 
corouet-and that other his friend. That he cannot drive her 
from his mind, however, his riHldorleas oonrae •hows plainly 
enough : and it is in hinting at such current* in life'* ocaaa that 



118 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



Mr. Whit« approres himself a skilled oraftaman. Ho doos not 
about in our ears what ho would have us pottjoive. As in a wcll- 
faahione<I play, the apoech and actions of hi* characters inform 
us of their natnr« and derelopment without the aid of chorus or 
oooaaentaty. 

Faith. Hope, and Charity. By John Le Breton, n v 
r.jin., ass pp. Luidoii. l!4»7. Macqueen. 3,6 

It would be inaccurate to deacribe these clover littlo sketches 
as short stories ; thi' ''- • '■''i, at least, are rather nmols in 
miniature. But the ; three, wliioh is unquestionably 

the atrongsst, oomes i....- .. .■■vr to this designation. In trcnt- 
nani aaS eoooaption " Charity " shows not only a greater 
MBoant iif oriL'iniilitv than is <'xhil)ite«l in either of its prcdo- 

two former are straight- 

ts, in the nature of brief 

- an imi>ri-s.-*ii'nist sketch, in i)old out- 

"•r^' h\on wliifh i» made to stand out in 

!R'arly to the ideal of the 

.(1 masters. " Charity " 

I a LAlvinistio >■' ' ;i-cee«l» to 

o uiion the latter '.•; .ath. The 

 *' _\ '>ung man's 

> here he revels 

ill. :<• r. .i.:u... .,.i.m,i.,i I'lio lattor had 

but kin<ily-nature«l, I'on riraut : but lii.s graco- 
rogartl bim as a man of sin. and never lost a 
character wlien occasion offered. Hut 
Ills weak austerity ; and it was only when 
iken bout, among a wreckage of broken 
u' up at the jwrtrait of hia despised 
grace of charity entered into his mean 
of the first etory is intended, we 
imagine, as a sarcasm. At least, hia faith brings the hero to 
a very unhappy end. " Hope " may l>o confidently recom- 
mended aa a piece of wholesome literature for the stage-struck 
girl. It gives a vivid account of the shady side of draniatio 
tourinc companies and theatrical agencies. All the stories will 
be read with iiitera«t by the average reader : but the real strength 
and individuality of the author are mainly visible in the con- 
cluding sketch. 

The Missionary Sheriff, being Tncid('iit>; in the Life of a 
Plain Man who tii<il U> do his Duty. 15y Octave Thanet. 
111iistrat(>d by A. B.Frost artil ClilTord Carlcton. 7ii'x5}in., 
248 pp. London and New York, 1807. Harper. 6/- 

It iices between this America of 

<• Thi '■' New England which Miss 

Wilkins lias plji;L".l su skiliuily un the chart of romance. In all 
those stories which have told the secrets of tlie Kiust Coast 
villages there is  ."■. .^t which tlie author of 

• •Jerome" and '' 1 i"* never consciously in- 

tended, the sense <>• j>"i.iii n. - -"lal life as it were 

»trmnde<l on a desert island and dw  : t from the common 



forwa 

li; - 

h 

T' 

•!. 
c 
h. 

r\ 
h. 



chance 
wealtl: 
be wa 
glass r. 

relative, tliat the 
aoul. The title 



'lis 



intereata r.f <)'. 
abont wit!: 

out Tint 

Jane 

cinco 

\ 

litf, the •• 
country ; t. !. 
America, ami t) 
snv native of " 



trr.<- 
flood ' 
grow; 
" ort 

XrnrTL 
I 



■-I I This Ma,-,:... .s of fiction is fenced 

t yet impenetrable walls that shut 
■, but even the rest of America. 

.us little of New th-Ieans or San Fran- 
r Parii. and even Boston is a sumi-mythical, 



;1 citv, 
in the 



'ike the 
iiig days. 



Lunnon " of the 
But Amos Wick- 
is a citizen of a wider 
nd North and South are alike 
'ts lie is as unsophisticated as 
• is ]K>ssil)lo to conceive him 
.11(1 or th '■ ' v.iril. He is the 
, of the • the war ; one 

• ' ■•, ... ..M.i.ii;ration in full 

:s " frau "), of a society 

Tlif. .1,1 f'MlvoiiKlir 
.1 



I ary 
.rig. 
uccalt " 



'I'he new ty|)e is 

; done »»i8ely in ro- 

Aiiicrican life. All the 

" The Hypnotist " is a 

charlatan who flourishes 



guardians that hover around 



yott 

•nd 
that 
rndi 



The Adventures of St. Kevin, and Other Irish Tales. 
Bv R. D. Rog^ers. ^  ."iliii, UJti pp. Ixnidon, 1.MI7. 

Sonnenschein. 6 - 

This is an amusing collection of Irish stories rehiting to the 
life and adventures of St. Kevin, the Abbot of liallykilowen. 
The author's wit, if not of the most delicate kind, is genuine 
and diverting enough to make his book acceptable to a wide 
circle of readers. The dominant note of the stories is fun, 
rollicking, jovial, and rich as the Hibernian brogue in which 
thoy are told, .lests at the expense of the priesthood are 
scattered with too lilieral a hand to bo in tho best possible 
taste, and there are some other matters which might have been 
left out of the book with advantage ; but, on the whole, the 
tales are harmless enough. It is true they are hardly likely to 
commend themsolvos to the advocates of teetotal ]irincipleB, for 
the praises of whisky are sounded on almost every page. Never- 
theless, tlio author has cleverly hit off some of the familiar 
characteristics of the warm-hearted, quarrelsome, witty, impro- 
vident Irish people. His mothoil is one which de|)ends on 
exaggeration and caricature for its success ; hut the last thing 
ho would desire is to bo taken seriously, and those who read the 
adventures of St. Kevin with a mind attuned to mirth will be 
provoked to laughter by many droll expressions and broadly 
comic situations. 

TuF. Sxonv or TUB Cowboy, by K. Hough (Gay and Bird, Cs.), 
is a most interesting and exhaustive description of tho wild 
country of the North-West and of tho wild folk who liavo for 
some time raged and Ivnchetl and " gone a shootin' " through 
the pages of liction. The cowboy has almost supcrsetlod the 
Calif omian gold-digger as romantic material, and he has grown 
80 large and fierce and lusty in many roaring books that it is 
good to read this more serious and faithful chronicle of his 
manners and achievements. Of course a little of the romantic 
colour is lost in Mr. Hough'.s reproduction ; tho cowpuncher is 
often ferocious and often chivalrous, but he is not tliat wonder- 
ful combination of Don Quixote and Bill Sikes that has Ikjcu 
presontcil to us. And those who wish to bo really expert in 
cowboy science should devote particular attention to the 
fifteenth chapter, which deals with tho " rustler "—or, in 
Knglish, the cattle thief. Especially curious are tho pages 
devoted to the rustler's art of changing tho brands of cattle ; 
and so strange are the forms into which a littlo <Ushono8t 
ingenuity could convert tho simplest letters that one cannot 
help suspecting tlic presence of an esoteric meaning. Unhappily 
for Mr. Grant Allen and his school, those hieroglyphics were 
simply painted on the backs of cows, not graven up<in tho rock. 
The book is well illustrated by William L. Wells and C. M. 
Russell. 



LONDON AND OTHER CAPITALS AS BIRTH- 
PLACES OF GENIUS. 



I'S. 



"■'i'lV 



During the last few weeks an animatp<l discussion has 
been continuing as to the part played by London as a birth- 
place of genius. Sir Walter Besaiit would fain claim for London 
the privilege of having givdii England many of her most 
distinguished men. The Bishop of London, on tho otlior hand, 
quotes against such claims a dictum of tho learned Bishop 
of Oxford to the effect that " London has always been tho 
purse, seldom the head, and never the heart of England." 
Tho remark of tho two Bishops evidently rankles in tho heart of 
numerous Londoners, for tho daily papers are bringing lists of 
names of " celebrities " bom in London meant to destroy tho 
prejudice against London as a birthplace of genius. May wo 
attempt to solve the enigma, so bewildering, no doubt, to many 
a reader, who cannot but feel tho vast imi)ortanco of London 
for tho intellectual life of England, and who yot cannot conceal 
from themselves tho fact that lioth in ijuantity and quality tho 
dull provinces have added more stars to tho galaxy of great 
English minds than has glorious London, rammed with life, 
intense and varied '/ 

For is it not tnio tliat whore there are peaks there are 
mountains, and ri'-c versa ? In tho intellectual Alps of P'nglatuI 
the two mightiest peaks- Shakcsjioftro and Newt<in were not 
Londoners. Is that alone not suflicicnt to indicate whore tho 
lieaks may bo found ? But thero are far stronger and 
! . systematic arguments against capitals as places likely 
to give birth to genius. If London, although harbouring 



Juauiir^ 



1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



ono-Bixtli to ono-fiftli of KnRlnnd'f jiopnlation, lia« novor 
boon ttio parent of moro tlinn oiii'-UToiiticith or oiwt-thirtioth 
-of Kii(;li»h men of kbhius, hiis Kiliiitmrgli or Diililin fnre<l 
any liottor '.' Has I'nrw, )i«)r}iaps, l>oen tnori' fi<rtilo i T»ke 
the Froiich IJuvoltition. Within tho spaco of a few yoam an 
inorcdililo number of mon giftuU with the (;oniu* of action or 
thought pass ovur tho Btapo of rovolutioniiry Farin. Thoy change 
tiio piist antl ttltiir tlio futtiro, not only of Francti hut alio of tho 
rest of Kiiropo. Hut h>ok at their birtli-placps. Not one of tho 
{^roat men oi action of tho FronohRevolution was a Parisian. (See 
tho convonicnt list in K. Rourain and A. C'hallamol'B " Diotion- 
nairo do \i\ Involution Franvaiso." umlcr " raris.") And 
the contemporary French reformers of scieufi-, the Fouriors, 
the Frosnola, tho Cuviurs, tho itichats, tho Jussious, tho 
Laplacos, Ac, wore thoy Parisians ? (Seo for abundant details 
oonoomin^ tho historic and present statistics of French literature 
tho interesting work of A. Odin, " Gonese des grands hommos.") 
Or is that a novel [ihonomonoii of modern times only '<• Look at 
Rome. Not ono of the great Roman poets was born at Rome. 
In Athens itwa.s ditt'eront ; but there were practically no other 
<lweIling-])laops in Attica than Athens, 

The rcn<lcr miglit well ask, Do the above series of facts, con- 
firmetl as thoy are by tho history of all other nations, point to a 
kind of historiu law that genius is born outside caiiitals t 
Literary gonius is, or mostly so, there can bo no doubt. Litera- 
ture, it is tnie, is an urban growth ; but literary gonius requires 
tho collision and conflict l>ctween the gonius of placid Nature and 
that of high-strung civilization ; of the country and the town ; 
of the provinces and the capital. Hence this is tho ultimate 
solution of tho enigma ; genius is born outside tho quickly steril- 
ized population of capitals, but it is brought to maturity by tho 
immouso sujjgostivcnos.s and stimulation of those very capitals, 
which focus tho niys but do not, as a rule, emit thcni. We 
cannot in this connexion strongly enough recommend tho study 
of G. Hanson's ingenious work " Die drei Bovolkerungsstufcn 
<Munich, 188!)), which has lioon largely utilized by Mr. F. H. 
Giddings in " Tho Principles of Sociology " (New York and 
London, 18UC). 

If tho study of history were taken nw grand serieux, tho 
present controversy would long have been impossible. It woidd 
bo known to everybody that the constant migration of tho 
" (Country " into the Town is amongst tho cJiiuf factors of 
literary history as well as of economic and political events. 
■Such a migration facilitated the possibility of a Shakesiiearo ; 
.-.md tho lack of such frequent migrations desiccated tlie Roman 
Empire of all vital force. 



Hincvican Xcttcr. 



I 



Colonel George E. AVaring, whoso success in keeping clean 
the streets of Now York alVorded tho lato reform administration 
of Now York its most conspicuous justification, was a writer of 
books long before ho became a cleaner of streets, and if tho 
broom in his liands has seemed to bo mightier than the ])en, it is 
<loubtlos3 liecauso tho broom's opiwrtunities have been excep- 
tionally great, and not because the ]ien was fool)ly driven. The 
triumph of Tammany having thrown Colonel Waring out of oifice, 
lie has marked tho moment of his release by publishing the book 
that of all men ho seems best qualitiod to write about, " Street 
Cleaning and the Disposal of a City's Wastes " (Doublcday, 
M'Clnro. and Co.). Thoro is as much literature in tho book as 
«uch a book covild have, and much information of imi>ortance to 
the welfivre of human beings. Tho death-rate in Now York for 
lust year was much lower than it has ever been before, and to no 
ainglo man is so much of the improvement credited as to Colonel 
Waring. Tho two obstacles to clean streets that he finds to be 
most important are politics and street-railway tracks. Tho 
forn\pr of tliem was not stitfered to embarrass him during his 
term of office, and to that, more than to anything else, he attri- 
butes his ability to outdo his predecessors. 



A til 'iiUWt •• tborouKbly (liacuaaed of 

lato in '- -^ iuw Immi thm <)uertt»n of monu- 

ments nr itus. U WM held thftt Um bast aspwl 

jud)pnorit ' r.orci««d to cUtenniDe wlut maaumaaU 

wore fit for the city to roroive and whore tJiey •hoiild go. To 

that end wa<i eMtablishod the Munici|)el Art Comin- »l» 

up of |)ainttir», Ri-nl|>tors, »n«l other wiae men, w ' iIm 

Mayor from candidatcn nominatod by varioiia eociotiea lor lb* 
promotion of art . Thia CommiMion, which cbangM WMMiriiAt 
jns^ .'ithoritjr, hM 

alri beonoimed 

now wit ■■> 

sailors' . • 

•hall stand in th« rigiit plac« ia not ea«y, and m tbe 
instanco tln' (bx lori themsoWe* ahow lome tendenoy to diaftKree 
in their .though the problem ■eeme likely to be euo- 

cessfull^ »>.. .'Ut in the end. All frionda <' * -•■-an art, 

and all who ho|io to see it nobly applie<l to '>«, hare 

recently taken courage from two great aaccpsftpi mo Kiiaw 
monument in Iloston by .St. Gaudons, and tho decoration of tho 
CoDgreasional Library in W " m. 

American piibli-jlifr^ :: Xmrriran authorn have he«i 

intereatod in i ; ' .>., 

of London, :i^. i •■ii-.'nti'l.i, ,. . in 

which judgment for the plaintilTs, given on tho lOth of liut 
Juno, has since been sustained. Tho papurs in tho caae have only 
lately been rocoivod in this country. The suit wa* for infringe- 
ment of tho copjTight of General Lew \\' " ' story. "The 
Prince of India," copjrrighted in the i .itas by the 

author, published in ISKJ by t' "" .tid 

copyrighted and published in !.■ ..ml 

Co. Tho book i l here, and ! 1 by the 

London publi»hei._ . t to them fr<>; In 18M 

Febseufeld, the respondent in the suit, proposed to translate 
the book into German, and, being warned by the American pub- 
lishers that the work was protected in Germany, offere*! half the 
not profits of publication to the owner of the copyright. General 
Wallace, through the .Messrs. Harper, offered to allow the publi- 
cation on payment by Fohsenfeld of 83,000. The translator did 
not accept this offer, but wont on and publisheil his translation 
without furtiior parley. Ho was straightway sii' ' ^m 

Iiublishers, and made defence that the book ^■ tod 

in Germany, because tho real publishers i.>n 

firm, but Harper and Rrothors in thn T'l • ry 

not included in tho protection ai' -no 

Convention. The Court held tlirr „ dis- 

misse<l the case. The plaintiffs appealed, and the case was re- 
argued, with the result that the decision of the inferior Court was 
reversed, and the appellants got what they wanted. This jadg- 
ment, given last Juno, has since been furtV' — ' mdesta- 

blishes the law in such cases in Germany it ascer- 

tained was that a work copyrighted in the L nitcil .States and in 
England, and published simultaneously in Ix^th countries, is an 
English publication and entitled to protection > matter 

whoro it may happen to have hern printe<l. .nient on 

appeal, which is far too I dealt with in detail hare, is 

about to 1)0 published in tli: 

After ten years of honourable life fiardrn and Fomt has 
ceased to bo. It was a wf"*!--!-- • ^  - '.■■i.i; i-od in New York, 
and devoted to forestry. In: and floncnltnre. 

It was foundetl by Professor .--ji •. . . .„„, 

of Har%'ard, and its managing o i^, 

a Park i' ' mor of New York, v ; was ao 

deeply i Ni> iloubt the di paper is 

duo to ill-. .Miles's death. It was veiy g..vHl of it6 kind, aad 
deserved to live on and prosjior. 

A sjiocies of periodical which, so far as my knowledg* 
goes, flourishes exclusively in tl.is country is tho illnstratad 
monthly review of which the r and the RnoLmnn are 

examples. There is a certain ^ >f obvious merit in tho 

plan on which tliey are made. Pictures most be accepted as an 
important and prevalent a feature of bookmaking nowadays and 



120 



LITERATURE. 



[January iI'J, 1898. 



a rcriaw of «n il1uatrat«(I book ' ' 1.>e9 not gxre some idea of 
ih* pietaraa in it tovr r»«9on.. jti bo hold t<> )>i< incom- 

ptoto. TlwdrawlMtek to the illu^lnkUnl liook-ina):«ziiio i»tliat it is 
balky, •omewhat tanly. and Roinowhat loss ett'octivo on its 
litontry cide than if it rplied on the t<-xt alone. Thu two 
I'hiraj^o literaiy bi-weeklios. the J>ial and tho (1iaiibt.n}l:, have 
thus far esrhowod pictures : the ('i-tfi<- (New York) couipromisen. 
tioldoiu using illastrations in a book notice, but printing a (;oud 
iiuuir authors' portraits and some other pictures which illustrate, 
not the books it review's, but tho text of its own paragraphs. 

Only one of the learned professions in the l'nito<l states is 
rponiit«d to a •  extent from (treat Britain. We raise 

and educate al: nr own doctors and lawyers, and though 

oome of them are of foreign birth, nearly all who S'lcceed start 
while young in this coiintrj- and make their professional reputa- 
ti'Xis hero. Only tho ministry shows occasional examples of a 
tUtferent method, where men of foreign training and a reputa- 
tion won abroad have lieen callo<I to duties here. It is not a 
r«ry uncommon thing to find Englishmen who wore educated at 
Imwm established as rectors of American Episcopal churches. 
Vr. V of St. Cieorgp's. in New York, came to that 

•tro! rom Canada. But the two most famous imported 

■.wo have had in recent times were not of the 
: I : _land. but Presbytirians— Dr. John Hall, who came 
from Dublin in 1867 to be pastor of the Hfth Avenue Presby- 
terian Church in New Y'ork. and Dr. James McCosh, who came 
in the following year to be President of Princeton College. Dr. 
McCosh, an older man by IS years than Dr. Hall, died full of 
honoors and good works in 1804 : and now Dr. Hall has just 
announced his purpose to retire from his pastorate. Ho is still 
a little under 70, and still apparently equal to the labour he has 
carried on with so much success for over 30 years, but he has 
made it clear that his wish is to retire. It bears wituess to the 
reputatim Dr. Hall has won and to the opinion which tho 
American Presbyterians have of their brethren in (ireat Britain 
that the only name yet suggested of a possible successor of Dr. 
Hall as pastor of what the newspapers call " the richest Presby- 
terian church in America" is that of another British divine, 
the Rev. Hugh Block, of E<linburgh. 

Harvanl has chosen for her librarian, to succee<1 the late 
.Iiistin Winsor. Mr. William Coolidgo Lane, nntil now the 
lihrarian of the Athen-i-um Library in lioston. 



©bttuar^. 



DEAN LIDDELL. 

The chief literary achievement of the late Dciii Liildoll. 
who died somewhat suddenly last week at Ascot, was tho Greek 
I^-ricon which he compiled with the late Dean Scott, of 
l^M-ho8ter. We give l>elow some account of this work from the 
pen of Mr. Falconer Madan, of Brascnose College. He was also 
Well known among teachers for his History of Rome, in two 
vnliiines, publiHhcd in 1S55. and his shorter History in tho series 
o litod by tho late Sir William Smith. Ltddell was educated at 
Chart«rhoiise and Christ Church, and obtaine<l a First Class in 
Lit. Hum. in IStCi, his name appearing in the list which con- 
tained that of Lord Canning, Itobert Ix)we (Lord Sherbrooke), 
aiwl his friond ami ollaborator. Dean Scott. Liddell lived an 
academic life at Oxfonl until 1846. holding; himself aloof from 
tli<- theological -ies which were then at thoir height. He 

wns a sii«v.<^^fii ,,ter of Westminster for nine years, and 

.'HI active part an a member of the ( txford 
' .01 in the Oxford curriculum, which in- 

cluded the division into " Moderations " and " (treats " of the 
old school of Liltr't IluuianioTf*. In ISoO be 8ucooe<lcd Oaisford 
aa Dean of Christ Church, and waa known to many generations 
<i( Oxonians a« one of the most notable, respected, and, it may 
lie Mbled, picturesque figaree of tho University. He rcsigried 
in 1803. . 



" LHIDBLI. ASU SfOTT. " 

The position which the (jrook-English lexicon of " Liddell 
and Scott'" holds and has hold for tho last fifty years among 
English scholars tends to make one forgot both tluit it had 
]>rodoco88ors and com])etit<irs and also that it was at first, 
from another {xiint of view, a novel conception. As late as 18;J4 
a (Quarterly lloviewor could say that " until within a very few 
years it has boon impossible to get at Greek but through tho 
me<lium of Ijatin. Had an English scholar ]>roposod but a few 
years ago to publish a Groek-and-English loxiuon his adventuro 
would have boon received with ilisrcgani or contempt."' 
(Quarifrlij lifrif-.c, Vol. 51.) At that time young students had 
literally, as has been told mo by a living scholar as within his 
own experience, to " inako up their lexicon as they went along,'" 
from Schrevolivis or Hodoricus or Constantinus or the ponderous 
Scapula or, if they lifted their eyes so high, tlie groat 'I'liesaurv^-i 
of Stephanus. In the course of tho thirties, however, there came 
into prominence no less tlmn threo inferior Greek-English 
dictionaries, those of Donncgan, Dunbar, and (a smaller one) of 
Giles. 

But it was not from these that the two students of Christ 
Church drew either their method or their facts. Pa^sow, to 
some extent following Schneider, had already worked out a 
sound theory of lexicography, and for u first edition of his. 
Greek-German lexicon had thoroughly studied tho earlier jieriod 
of Greek as exhibited in Homer ond Hesiod, while f'lr a fourth 
edition (I8.'i0-31) he had made similar use of Herodotus, in- 
tending further progress on the same chronological lines ; but 
his death in 18:{3 put an end to this original and suggestive 
work. It was his book which tho two English scli<dars adopted 
as their basis, not for translation but for adaptation and im- 
provement. Every evening, at half-past eight, from abor.t 18;t.') 
till 1840 they met to conipilo tho work, and at lost, in 1843, when 
circumstances had separate<l tho authors, a thick quarto volume 
of over 1,600 pages attested their industry and jioi'severanoo. 
The oxoellence of the metho<l ond the critical power displayed 
in the new Ijexicon at once securml it a welcome. There is an 
instructive review both of it and of its chief English competitors 
in the Qitartcrly Review of March, 184.5, exhibiting in parallel 
columns their treatment of several consecutive words. It will, 
perhajis, bo enough to give a single exum]ile. Out of five chief 
meanings of 4^ios which could bo found in Donnegan, Dunbar, 
or Giles, three were shown by Liddell and Scott to bo absolutely 
baseless '(" rich," "without a bow," and " without force"). 
In the first e<lition of such a book it was e.asy to point out 
shortcomings, anil the call for a second issue (1845) came too soon 
to allow of substantial alteration. The third edition in 181<.> 
was " sorrected,"' anil sinco then there has boon unceasing 
addition and change, greatly helped and stimulated by the 
spontaneous contributions of many friends. Tlie fourth edition 
of 18,"m omitted Possow's name, the whole form anil contents 
having passed far beyond the original standard. 

It is currently Ixslievod that not a little humour lurke 
ni the byways of this book, but examples are not easy to tind. 
Under avto^ivrrif, however, in the 4th, 6lh, atid (Jtli editions, 
the remark will le found that '• the literal signf. (ili.scloser 
of figs] is not found in any ancient writing, and is perh. a 
mere ficment," and in the Tith and Gth Zaxopot is statoii to bo 
'• a nobler form for viucjpot," tho fnia vitijirum being clearly 
" an older." set np as " a noldor," ond corrected to " a 
nobler." The same editions also certainly seem to suggest 
(under aXior^^^t) that the seal is a " soa-bird " (!) probably a 
misfirint tor " soi-roarod." These disapjicar in tlio 7tli issiio of 
IHKi, which tho late Dean alway.s considorod as bcin;,', so far 
as his own work was concerned, a " <lo'initivo edition " ; for 
Dr. Scott hod for years lieforo his death, in 18«7, contributed very 
little, and the subsetpient (8th) issue of 1897 contains no 
alteratiim which alfects the iiaging, and only a few pages 
ut the ond supply more consiilerablu conecttons. During tliia 
long jieriiMl of growth all serious coui|<etition on English gronn I 
died away, its defiarturo being aei-eleratcd by the appearance 
of nn nbridge<l edition for schools, the sale of which, sinco its 
! ition in 184.'l, has been immense. Of lite years an in- 

t (xlition has also been issued. 

>'j iJr.-tionary, least of all a lexicon, cin posiib'y satisfy 



January ^y, 1898. J 



LlTEllATLRE. 



•una 



iTitics. Snme want lato and somi-barbarout wonlii 
Ronio oxjioot li.e utyiimlopy to bo in ncconlaiiou witli t 
apoculationH, otlii-rs would liko llii! Kxpaiinioii of tli. 
jmrt to tlio oxolinion of oiclcMiiiHtieal iiiid Hy/.antiiii! !■ 
niiothiT cliiHK in imimtii'iit Imicuiiho tlic latest 'I'"' 
Egypt aro not laviBlily iiinortcd before iH-inj; pr. 
and iindorHtood, or is unrngod at the nniall hut uii:. 
contage of oiurical errors in citation. The Uuan'a own 
were tliuM oxpro(uie<l in 1877 : — 

(Inrs win (uiKiimlly liitonili'il to Ix) a T^ziron of Clittii,;,! (IrrrV  
but It in pxtri'mi'ly dilHcuU to ilr«w «<»»ct liiniti ; ami if one kdotiu • 
U»nl and fimt lino one rany cuily omit wunla which, thouib flmt rxtaiit 
in lat<< authorn. me maiilfcitly of bcttiT note, iinJ which oft.ii »<tvo to 
llliiKtratfi cUnitlrnl iiiuigcn. 

And ugnin, 

\Vii Iwre ttrivcn to keei) ilown the hijk, no u to ritain the <|ttarto 
nizG in a hIdkIo Toluniv. 

When nil hiui I)oen said wo may at least recognize a T..v;,.,.i, 
whioli has dosorvod its great sueoeas by a really 
troattiU'Mt of Words and by atraigbtfonvard work, in 
exhibits above all the English qualitioB of thoroughness and 
hoiuid judgment. 

FALCONER ilADAX. 



AloRsra. I'ottor, Suiidford, and Kilvington, of 3«>, King- 
street, K.C., write to us on liehalf of the proprietors of the 
f.itiici.1 to aay that it is not correct to doscril;o the late Mr. 
Krncat Hnrt as having " acted for several years as co-editor of 
:lio /,<Illr.■^■• They refer us to the Ltnicef of' Jan. 15, from which 
wo take the following extract : — 

In IS63 Mr. Krncst Hurt wan rmployod by Dr. James Wiikliy. «bo 
had aiiccepdej liin fiither as Kditor of the Litm-it, in the •• rf».lin|{ atd 
.directing of proofs " and in " uHniiiting in the library driiartimnta of 
the journal "—to quote the wonis of the second ii({reenicnt which iiUo 
lien before us : and we have always supposed that it was some iniinrfect 
i-ecollcction of the terms of this docunent that originate*! the rumour 
which we have so often found it necessary to contradict, that Sir. 
Kniest Hart was once " co-editor " of the Lanr,t. His duties were the 
usual duties of the literary assistant, and he discharged them with 

alacrity and ability He was not " co-cditor " of the 

Liiiirrt for the excellent reason that Dr. James Wakley was quite eom- 
iw tent to look after the joumiil by himself, l,ut he was an admirable 
coadjutor. 



Corvesponbence. 

— ♦- — 

THE MILLAIS EXHIBITION. 

TO THK EDITOK. 

Sir,— In your issue of this date you insert a letter 
fioiii (I correspondent on the subject of the .Millais K.xhibi- 
tion lit the Academy, complaining of some omissions. 
As you speak of him as " well informed" and his state- 
ments might therefore carry weight, perhaps you will 
allow me to state the facta with regaid to the princiiml 
omissions alluded to by him. 

The Manchester Oorixiration categorically refused to 
lend "Victory, I^nl," except luider a condition with 
which the Academy could not comply, viz : that another 
picture should be sent to take its jilace on the walls of the 
-Manchester Gallery. Sir .Tames Joicev was asked to lend 
" Flowing to the Sea " but vouch,«afe<l no reply to the 
ro(picst. The Keeper of the University (i:dleries"wiote in 
re) (ly to the application for the loan of •■ The Ketura of 
the Dove to the Ark" that the (Jalleries Committee 
desired him to express their extreme regret that under 
the terms of the bequest they were unable to lend the 
picture. 

As to the water-colour studies of ''The Huguenot," 
the jiencil drawing of " Ophelia." and the oil pictui-e of 
'• Fizarro seizing the Inca of Peru," the Committee charged 
with the management of the Exhibition decided for reasons 
which seemed to them sufficient not to ask for them. 
Your obedient servant. 

FKEI\ A. E.\TON. 
January 22, 1898. 



MR. NISBET BAINS " PUPILS OF PETER 
THE GREAT. 



Til 
Sir, In my revir-r r,f . | 



" piijila ul 
" traino<l 1. 
ail'" 

S' 

till'- ^^ nil' 'in TiiT Iii-[ , 

view I did of the int' 
fJreat," I r"'i-i •!  
tlie Turks • • 
policy of fi^ 
and i>artly i 

I did r. • 
of the I: illioritiex, i)ut 

writers • ed hitn of 1 = 

of many of 
given my an 

of mull .NulcHly c: 

when t' It of " »on;e p 

bnt I still tnillK inal i: ' ' ' ' ' 

by snme sort of autho: 

was " atiipid, idle, an.i >■ . .i- ..n. i ,.i 

the Duke of I.iria's diary ; but then Kor 

o " livolyand versatile iiiiii'l ■■■l ■■'■ <•> 

advantage of Mr. Kain i:. 

judgment by reference to - 

Seeing that .Mr. Ilain defends his '• 
ation from tlie Kusxian by tlirowing the ; 
the British Muaeuin, it is only fair to t 
that the authorities there would never . 
take a single instance, of " Solovev : Utoiya 
would have written " Soloy'ev : Ibt^ ria Howii." 

I am, Sir, YOl U REX 



-I I., 



Soloi 



'Ml 


« : 


<e.l 
iki 


iiiier to 

1 b« hxl 

.•.. had the 

the Duke's 


•or- 


• on 


U> f»y 

• lUy, t.) 
liuMy," but 



I EWER. 



BOOK ILLUSTRATION. 

TO THE KDITOIt. 
Sir, The recent developments of book illustration to »vhich 

you drew attention in the leading arficle of .Fsn. 1.1 have 

gi^atly altered the api earanco and im' 

with arehitecture, sculpture, and ... 

information which a writer on these sni 

can he better given in an illustration tl 

descrijition. 

.Vlany noble folios were produced during the time 

copperplate and etchin > "•■'■■ the only =. .i-i '<. ...~ii.. 

illustration. \\ hen ): and wi" 

be practised they larger. , : .le<lthoc<' 

cuts enabled octavo, and even smaller bo. 

of the more stately folio, and many bo. 

iicrtanco, such for example, as those of f 

Le Due, have been fully and, on the whole. 

by wood-cuts alone. On the other hand, eolour-pniitiutj 

it iHisaible to deal with a new group of subjects. 

The reproduction of <lrawings by the help of the photo- 
graphic camera, when it came in, i>rove<l a great liotin to the 
I<eriodical literature of architecture, anil 
present their subscribers with admirable 
in this way. For \mnk illustration the 
uniformly successful. I.,arge drawings ha 
to the size of a sin. ill i m o and have 1. 
(quality thereby in i o of the n- 

lino and shading. t and a ve 

the i>o«<ibility of cheaply reproducing phot 
ink and even printing (hem on the jame  
These cannot entirely .« 
will always bo require*! 
actual results attaine<l, it tl.y .lo 
arriving at them ; and of sculpture, 
ornamental work they form  ' • 
draughtsman can produce. \ 

like other kinds, is now both I ...,.| ,, ..,.,. ..u., ,,.. ,,  

Yours faithfully. 
Cniversity College, London T. R«M.ER SMI ! H. 

BROMBYS TRANSLATION OF THE 
' QU.«:STIO DE AQUA ET TERRA." 

10 THE KDITOU. 

^ir,— As you have allowed Mr. Bromby to a»»*rtinyourcolumii» 
that I have n-ade " charges wh ch are tot true "' with regatd to 



'lealing 
of the 

rhen 

' of 

to 



•t 
mat'e 



ds 
d 

d 

ir 



s, for vvaiii) 1«, 
, 1 work «bnw th« 

  ,f 
f 

y 



122 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



his book, I must ksk you t 
nurks. Mr. Bromby mIocU 
IwtWMn 40 and TiO " slips < 
IB anaww to bis challongo, 
The three or four which I 
•ad no reply U> them wns j 



- for » few further re- 

'.ancos out of thu list of 

in quotations, which, 

. to you in my lost lottor. 

'--.xi' toUl thoir own Uvlo 

iiiby, however, Iwldly 

thkthe has " varidn. ^locUnt quotations, nnd 

that tiMqf an " word for word " an in tlio originals. He dicn 
|»oo>edi to aoouse me of having fal.scly chargcxl niiu in respect of 
these. Let US soewhat Mr. Uromhy's " veriDcations " arc wortli. 
The first quotation (on tiage 10), he tolls ti?. crnnos from 
Delambre's article on Ptolemy in tho / '''■ 

This quotation nppcara (Ia.it but one) oi iiip 

two " slips !-• ■<." Mr. Hromby, w ,<-'i;il bcforo 

liim, denies t. iaiiis any. It com . as I stated. 

Delambro in the article referreil to sjxiaki oi l't"lemy as " lo 
plus c^^bre, sans controdit, mais non lo plus veritahlomcnt 
prni ' ' ' ' ite I'antiquit*'. . . . Nul n'a i^to louo 

ave Mr. Hromhy prints " veritablcmont " 

and  e So much for his denial in tho first case. 

The sec. ition (on page 11), which appears on my list 

as r-"' " " slip or misprint," is from tho Cotn-irio 

(II ntc says that each of tho Heavens, with one 

esc -- - -^  duo poli fcrmi, mianto a s!? " (1 quote from 
Fraticclh » text, the one used by Mr. Bromby). Mr. Bromby 
prints " quanto a so. " So mnch for his denial in the second 
case. I neetl hardly say that I should not have dwelt upon those 
minor points, which are but the mint and cummin of Mr. 
Bromby 's shortcomings, hatl he not dolilx-rately impugned my 
veracity in respect of them. His " vindication " of himself in 
the matter of these two quotations, selected by himself out of 
the whole long list which I supplied in my last letter, may be 
accepted as the measure of Mr. Bromby's caimcity. Ho has 
made it patent to all whom it may concern that " though thou 
shooldeat bray " Mr. Bromby " in a mortar, yet will not his 
foolishness depart from him." 

Those of your readers who have followed this correspond- 
ence, which, so far as I am concerned, is now closed, will have 
little hesitation in endorsing the proposition with which I started 
at the outset, and which I now repeat — viz., that Mr. Bromby's 
translation of the " Quicstio do Aqua et Terra " is a book 
which may safely be neglected by tho student of Dante. 
I am, Sir, yours faithfully. 

PAGET TOYNBEE. 

Domey Wood, Bumham, Bucks, Jan. 15. 



Botes. 



In next week's LiUrature " Among my Books " will lie 
written by the Hon. Lionel A. Tollemacho. The subject will be 
" Some Rominisconces of Lewis Carroll." 

• «  « 

Tho -ion of the unknown interior of Spitzbergen, 

begun 1 '.in Conway in 1896, in tho course of tho journey 

full .d in " First Crossing of Spitzlicrgen," was con- 

tini. :i and Mr. E. J.Garwood in tho summer of 1897. 

Sir Martin Conway has now finished an account of this second 
journey. The book is already in ty{>o and will soon lie issue<l 
by Messrs. Dent. Tho author, thinking it unfair to the purchasers 
of his former volume— which was an elaborately illuatratod and 
expensive work — to issue a book likely to bo considered a rival 
to it, baa decidc<l to put forth tlie account of his second journey 
in a cheap fonii. As a matter of fact, tho country 
travsUed through in 1^7 was altogether different in character 
from the boggy districts visited in 18fK5. The new lxK)k will 
describe the many adventures of Sir Martin and Mr. Garwood 
ui>on Arctic glaciers and u\^m tho ]>oaks rising out of them. Its 
title is to be '• With Ski anil Sledge over Spitzljcrgon Glaciers " — 
rki being tho designation of tho Norwegian form uf snow-shoe 
with which tho snowficlds of the interior were traversed for the 
first time on record. 

• • « « 

Dr. Thomas Hodgkin, whose " Life of Charles tho Great " 
tre review elsewhere, is now at work upon the sot-enth and final 
volume of hu " Italy ami her Inva<lem," which will a|>proach the 
■abject more exdusirely from tho Italian point of view, and will 
hare a good deal to say about the foundation of the tomi>oral 



power of the Popes. Little more than a third of this volume is 
yet finished, so that it is hanlly likely to go topress until after tlie 
summer. Dr. Hmlgtin's work on Italian history has recently 
recoiveil complimentary rec>ignitioii from the Academy of 
tlie I^yncei at Rome, by which body — nearly corresponding with 
" the Forty " of France -he has been elected a member. 
    

All lovers of " Vanity Fair " will bo glad to hoar the 
latest news of Mrs. Kawdon Crawley, tifc Miss Sliarj). Tho sixth 
Duke of Devonshire was, it seems, uneasy as to the fato of that 
excellent la<ly, and Thackeray wrote him a long lotter, dated 
1W8, which is reprinted by Mr. Artliur Strong in Lowjman's 
Ma<tar.ine for Fobniary. Tho beginning of the lottor is 
cheerful : — 

Mrs. t'rawley now livis in a anull but very pretty littli' liouw in 
Bel|;raTiH, and is connpicuous for her numerous cbaritios, which always 
get into the newspapers, ami her unnffcrted piety. Many of the most 
pxalteil and spotless of her uwn sex visit her, and arc of opinion that she 
is a iiioi^ injurfd Kotiinr. . . . The late Jos. Scdley, Esq., of the 
Bengal Civil Service, left her two Inklia of rupees. 

This is all very well, though tho last statement is hard to 
reconcile with tho account in tho book, whore wo learn that Mr. 
Sodley's affairs were found to Ix) in groat disortlor at his death. 
But Mr. Thackeray writes a jiostscript of so melancholy and 
shocking a nature that wo must refer all who aro interested in 
Mrs. Rawdon Crawley to Mr. Strong's article, which also con- 
tains two unpublished letters from Charles Dickens. It is stated 
that the Thackeray letter will bo rnprinted in Messrs. Smith 
and Elder's forthcoming edition of " Vanity Fair." 
« « «  

Both tho famous scholars who compiled " Liddoll and Soott " 
have now ]>as8ed away, and in connexion with tho death of Dean 
Liddell wo say something olsowhero about that monumental 
work. It has boon for more than one generation, and will un- 
doubtedly remain, indisjiensable for every student of ancient 
Greek. It is no derogation to its merits to say that there is un- 
questionablj- scoiw for more specialization than was jiossible even 
in so exhaustive and comprehensive a dictionary. An imjiortant 
contribution of special work in tho field of lexicography has boon 
undertaken by Professor Gilbert Murray— viz., a lexicon to 
Euripides. It has been in progress for two years, and will 
probably require four or five moro before it is completed. Pro- 
fessor Murray is being assisto<l in his labours by Mr. R. D. Boll, 
of Glasgow Vnivei-sity. Thi.i, together with tho "Lexicon 
Platoniouni " now being ))roimre<l by a numlior of scholars, will 
promote a more accurato knowledge of the history of Attic 
fliction at its most important jicriod. It should also throw light 
on tho dates of the various dramas, and contribute to a better 
understanding of tho language of Greek tragedy. No lexicon to 
Euripides has as yet boon ma<lc : he is, wo believe, alone in this 
resiiect among classical writers of the first rank. 

« • * * 

Tho work of printing tho general catalogue of tlie British 
Museum Library, which was inaugurated by the late Sir Edward 
Bond, will bo completed, it is hoped, at the oi)ening of the 20th 
century. The catalogue is the largest compilation of its kind in 
tho world. Formerly, when it was written, it consisted of nearly 
3,000 folio volumes, which entirely filled the great circular 
shelves in the centre of the reading-room specially 
c<mstructo<l for its accommodation. Indeed, htu\ not 
the Government been induced by Sir Kdwanl Bond to make a 
grant of about £3,000 a year for tho printing of this mammoth 
catalogue, tho authorities of tho library would now have been at 
a loss to find room for the additional volumes, as tho compila- 
tion grow with tho increase of tho library. But as the catalogue 
has been printed tho number of its volumes has steadily de- 
creased, and tho room made thereby available on the circular 
shelves has been fille<l with other works uf reference. It is hoped 
. that when the printing is completed tho catalogue will have been 
I reduced to about 1,000 volumes. 

Uf course, spaco is being left in tho printed catalogue for the 
I entry of tho accessions to tho library which pour in day after day 



Jaiiuury 2i), loyb.J 



LITERATURE. 



IZii 



in nn iini'mling iitrcnm. For tlio honcfit of otir rondcrs vrlio nm 
not fnmiliiir with tho work, it immt l)o fX|>Iain(<<l that th« 
eatalogiio i^ liko a Bcrnp-hook of mniiy voliimon, iiit'> which are 
I>a8t(Hl printed Blips contjuning tho autlior'g iiamu, title of hook, 
<late mill plaoo of piihlicatioii, &c., arrangod nlphahotically, 
according to tho names of authors, room lioing loft on each pngo 
for now writers, or for additional works by authors olr«'ady 
entered. There are throe corios of the catiilogiio -the roo<lor'» 
fopy, a reserve copy, and a copy (or tho use of the ollicialH. 
When any addition ha« to ho made in any of tho volumes of tho 
reader's copy, tho corresponding volunion of tho rosorvo copy are 
put in their places nn tho circular shelvoH. This explains tho 
tlitt'orcnt colours of tho catalogue volumes, which, ii'> doubt, has 
often puzxlod readers. 

• • «  

Occasionally tho catalogue of tho liritish Museum Library is 
imt to strange uses. There is a story current in the reading- 
room that one day an attendant observed a lady, with a 
bowildorod expression of face, endeavouring to derive some in- 
formation from one of the volumes under " I',"' devoted to 
jiorioilical publications in London. Tho otlicial kindly otForoil 
liis services to tho lady, snd inquired what it was she desircil to 
ascertain. "Oh," slui replied, " I want to catch a train this 
afternoon for £xeter, and I'm looking for ' Itradshaw's Kailwoy 

Ouitlo." " 

■» » « * 

The Golden Treasury Series (Macmillan). which has con- 
taino<1 NO many pleasant Rolections and useful anthologies, has 
recently received an interesting addition, edited by Profussur 
Huchhcim, of King's College, who in celebration, as one 
might say, of his seventieth birthday on Saturday lost, 
had arranged a selection of Heinrich Heine's " Liedor und 
<iedichte," with many notes and some 30 pages of intrmluction. 
One is inclined to agree with Professor liuchheim in think- 
ing that the whole of Heine's works cannot be pre- 
sented to the general reader without, to somo extent, weaken- 
ing the loot's reputation, and, certainly in tho scojje of 
the Golden Treasury, there would bo no room for such a 
large bulk of verso and drama ; so that no exoiso is needed for 
tho exclusion of some of tho purely satirical poems, with their 
s])eoial rofcronco to the ZeitwilililtnUv, although, as the Pro- 
fes.sor suggests, it is quite possible that many a Heinckenuer may 
note tho absence of one or another poem with which ho has long 
boon famili.ir. As a whole, tho volume illustrates Heine's com- 
plex qualities remarkably well. Heine's humour is, perha|)s, 
one of his greatest charms, with its laughter so near akin to 
tears. As he said, his humorous muse has die laelietidc Thriine 
im IWipiK-n. Professor Buchhoim reminds us in a note of the 
attention which, of late, has been paid to the work of Heine 
both in this country and in Amoric:i, and odds that it is his 
intention to write a monograph on the subject, showing how far 
tho endeavours to make him popular on both sides of the Atlantic 
have been successful. 

•»■»*» 

Heine has had no lack of translators. One recalls tho names 
of Sir Theodore Martin, Mr. E. A. Uowring, Mr. Huchanan, 
Colonel John Hoy, 3Ir. C. G. Leland, and many others, but 
hardly ono has reached tho zenith of success. Dr. Todhunter, 
who has done so many things cleverly, has been working 
for some years past in this rather periloiis field, 
nnd he is now revising some of his work for early publication. 
Ho has immwliatoly in hand the " Nord-Seo " series of poems. 
Most of Heine's translators, he thinks, have felt that their 
original could be treated in a spirit of fantasia— as FitzGerald 
I treated Omar — thot the poems can be turned into any kind of 
metre, ond only their general sense, if even thiit, convoyed. When 
tho sense is divorced from the delicate emotional music of tho 
original niotrcs, the Heinosque charm, tho .iromaof the poems, is 
gone. Dr. Todhunter proposes to treat tho poet simply and 
directly, his aim being to follow the originols as closely as 
|>ossible, and, without being strictly literal, to give tho sense and 
the lilt of Heine, so fHrasJEnglish metres and English idioms will 



p»niiit. h«I tb« librvttn 

nt an In h is niiir ill (h,- 

lutiuls of a coin|ioter. 

• • « . 

Tho now novel by Mrs. Atlierton (who is ■onietiine* mto- 
nennsly spoken of ;<" \' --•■-'— > **horton)hM)w«n a(lvertiao<l 
under two titles, '• •. " and " The Am«riMiu 

of Maundrell Abbey. ii »iii, iiomi-vit, I>« c:i'" <eriean 

Wivi-.i mid Kiii;li9h lliulmnds. " Thi« i-«rt«r iw tha 

•iiol' »hich treats ' roages, but 

in a rather than :- .■■ first book 

ulxmt Knglishinen written by the author of ■• l'atienc« S|«r> 
hawk," but Mrs. Atberton is so intvrestod in our life antt 
country that she is as much at home aroonf; ua as in hor nmtir* 
land of America. Another novel from hor {wn ealleil " The 
Groat Ulack Oxen " will bo publiaho<l later in the siring. Part 
of the novel fii-st mentioned will l« fnund tu de^l willi 
Califomian affairs and |ooph.-, and " Tho (ireat Ulack Oxen " 
will, in so far as that i>ortion i-. ■■\, form a comfMuiion 

volume to " American Wives u: ,i Husbands." 

•» « • • 

Mr. Frank Mathow, tho Irish novelist, whom n wmllv cote 
temporary, forgetful of the celibacy of the ' )u 

clergy, lias described as " a grandson of Fall.. : .....l.,.^, i» 
ongagetl on a new novel, to be called " A Lady's Sword." Mr. 
3Iathew is a grandnephow, not a grandson, of tho fatuous 
" Ai>ostlo of Temjioranco," and he is a nephew of Mr. Justice 
Mathow. Liko Mr. Kudyard Kipling, be was bom in Itomtiay 
— -one of the streets of tho town being natoed after his 
father, who was on eminent engineer— but he was brought up in 
Ireland. For some yoars Mr. Mathow practised aa a solicitor, 
but has now given up law for literature. Ho is an Irishman who 
has not " feared to fspeak of '08," for his " The Word of tho 
Uranibers " is a story of the Irish RobolJion of a century ago. 

• « • • 

There aro signs— perhape anticipatory of Mr. Hurray's 
promisetl edition— of a revived appreciation of Byron. But 
it is somewhat surprising to find how so admirable a poet as 
5Ir. Stephen Phillips ploa<ls his cause in tho CvrnhUl 
Maga-.iiit. Hero is ono of tiie (tassages on which tho advocate 
relies : — 

The Are tbst nn mv Im'sopi i»rrv» 

I* lone 
No torch i» ..•.- 

A funeral |>il«> '. 
It would, perliaps, be severe to say that these four line* are 
absolute nonsense : but tliis one con say without fear of cuntra- 
diction— that inliuitoly bettor verso is rojocto<I every month and 
everj* week by newspaper and magazine e<litor8. Mr. Phillips 
imagines, it seems, that tho charge against It\Ton is that lie did 
not study " tho system of pauses, tlio value of an ' i ' or an 
'a.' " Surely this is inadequate. T' •• is that Byron 

was cureless of the exquisite workmai, : *try ; that too 

often he did not writ^ jKietry at all. 11 u ciitics do not cavil at 
the chasing of tho chalice, but declare it to Ik- of base metal, and 
rather a driuking-pot tlian a sacramental cup. Let oa take 
another of Mr. Phillips's " justifying pieces. " It i* froin that 
" Vision of Judgment," so admirably vigorous in its satir*. but 
so baldly prosaic in its diction, so execrably rough in ita versi- 
fication, which Mr. Pbilhpe oaIIs " bis greatest poem.'' Here 
Byron soya of St. Peter : — 

He imttcml with hi* keys at a (Teat rate. 
AihI •wf.i* ' •'  ' ',in ; 

Of course his 

Or >otnn >>>.i. ..ii,< i ~, :..... . 

This is the kind of stuff that is to set ) .ittle lower 

than the angels," very near Milton, and above Mai uy, Tenoyaoa, 

and Keats. 

• « « • 

Mr. Stephen Phillipa's " Poema," which wore crowned by 
the Acadrnuj. has had, for a book ' ' ^ordinarily 
rapid sale. \\ ithin a week tlie :l>s was ex- 
hausted, and in less than another week tlie publisher, Mr. John 



124 



LITERATURE. 



[Juuuury 2\), 1898. 



Lmm. reeeiTed order* far another 70O copies. The new edition 
lK>«r being iMOod i« to haru not only thu typograi'Iiical aiul other 
errors c*r*faI1y oorn>cte<I, but one of tlie mur« important iK>oms, 
" The Wife," rewritten. 

• « « « 

The now novel being written by Geotf^ Egerton, whoso 
" '~ s " t mi '• Fantasias " we reriew elsowbero, is to 

be ti.:.:. .. The Wheels of Ootl." ami will In? i.ul livh. .1 hv .Mr. 
Grant Richa.-cls in the spring. 

« * « 

A profit vf the Far Eastern question, Professor R. K. 
D.> '.. '"g » volume on " China " for the " Story of 

til : ios. The )>eriMl more especially dealt with is 

that frum ll;c time of the foiinilor of the Mongol dynasty, 
Kublai Khan, to the present day. 

• « « « 

We have it on record that once in his life Jiihnson burst 
into a passion of tears. He had Uon reading aloud his iiocm on 
•* The Vanity of Human Wishes," and when ho .-mu* (,i (Im 
lines : 

There nwrk what ills the ncholar'ii life »MtiI, 

Toil, envy, want, the patron, aO'l the jail. 
he broke down and wept bitterly. Ho was thinking, doubtless, 
of Lonl Chesterfield ; of the Shepherd in Virgil, who grew 
aoqoainted with Love and found him a native of the rocks. 
Love ts still a native of the loeks, and to be a little more 
preeiao, bis present aildress is at Antibrs, where Loily Miiiray 
haa pnrrhanod a large house, standing in over 10 acres of ground 
(rocky groand, certainly), which is to servo as a temporary home 
of rest for pof>r artists and authors. The following arc the 
rules : — 

1. That the health of the applicant i« soch as to make a winter in a 
miM climate neccmary, or, at leaat, a<lviiuible. 

2. Tbat be ii nnable to obtain this without lucb assistance as be will 
find here. 

■1. That his medical advisers are able to give a fair hope that with 
the benefit of a winter abroid he will Im; ahic to return to liis work. 

4. Tbat those admitted pay their joarney nut ami back, and i:l a 
week for board and lodgini;. Personal k-ashing, extra fires and lights, 
and wine will be charged extra. No dogs allowed. 

« « « 1 

We give Lady Murray all credit for her good intentions, but 
we fear some readers may sclent in her oifcr something of tho old 
spirit of patronage. In many ways, indued, sho has refined on 
Lord Chesterfield's methods. One can imagine the gratification 
of the author as he sues his claim in /ot ma ;>ai(pc.<-tii and presents 
his medical certificate ; and admire tho regulation which pro- 
irides that every man shall pay his own fare, " out and back." 
Good board and lodging, may, of course, be easily obtained in 
Southern France for £t a week, and excellent rin oriUiiairc is 
given at all meals. Perhaps it is the " tone " of tho projK)SO<l 
refuge which is to compensate successful candidates for tho 
restriction of their independence. 

 » • « 

Mrs. h. T. Meade's " A Princess of the Gutter " is to bo 
fr.! ' I by another novel on similar lines dealing 

»r -In. M(Rii'(. (ianlncr and Darlon are to 

be the publishei^ ■•, in conjunction with Mr. 

Robert Rastacc, . ^ ,..:.. i,i ^^torics called " Tlio IJrother- 

hood of the Seven Kings " in the Strand Magaziur, dealing with 
a seoret society, which has a woman at its head, and making use 
in the interests of the plot of many new scientific developments. 
Bbo h;. :i a novel called " On tho ilrink of tho 

Chasm ^'liurday Jimri.al. 

• « « « 

The " Life of Pasteur," written by Professor and Mrs. 
Perey Frankland, will nhortly be publisheil by Messrs. CasKcll. 
The Tolame, " Micro-organisms in Water," brought out by 
Messrs. Longmans, for which we are indebted to the same 
aath^m, is sow regardc<l as the standard work on the bacteri- 
ology of water, and the intimate and practical association of tho 
writers with both the chemical and bacteriological aspects of 
Pasteur's work ought to insure for this " Life " a hearty 
welcome from both tho man of science and the layman. 



The .Ti./m.i /To/xAim Hospital Bultrtiii for December contains 
an interesting article iijnin " King Arthur's Medicine," written 
by Drs. Gould and I'ylo. Tho authors i>oint out that the 
Arthurian legends conUiin nuich to interest tho surgeon and tlio 
student of fL>rcnsiu medicine. Many knights gave such mighty 
blows that they cloft tho heads of their onuinics to thu chin and 
even " unto the i>api>ys." All the kniyhts, it seems, know some- 
thing of " First aid to tho wounded." Thus Sir Porcyval 
Btopi)o<l " his blodying wounde with u pyco of shortc. " ilany 
were skilful in minor surgery, but tho more severe wounds were 
generally looked after in the monasteries and also in tho 
nuimerius, tho terms " surgeon " and " lecho " being ap- 
plied to w<miun equally with men. Tho woimds were treated 
with salvos and ointments, but healing by enchantment or miraclo 
was well rocopnizeil. Thoro was, too, a curious faith not yet 
wholly dead' in tho curative power of virtue and virginity. Tho 
Icochos wore not always suo^'cssful, and )i)tili»a^ia was recognized, 

for Sir Slarhaus " dyod through fals leches." 

« * » • 

Professor Sweto hopes to finish (for Messrs. Macmillaii) by 
tho autumn a commentary on tho (ireek text of St. Mark':* 
(iOS])ol. After its publication tho Professor intends to set to 
work on tho " Introduction to tho Greek Old Testament " which 
Messrs. Clay have already announced. The University Press 
intend to issue this year a second edition of " Tho Old Testa- 
ment in Greek " Vol. III., with tho imiK)rtant addition of tho 
(Jrcok te.xt of Enoch, so far as it has been recovered, among the 

books api>ended. 

* « « « 

Mr. C. R. Condor is engaged uix)n a volume dealing with thi^ 
Hittito question, which will bo pul)lished .shortly by Messrs. 
Blackwootl. It treats of tho early history of Syria and Ciialdea. 
and of the decipherment of the so-called Hittite texts. 
« « *  

" I went biick upon my accounts, and found that in 15 year* 
I hod lost nearly .i;l,'iOi)." Such was Mr. Herbert Spencer'.* 
ex(ierience of publishing the " System of Philosophy." It is 
satisfactory to find that tho tide turned later, and that the book» 
have been paying, and paying well, for many years. Mr. Spencer 
has reprinted his evidence on copyright given before the Royal 
Commission in 1877. Authors clearly owe a great deal to Mr. 
Spencer for his services on this occasion. A strong party on tho 
Commissiim used the word " monopoly " to describe tho wTitor's 
claim on his own works, and some of tho members drew an alfoct- 
ing picture of the poor working man coming homo from his day's 
toil, looking round his room, and shedding a tear -because thi- 
liookshelf was bare and ho could not atTord to buy tho " Prin- 
ciples of Psychology." Tho conclusion, of conr.so, is evident ti> 
the meanest, if not to tho more generous, intelligence ; if tho 
working man cannot buy his " Principles," the author must bo 
robbed of his copyright, so thot tho book may bo issued in u 
cheap form. It was Mr. Spencer's oflice to fight against this 
audacious defence of burglary, against Hill Sikes thieving " for 
the benefit of a charity." 

« « » * 

There are many interesting points in Mr. Spencer's evidence. 
Ho got the librarian of tho London Library to analyze tho 
circulation of certain books in the threo years following their 
intro<lucti<ui into tho library. Tho results aro curious. 

Here, in the first place, is a l>ook of science — I.yell's " Principles 
of (Jeoloify" ; that went out 2H times. Here, on the other hand, ts a 
sensational book— Dixon's " Spiritual Wives" : tbat went out 120tiroesv 
Here, again, is a highly instructive book, Mnine's "Ancient Law" ; that 
went out 29 tiinx. Here is a book of tittle-tattle about old tim«s— "Her 
Majeaty's Tower ' ; that went out 127 tim<«. 

Mr. Spencer mentions several more examples ; and, adding up, 
we find that tho instructive and valuable books were issued IIH 
times, while volumes of tho " tittle-tattle " class were borrowed 
5R4 times. If these things are done under tho green roof-treir 
of the London Library, what aro wo to cx|>ect from tho very dry 
woo<l of the free and circulating libraries Y It is entertaining to- 
have the titles of the books which Mr. Spencer dislikes, but 
" Various Fragments," as tho book is culled, has many point* 
of interest. 



January 21), 18 98.] 



LITERATl'RF 



Mr. ('. Rnymonil TViaxloy, wlio liim rooiitly orrnctwl tlis 
jrodiH of liiK Khort vnlumu on " John anil S<'l>n<<tiaii Cnhot " fnr 
Mr. Ki-ihiT l'nwin'« soriuB of " UuiUleiM of (iroat>T Itritnin," 
oxpcct-s to 1)0 omployoil <liirin)» the next fivo or mx ycnrs in the 
toiitinimlioii of Iho history of inoiliovnl /nogrniihy ami tnivol, 
which wan hognn bo ably witli tho piililic-ation, last February, of 
the " Dawn of Moilorn (Geography " (Murray). Tho history 
is to bo continiioil down to tha iliscovorj' of America in HVJ. 
The first volume, " Dawn," covers tho |H!rio«l from the conver- 
sion of tho Roman Kmpiro, circa a.I>. IHl! -ffJO down to eircn 
A. II. 0(10. Tho soeonil volume is phinnoil to fit the time A.t>. 000 
to .i.i>. lIiOO, oiiiling with the return of Marco Polo from tho 
Kiiat. Tho thinl volume will probably take the remaining two 
reiiturics from 1:500 to 1-1S)*J. In collaboration with Mr. K. 
I'restago, of ItuUiol, Mr. Itoazloy has prejMired for the Uakluyt 
Society till- second and concluding volume of a translation witli 
commentary of " Azurnra's Discovery and Con(|UPst of (iuinea " ; 
this book should bo published by tho society early in April. 
« « « « 

Mr. Harry Hickford-Smith is i>reparing a bibliography of 
(Ireek topography and aroha-olocy. which will probably bo pub- 
lished next winter, and also a phrnse-book in English, P'ronoh, 
Italian, and Modern (ireok and Turkish for travellers in tiio 
Ijcvant. This is to bo issued early next summer. 

« * » • 

Mr. Lo Gallienno has recently written a now book which, 
<Hen for so versatile a writer, is somothing of a now departure. 
It will be called '' The Uomance of Zion Chapel " the story of 
the youth and manhood of a Nonconformist preacher who is at 
heart a prophet of " tho new Spirit." 'J'lie sccno lies in an 
indu.striaJ Midland town, where culture is considered almost a 
(Uiiosity and love akin to lunacy ; tho time is just when tho 
Morris wallpajor began to Iwj talked of in households where 
■waxen fmit hail reigned for '20 years. Many of tho charactera 
are ipiaint local studies of the period, and ((uite unlike anything 
Mr. liO fiallienne has hitherto drawn. " Tho Romance of Zion 
Chapel " will be ]iublishcd by Mr. John Lane. It was stated by 
a contemporary tho other day that ilr. I,e Gallienno was about 
to settle in >'ew Knglnnd, but thi^ is hardly correct. He is 
.•d)out to visit friends in America, and may, perhaps, lecture in 

'• tho States " but will not stay there. 

* ■» «  

Mr. J. A. Stouart, who has published nothing since the 
appearance of " In tho Day of Battle " three years ago, has just 
finished a new novel, which Mr. Heinemann is publishing under 
the title of " The Slinistcr of State." It is not political, 
though some political personages figure in its pages. The plot 
turns largely on tho vast financial operations which are, as some 
think, so ominous a feature in the life of toKlay, and on the 
tragedies that sometimes follow on them. Hut it is in ossonco 
a love story. Tho scene is laid partly in the Highlands of 
Scotland, partly in London, and partly in a city of tho Mid- 
lands. This novel furnishes yet anotlier illustration of the 
troubles of novelists in regard to titles. Jlr. Steuart had first 
vailed his novel '• Time and Chance " ; but tho name had 
already been u.sod. Then it was printed as " Tho Master- 
Knot," from a lino in Omhr Khhyyiim ; but again the title was 
taken, this time in America. Two subsequent titles had to be 
abandoned for tho same reason. This dilHculty over names is cer- 

t;iinlv adding very seriously to the anxieties of writers of fiction. 

*  «  

After so many years of triumphant Impressionism it is inte- 
resting to find that some artists are going back to the methods 
of tho illuminated manuscript of tho Middle Ages. There is an 
excellent example of this glowing and etnblazuned work in the 
i^tuilin, which gives a repro<luction of Mr. Gerald Moira's " Tho 
Crusader," with an account of his paintings by Mr. Glecson 
White. Gold is freely used in the picture, the colours are rich 
and splendid, and tho banners carried in tho kickground are 
rtanielike in their intense scarlet. The whole eft"eet is exactly as 
Mr. (iloeson White describes it— something between tho misjtal 
and the Japanese colour-print, and one could wish that Mr. 
Moira would turn his attention to book illustration. 



clo*!' 



tt •t.t -A pU 
•■in;r n f-V'-r 



>n<i tiio 

n of 



\ hall*, on tho Itoor ol wbirlj •dwl -< 

uid II ... riiiK^'iir ii( miiroiout |kj» 

rrnifitaDcv ortTcome, 

Then there is a ttain- , ' |'i"K along tho «idmi of th» 

walh," and upon it " groping hi.i Hay upward* " wa- I'iraiiMi 
hlmnelf. And suddenly, at an enormoii* height, the «• " - - -,":'- 
to an abrupt end, but a little higher, and agAin a 
flight of 8t«ps, and again I'iraneK. - • ' 
abysH, and ao on, " initil tho iiniii< 
are !■ ' "Ui of the liall.' > 

tion !■ memory of I)e ' 

elemeiil of auo to e.v ujh-, and a eiirioii^ 
pasaage is afforded by four reproiliic-tiont 1 
in the current num)>er of the Itvtnr, 

• • * • 

It is extraordinary how Uio artist lias contrired to inapire 
more masonry with a sense of melancholy horror. " A Stair- 
case " does not represent the eternal ftairs of tho " Dreams," 
but it shows with strango efTect the brutal woight of late 
Italian architecture ; there is an oppression in the massive 
pillars with their heavy capitals. Ilut tho socind plate,  T' 
Apjiiaii Way," is a nightmare, anil the oim poor human • 
almost in tho mid'lle of the relentless, <l 
at once to be syndwlic ; man mive<<  

with dre.id and doom upon him, holploHs as the p^sonago'! oi 
tireek tragedy. 

Mr. Brailsfords " Tho Pbil-Hellenca " will ahortiv be 
|>ublished by Messrs. Heinemann. Mr. Brailsford waaaGI 
graduate of high distinction, and is now a lecturer in r i"'- 
at that I'niversity. Hiii book gives an acconnt of hi* ' 
in the Foreign Legion which fought in tho reconi «ar in 
Thessaly, He critioiTies somewhat severely tho morale of the 
(ireek Army, and de.v-ribcs vividly the proinijss of tho war and 
the changes of feeling at Athena. Most of the charact«r.i are real 
personages who staked their fortunes c n the changes of the war. 

• » •  

M. Riecardo Stepiien-i lui.<t ju: ' i book, which Mas-srs. 

Bliss, Sands will pirti!->;li onrly in i ,. calknl " Conversa- 

tions with Mrs. Di- riythe." some part* of which have 

apiK'ared in the II t!<t:rUr. It will be illustrate<l by 

Mr. \V. G. Burn-Murdoch. " Tho Princo, tho Minor Poet, anil 
the Undertaker " is tho probable title of another book Mr. 
Stephens has in. hand, which may |>crha]ie bo doscribcd aa a 
fantastic romance. 

« • . 

Mr. Frederic Carrol, the aiitni>r <h •• Tho .Adventures of Jolin 
Johns," has been working for s<iniu time at a long novel of 
Iiondon life in a trreat variety of aspects. Mr. Carrel writes in 
French, which, owing to his birth and education in Jersey, is ai 
familiar to him as Knglish. Ho does so because an 1 

censorious control is, he thinks, cxerei.sed over fiction Ui i 
His book will bo publishe<l in the spring in Paris, and will pro- 
Imbly be translated a little later into En_'!i-:i. in what Mr. 
Carrel calls " tho usual oxpurgatorial way." 

• « « . 

When the third and final portion of tho Ashbnmham Library 
comes to be sold, ailmircrs of the " Fisherman's Bible" will aee, 
for, iierhai>s, the last time, the first fire otlitions of Walton "a 
masterpiece all in their ori;.>in ' '  .■ . 

so far as is known, has no coi 

Walton the first is, of course, Uu must exinir.^.v.', 
only because it is a first ciition, and, as such, in 
denip.n.l than the others. Aa a matter of scaroitv : i 

edition of lOVi is more noticeable, while tho ihini of :• 
it very clo.«ely in t'uit re,si>ect, but then tho clamour 
snrrounds tile vrimiiiv,- \olumi'. wlJcb. !••. tl-.,. v\ w 



126 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



liihad tk* vwy year in which 01ir«r CromwoH was (leclarml Pro- 
Mctor, is almost entirely wanting. Tho hij;hoat price over paid 
in this eoontiy for a copy of the tint edition of Walton was £415, 
in D»OMnber, 1800, £310 and £'JIO Iwing prior roconla. During 
the past 11 year* only 12 copies hare appearmi in tho Lomlon 
sale rooms, and of tht>!u> tiro were more or loss ini|K>rfoct. To 
find all fire editions in tboir original bindings an<l porteot is 
ahaolntely a unique experionco, anfl it is to be hopc<l that such 
an interasting series will be secured by some Waltonian of our 
own ooontry. 

• • • « 

TIm catalogue of Mr. Arthur Reader (Orange-street, Red 
Lion-squaro, W.C.) gives s|iecial prominence to tho manuscript 
nota-books, &c., of Captain W. Porker Snow, the eminent 
aathor, who was second in command of the IVince AUiert, sent 
oat by Lady Franklin in scan-h of her husband. Captain Snow 
was the author of '• \'oyagos in Antarctic Seas," " Two Years' 
Cruise off Terra del Kiiego," &c., and he appears to have been 
guilty of writing poetry. The same catalogue contains John 
Kemble's autograph manuscript catalogue of his curious collec- 
tion of tracts relating to the stage. The compiler does not 
appear to know that Kemble's splendid dramatic collection was 
bought by the Duke of Devonshire in 1821 for £3,030, and is now 

at Ohatsworth. 

« « « « 

Messrs. Sampson Low, Marston, and Co. send us their 

admirable " English Catalogue of Books for 1897." The merits 

of this annual publication were pointed out recently in these 

columns, its characteristic feature being tho <loublo ontr>' (under 

author and title) of each iMvik in «no al]>habctical list. It is 

" the only continuous reconl of tho books publishecl in Great 

Britain during tlio last 01 years," and tho present issue contains 

1,400 more titles than tlio catalogiie of 189C. Tho same firm are 

issuing " The Annual American Catalogue, 1897." This gives 

a full record of books published in America during the year. 

•    

Tlie plan of publishing, at an almost nominal cost, largo 
editions of popular works by authors of long-established reputa- 
tion is being tried by Mr. Frank A. Munsey, in Xew York. Mr. 
Mnnaey has already brought out several books at the price of 
2c. each. He is also publishing a series of contemporary novels, 
bottn<l in cloth, which are sold for 2r«. In spito of Mr. Munsey 's 
venture, however, the tendency among American publishers is 
against a lowering of prices. During the past few years there 
has been a marked improvement in the quality of their book- 
making, m'hich means, of course, an increase in the cost of 

manufacture. 

« « « • 

Li America, in spite of tho disappearance of many small 

(icriodicals, tho vogue of tho cheaper magazines shows no signs 

of decreasing. The publications of Messrs. Har|)er are almost 

as well known in England as in America. Two other magazines, 

^rCluTt't and Munxy't, have attained circulations so enormous 

that Ihoy are now extremoly valuable pieces of pro|)erty. Their 

rate of subscriptinn, one dollar a year, would hardly pay for the 

c<ist of manufacture ; so they rely for their revenue largely on 

their numerous and c<j«tly ailvcrtising pages. Muiincij'f, the first 

of the magazines to bo rediiceil to the price nf ten cents a copy, 

has comparatiTcly little value in a literary sense, thougli within 

the past two years it has manifested a disposition to publish 

work by authors of reputation. M'Clure's, on tho contrary, has 

from the first numhor, brought out about five years ago, Ixson 

distiiiguishc<l for the literary quality of its contributions. 

• * " • • 

Tbe fact that the older and more expensive of tho American 
magazines are apparently not injured by the success of their 
•' tmi-eant " rivals shows how vast the rea<ling public is in the 
United States. The Americans arc a nation of voracious, but 
indiscriminste, readers. Many of them road nothing but news- 
papers and the lighter pcrio<licals. It is to this class that the 
cheaper magasines appeal. A distinguished American writer has 
said that in his country most of the reading is done by women, 
and this statement may explain the popularity of such a publica- 



tion as the Laifin' Hnmc Jmimal, of Philadelphia, which has 
reached a circulation of nearly a million copies ! So great is 
the demand for )M>pular magazines in America that many of tho 
larcor news;>a)iors are publishing in their Sunday editions 
 !iiont«." Several of these aro very well 
novels und short stories by tho most popular 
writers, Uitli ••( Amorica and England, whose work is duplicato<l 
throughout the co\uitry by the syndicate system. 

■>«■»« 

IVofessor Charles O. D. Roberts, who first came into notico 
about ten years ago by his verse, has lieon adding to his reputa- 
tion of late by tlio imblication of " A History of Canada." Hc' 
is now at work on a new romance of Canadian life, to bo called 
•• A Sister to Evangeline." It will intrmluco several of the 
characters that appeared in tho eamo author's first novel, " A 
Forgo in tho Forest," published in Amorica last year. Messrs. 
I^mson, Woltfe, and Co., the Boston publishers, are to bring it 
out in the spring. Mr. Roberts was born in Now Brunswick, ami 
for several ytors he held a profes8orshi|i at King's College, 
Nova Scotia. I.^st year he left Canada tu take the assistant 
editorship of the llluitrated American, a weekly paper pub- 
lisheil in New York. 

« • « • » 

In America several dramas of excellent quality havo 
won successes of late. The Ikril'i DUeiple, by George Bernard 
Shaw, after being warmly received in Now York, is being played 
with success throughout tho country. Mr. Pincro's Thf PrinccnK 
and the tiniiirii'j has had a pro.-tporous run at tho New York 
Lyceum Theatre. The Now York critics dilTcro;! in their opinion 
of Mrs. Burnett's stage version of her novel, " A Lady of 
Quality," but it pleased the theatre-goers, and it is now having 
a triumphal tour. Great favour has been accorded to Mr. Barrie's 
dramatization of " Tho Little Jlinistor." Tho two adaptations 
from Dumas /i '■/•(•, Mr. Grundy's A Mari-ia;ie of CunrcnUnee B.ni\ 
Mr. Charles Coghlan's Hie lloyal lior, have both been praised 
for the brilliancy of their dialogue. It is worth noting that all 
of those pieces are importation.s, and tlioy give point to tho com- 
plaint recently mode by some of tho American dramatists that 
native work receives i-ory little cncouragoiiiont from thc> 
American managers. On tho other hand, the American managers 
complain that they aro always on tho watcli for goml .American 
dramas, but e::pcrience great difliculty in finding them. 
* « »  

Anton Czechow, the tenth edition of whoso " Motley 
Stories " we reviewed a weekortwoago, is tho most widely rood of 
modern Rus.sian novelists. Ho still practises as a iloctor iit 
spite of his increasing reputation as an outhor. At a vorj- early 
ago Czechow published humorous sketches and psyc)io1ogic4il 
studios remarkable for maturity of thought and style. 
His " \Vindbags,'' " Walodga tho (Jroot ond AValmlga tliu 
Little," and " Ariadne " (in which Czechow surpasses Strind- 
lierg as a woman-hater) appeared in 181MJ and 1897, following 
rapidly on '"Russian Lovo," a volume of short stories, which, ir» 
a translation, enjoys an immense popularity in Germany and has 
run through several editions. His latest novel, "Tho Peosiints," 
caused a great sensation in St. Petersburg. In it, tho Russian 
jieasantry aro represented as sordid, innately vulgar, and 
self-seeking. This docs not find favour with those who look to 
the jwasantiy for the regeneration of Russian social life. 
■*■»«• 

A " first night " of Goethe must always be intorcstiiig, 
however unworthy the piece may ho of tho author of Fauttt. On 
January 17 the Royal Theatre in Ii4>rlin pro<luccd Dk Aiif- 
t/'rerjieii, which niotle its first appearance on the stage sinco 
(Joetho left it ! " ii- in iT'Xi. Tho tnsk of finishing tho play 

hadbeenoco': i y Hcrr von Stcnplin. Die Auf(jrrr<ilr,iv!a» 

a pan)dy of tiio Frencli Revolution, with its sconn in a d'crmatt 
village. A comic hero, the village barber, si^ts himself at tho 
hca<l of the peasants to rebel against tho doniininn of the local 
Count and Countess. Tho whole troatmont is burle8<]uc, and 
tho sober judgment of Ooetho's admirers agreed that it would 
have been better to leave the comedy in oblivion. 



January 29, 1898.J 



LlTEUATl'RE. 



127 



I 



I 



Hoiirik Ibsen's now play, which will bo ready by the 
numinor, is said to Iwar tlio title of I>ie Hattnikiwlrr. 
• « • •• 

The arrival in Paris of M. Ciabriel cVAnnuniio t« bo present 
nt the linnl roboivrsnls <'f Iii« piny, L't VUlr Moilr, wliich Mini-. 
Sarah IkTiilinnlt has brouj-ht out nt tho KonnisMnnou Tliontri-, 
was RruL'twI with much friimilliiiciis in tho Paris joiininl«. Tlio 
misunderstandings between Franco and Itnly were partinllv 
removed Intoly by tho visit of Mnie. Diise. Then, f 
time since the formation of tlie Triple Allinnco, the ji' 
tho Italian nctresH, more than all tho trontius of uommerco, helped 
1o dispel tho suspicions cultivated in jingo sheets on both sides 
of tho Alps. And when tho Italian Amlinssador, Count Tomielli, 
..irerod Mmo. Dubo a dinner at tho Embassy, to which was 
iuvitotl tho Vice- President of tho Chamber, few could fail to see 
in tho event another illustration of tho power- of r.^prit and of art 
among tho French and Italians, and to envy thcso nations whose 
statesmen have at their disposal instrtiments of political action 
so delicate and yet so etFoctive. 

» •  • 

Tho subscription list for tho erection of a monument to a 
celebrated writer is evidently no test of his merit. It was so in 
the case of Maupassant, and it is onco again proved in connexion 
with tho monument to Paul Verlaino. The list has been open 
for more than n year, but only 6,000f. have as yet come in. 
Count Robert do Wontcscjuieu, the poet, whoso intercession in 
favour of tho memory of Mme. DeslKirdes-V'almoro recalled that 
plaintive sentimentalist to an inditt'erent world, and who for 
years played the role of Maxonas to Vorlaine, is arranging n/Vf'' 
iialantc at Versailles in tho spring, tho proceeds of which are to 
1)0 devoted to tho monument. Meanwhile, tho montinient itself 
is being sketched in by tho sctdptor Nicderhausen-Hodo. A 
inomorial so/vice for Verlainc, by tho way, was recently held at 
Saint Etienno du Mont, and his friends repaired later on to 
the Clichy Cemetery to place flowers on his grave. 

«■♦■»♦ 

The death recently at Nancy of Conito do Warren was an 
event of a certain interest to English readers. M. do Warren 
hod served as on oMicor in tho Army of the India Company, and 
ho published on Uritish India an admirable although now 
forgotten volume. 

« « « « 

Calmann Li'vy, who has juRt reprinted from the Rctue <U 
I'ari^ tho novel of M. Augustin Filon, " lial>ol," announces, 
among other volumes of interest for early publication, tho 
" Corros])ondanco " of Ernest Kenan and M. Uortholot (Mme. 
Darinestetor's '■ Life of Ernest Konan " is to appear, by the 
way, in French from the same house) ; Volume \ 11. of Pierre 
lioti's " (Euvros Completes " ; tho delightful study of tho 
Duchess of Itnrgtmdy familiar to readers of t'omte d'ilausson- 
villo in tho AVnic c/c-s deux ili/mU-.i ; Mme. Uentzon's " Choses ot 
Gens d'Ameriquo " ; a now volume by M. Paul Deschanel on 
the " Social Question "and one entitled " I.os Do'formations de 
la Languo Fran(,'aise, " by his father ; a volume of ■• Paysages 
Historiquos," by M. Ary lifnan, tho jminter and son of tho 

front Renan : and other volumes besides by " Gyp," M. Jean 
less (" L'Amo N^gro "), M. Henri LavetUm (" La Valse "), 
M. Hngues Lo Roux, Mmo. Octavo Feuillet, Mme. P. Caro, 

Prada. iVe. 

 * » « 

M. Marcol Prevost, who has just had tho misfortune to 
lose his mother, is correcting the proof-sheets of a new volume 
of stories, " Trois NouvcUos," to bo published by M. Lemerro 
on Febroary 16. , 

■»»•»• 

To two very large classes tho " Hook of tho Veor " com- 
piled by E<lmund Routlodgo should prove especially useful and 
acceptable. Thoso who have travelled between 8 and 10 in the 
morning on tho lines wliich converge from all quarters of the 
suburbs on tho Mansion-house must often have liatoned to tho 
interminable discussions of passengers who occupy " first, 
smoking." Sometimes tho subject is political : one gentleman 
plays with tho tangles of the Siamlnnl leading article, while 
another sports with tlio Daily Nena in the shade of opposition, 
but often tho talk touches on deeper things ; there is, perhaps, 
a qiurstid siilitilissimti, whether gi-oengrwers are especially liable 
to suicidal impulses or whether Ilurina should be sjioltwith an " h. " 
JSuch disputes have been known to last for many weeks, but if any 



■> rveeable » c«l«br»ted oomitWwaUiiit, 
'I will ftnd a itonof I 



lAV ilriiH' friiiii itM t«j*«MI 



t 

tendo<i to  

his f iivo'ii : • 

Thin iiu ttoui 

whnf • ■, nn-I w\ 



of 
^, MpCCt 

linlv 1 1«- 






S« 



passes tb> 
l>ot. Hut '. 
toil ; he will 

dici«n>''l in ;in ' . . ^ 

d in tho sale-room. The imiex is » niwet 
\ > tho book. 

« • • • 

The hi^t'^.;. .1 ...,;.1m to thf> - »ti....i".l. ..< tl... M-iti,), 
Islands, M Pell an^l il. 

the e<litoi- , iloeson \\ 1 ' 

are now to be issued fortnightlj*, on tl 
month. Volumes in the press are : '• 

rgate ; " Southwell," by Rev. .\ iick ; " Vork, by 

A. Clutton Brock : " Peverh "by Mr r'hsrl.-i 

Hiatt ; " Wells," by tho K«v. P. 
by Mr. Philip Kobson ; " Ely." 
'• Worcester," by .Mr. E. F >t i 
being modo for companion v. . ;i . . ( 

Carlisle, St. I'aul's, Bristol, (iloiiccstiT. ami i.ij "ii. 

Messrs. 3Iothuen now annonnce Mr. E. F. ifenson'a " Tho 

Vintage," illustrated by Mr. Jacoml>-H(«xl, and alao al V- 

traiialutcd from the (jerman of E. V. Zenker, cnt.:! 
•■ .\narchism," which has aroused somo attention on ti..- 
Continent. 

Messrs. Hutchinson and Co. announce a new novel by Mita 

. Angida Dickens (a granddaughter of Cbarloa Dickens), 
::•. liU'd " .\gainst tho Tide." 

Messrs. Service and Paton are is.suing nt once, in 
tinnanco of their new " Whitehall Librar>'," the foil.. . 
standanl works — Lord Lvtton's " Tlie Lost o? tlio Borons " anil 
Sir Walter Scott's •• Rob Roy." 

MeR.sr8. Small. M.iynartf, and Co., a •  ' ' 

pnblishing firm of Boston, are brinuing out 
edition of Walt Whitman. The v. ' 
(Jrass " has already apiwnrtd, ami 

Whitman's letters, many of wlu. u iii»>i: uv..i i.<i..i.i ..n. 
printed. 

Messrs. F. V. White and Co. have in the press foirr P" «■ 
novels. These ore — " Little Miss Prim," by Miss Flo- 
Warden ; " A Valuable Life," by Adeline S(.i-,.-ui( ; 
Strength of Two," by Esmrf Stuart : and " ' 
by .lean Middlemass. They will not Ihi pub! . i 

of the spring iniblishing season. 

Mr. David Cliristie Murray lectures at tho Kr^'ptian-hnl! ":i 
Sunday evening on tho Dreyfus case, wr 
photographic repnxluctions <>f tho letter n'- 
Dreyfus and of tho man's i- > . that liscy 

could not have been written ; 

Mr. Walter C- •■ ' 

Design," to which ■- 

before tho beginniii; 

ilel.iyed on accoant . 

fuund neco-i-!>' ^- ;., i 

Mr. r. 
the early i 
" Landmarks ot (tin 
containo*! in Mr. i. . . 

published. 

Tlie delegates of tho Clarendon T 
" Brief Lives, chiefly of Co- 
Aubrey, between the years 
author's MSS. by .\: ' 

The Fobnia'rj- 
mcnt of Mr. Stonloy .. - 
Fish and Fish Shops." 

Mrs. r W Krirl,. C.Krli.-- . _. .. ; 

on ' • '    

'J ;;. will contain articles on " Hospital 

Claims an . ' ' by the Duke of I . and on ' • I ' 

Story of t; - .\rm'y," by its foui. );cv. W. Cui 



>f the number of extra 

Mclude. 

:iy. of 43, Murray-] 

;i nf .1 v.>l!'.mi> bv (  



Its it was 



'>»ibli«hin? tb« 



128 



LITERATURE. 



[January 29, 1898. 



LIST OF NEW BOOKS AND REPRINTS. 



ART. 

Vm Pelntupe au ChAtsnu do 

Ch. ■•••-■■ 

11 <•! 

1".. 1. r r. I". 

BIOORAPHY. 
The Stopy of Oladstone'a 

TheAutoblOK lur 



The I •• "1 

I- -. ..iA. 

9 Mil, Now 
\. 

1 - 12-. 

■»B«at R. Balfou' 

M I'P. lAinUon a- ..'h. 

!««!. N. !■..;,. 

My Llta InTwro Hemlsphepes. 

Bj sir ( kartra On ran Dull W i ; , 
Portntil. UluKtr«tc<l. 
X1.-3M + I.+38&PP. Ix» 
I'nv 

BOOKS FOR THE YOUNO. 

Allc:— '— " ' '  • " 

h 

York, ntul UoratM}-, Iws. 

Longniaiv). &<. 

CLASSICAL. 

Aplstotflls dc Interpreta- 

Uc ■' ' lit 

< . 

Cru-ja.  
acadmi 

Berlin, I-;-. i:.iM,.r. .m.ii. 



EDUCATIONAL. 



Thr 

(■■ 
1 

>i 
i. 
Ini 
tvr 



ipy Papers. 

Loriiiiiii fill 



Kay to the Preoeptope' French 
Coupae. !<)• hlmmt IVirkUi 
M.A. (lond.l (Thi- I'nti'iiinr- 
Scric".! C'r. 8vo.. Iv. • t.'i pp. L'mi- 
don. 1888. 'M-'- ■.' '-.l. ,, 

Tha Stopy or  '  

II. A. llrvtb 
uml Map*. 

Lui»!(in. 1«R. ll^.i.K ....<:.u. .i. IaI. 

FEBRUARY MAOAZINEa 
Lonarman'a Magazine. I^hik- 

ii^'i. . M. The Woman at 
Home. ll'j<lilcr Is. >-lou|{li ion. (kl. 



FICTION. 



Tp.t 

7 



T«: 

f 

*.-iti.., I- ,■.';l^;<. 



»'■-,. 
Kntomb 

Hrnry i'  
■aa pp. Ixi: 

*,' 
i. 

A Olpl-Bejant. 

rai-iiil'rU. « • . 
don. IMK. 

Zlsa. A T«l' 

Hj- .MarruM U...^ . . 

Lxidon. last. Ui«bx, Umg. 



Philip Opayatoke. Ily Kmn 

.1/.!.. .^ .'.iM . X ill -all lip. Lon- 

tl(i: '- - ' ■■■.:hy. I^jnjc. ^^ 

Bvn. hi. AulUrtrl- 

*W V,m Hr H. 

Vf  im. 

\\ 

**ei". 

Ti - 'T. 



00. 
; lire 

tm- 
.In., 

<y\. 

.!. f 

ii> 

I'P. 

««. 

A'. 



-s: 

•M.t 

Wcnun an* tfm 



GEOGRAPHY. 

The Ni.roi> <^r»i!.»'^0« 'M.l tjio 

H 

Tr .u~ 

Rnd Mup. i] < Jiii.. i.t^ pp. lx)nilt)n. 

isas. .Ali'llmen. .'i-. 

Exploration and Huntlnsr In 

Central Africa 1895-96. Kv 

AS' 11. (,./.',„/i... K.K.I^S.. ( apl. 

Yorkshire llcj,-!. lllu> 

•I  ijln.. xi.-i Ills pp. Iviin- 

^Icthuen. I.V. 

The Ruined CItlea of Ceylon. 

Hv Ilcnr;, (('. fur.-, M.A. llhl- 
tn»ti'ti with riiotojfniplis taken bv 
the Authur in IHIK. Illx8iin.. 
la pp. London. 1897. 

Sampson Ix)U'. SS.'. 
The Cockney Columbua. Ky 
Ikirid CliriMir Miirrajj 7Jx51n., 
xiv.- £f.' p|i. LoMilon. ISIS. 

I)o\vney. R>i. 

Vephandlung-en des 12ten 

deutschen Oeosrraphen- 

tag'es zu Jena am 21., 22. u. 

23. Iv. 1897. Kdiicil l,v Jm:,;.I 

'■  ;,•.//;»'. Willi •-' 

pliitc-^. Ijirue 

: pp. Hcrlin. 

Ifi^. Itoinur. Jl. (i. 

HISTORY. 

T>- • r '..'tdstone Colony. An 

i (■hapt<*r of .VuKir.iliai) 

Hy Jttrifs l'\ //of/fin. 

M I'. 'J Jlln., vi. • 277 pp. l^>nilun, 

1*18. Inwin. 7». M. 

The HlstopyofSouth Carolina 

under the Proprietary 

Government. l'i7iH7r.i. Hv 

' '  ' '■■ ' ■■■•'■ \'- "'Hoi-of Ihu 

'Ii l'nn>. 

I'P. Lon- 

Ma«'lniUan. llx. n, 

Los Dernlera Moments de 

Napol^n. Isr.tlK-.'l. Hy l.r 

li't'-t<"r .i n/iiminarrhi, N'ouvelle 

hli'ioti. iiviv iin<- introdnction cl 

- <!'■ I'c-^t-n* Ijicroix. Tonic 

I ;  7 j. S.VP pp. HkHh. 

Cinil-r. Kr. .'I.MI. 

Ca:' -IS. 

J,. .!.• 

(■ ' . . : n-. 

IW-. I'ioii. I r.7..'iii. 

Oeschlchte Itallena Im Mit- 
tel"""-. ' '■ ■•■I I'-'' i1i.ni»<lic 
K 1/. //«;•<■ 

M ','p. l^'ip- 

z^K. .  ■• - Ion: Wil- 

IialM.f a^ Sommr. 

Das Mnrtyrolo)?'Ium dec 

N" ' 'i .  "T ii'ii'-buches. 

'' SiilMil. 

■r\r (!.■• 

■uid, 

<•' :  1^'. 

I.. li.-r- 

Ijn. 1"^'-. -linl.i :. .M. 17.411. 

JANUARY MAGAZINES. 

Thp II . ..111. 

I-. Ml>. 

N 1«. 

The Quarterly Hevlew. i\o. 
J73.I .Murray, li". 
I 

LAW. 
The Mafflatratea' Annual 

i\ • l.r 

I r «;.■:-■ 

' ..i.litrr 

IxxxHi.-^ 
- I & 



Evopy Man'a Own Lauryep. 

.\ Hniiilv ItiMik of Ihc l'rini-i|ilc-sof 
lai\% ■■■' !.*....>. 1.. I ^^(rrM^■^•. 
.V.I I linn llic 

1..M; 1.. xvl.-r 

7iOi.i., 

1 .V1M1.1. ft-. Sd. 

TheReooi - ilonoupable 

Sooloty oi Lincoln's Inn. Till' 
Him k ll.mk». Vol. I. Kniin A.li. 
ir.'J lo l.V<ii. xl. • .VJl pp. IxJiidon. 
1SS)7. I.incoln'H Inn. 

LITERARY. 
TheFlPst PartoftheTrairedy 
or Fauat. In KnKliKli. Hy 
TlwmiiH /■;. ir, Wi, I,I,.1>. N.'w Kil. 
With llif Ih-atli of Knu.it. from Ihf 
Second I'art. SixSJln.. 2K5 pp. 
London. 1*?**. I/^n^rinniw. Ki. 



District Nurslnf on a PpovI- 

Hy Jumrnoti Hiirri 






;T 



 ll>! 



Some ■•■ I >i. .'■ 

mi.i .-I 

in> 11 
of I 

U. \: 

Ku '11. 

TheSpectator.Vol.lv. .\<i. '^u. 
lieo. null, 1711, to No. .T21. Miinh 
8tli. 1711 The Text KdlU'il and 
Annotatoil hv (1. Urcaory Smith. 
\Villi InlrodiK'tion liy Austin 
Kohson. 71 'IJin., 8)7 pp. I^indon. 
l.'.aw. lleiil. :is. n. 

The Ruba' lyat of Omar 
Khayyam. HelnK a Kix'Kiinilc 
of the ManiiMTipt in the liixlleian 
Llbmrj- at Dxfonl. With a Tran- 
Hcript into iniKlerii IVrwlim ohiirBf- 
teiN. Translated, with Intnidiu-tion. 
Notei*. and a ltibUnj.[raphv. h\' 
tCdirard Heron Alien. lOixiHin.. 
x!ii. + 2S8 pp. London nnii I'.iri*. 
18H8. Niehols. 1(K M. n. 

Les Vleux Chants Populalres 
Scandlnaves. icj.unU. Ni.nli^ki' 
F"iiikevi.iL*r.» l-lMnlriii' Lit I.-rat iin-. 
Compar^c jmr Ia-oh J'im-nit, 
I. Knoiiuo Sauviige : lx;.s Chants 
de MiiKic. lOxBlTn.. xiv. + .'CW pp. 
I'uri8, 1S!)7. Bouillon. 10 fr. 

Ttc ilitrcratiir V.-^ iifuinchntftt ^.ilir; 
I'uitliTtf iitilufit A>,ir. . " -ii. 

I»arire-tcllt von (/" ' -. 

hrittiT Hand : I)i. i in 

Krankreicli. 8vo.. ;;|7 pp. L.-ipziii, 
isas. Veil S:fo. Jl.ti.G). 

MATHEMATICS. 
A Paper on the Foundation 
of Projective Geometry. 
(Head before the Aristotelian 
Society, Doc. IX/JI7.) Hy Kdu-nnl T. 
DIjeon. SJ-.'illn.. 81 pp. Cam. 
bridge. 18»-i. Deitchton. Ilell. a*, n. 

MEDICAU 
The Tallnrman Treatment by 
Superheated Dry Air in 

Itlieuiiiali'lli. Ij.iilt, Ithellinatle 
Arthritis, etc. Kd. by Arthur 
Shndirell. M.A.. M.H. Hlxon.) II- 
liidtTHlcd. 8JxSJin.. X1. + 17.1 pp. 
London, Paris, iinil :Madrld. 1838. 

Hailliirc. .Is. (id. n. 
Ergrebnisseder Anatomic und 
Entwlokelungrsfceschlchte. 
Kilileil bv /'(■.!'". ssorj. .Mrrk.l and 
Jinnii.l. " ii. i:i'.- V,,l. VI, it- K-.i of 
An - 



vn 
Wi 



■l.ij. 



dent Basis. 

.M.A.. Ml). 71- .''111., Ill,-, pp. 

il.in, 1W.W. Sclent 111.- I'n'ss. -j . 

Supplement to the Colnatre 

of the European Continent. 

Hy »'. Ciirrir Itiizlitt. SJy.ljln., 
vll. + UM pp. London. 1«I7. 

.<onniii...lu.in A: Spink. Tm,. n. 
The Brotherhoodof Now Life. 

V, TI.. M;ui.TI...S,..r. ThrAiiaph 

Th.. ! ; is. Tb,. 

pp. .V : 

].. W . .Mli'M. '.' . 

An Account of the Roman 

Stones In tho Hiimoi'lnn 

Museum. Il^ t. 

M.A.. I,I,.I).. I IS 

(jow. With a 1 Ijy 

John Yoiintt. M.i>. Wiih I'hnto- 
(cravuro l'l«te«. IIUx7Jin., 1.x. + 
Inl pp. tilas|{ow, iwr7. 

T. & I!. Annan. 
Enfrllsh-French-ItaJlan-aer 
man Technical Pocknt- 
Dlctlonary. I'art II. The 
Ijeitdirn; LaiiKiiat^e Ik-Iiik KiiKlish. 
2nd Kd. . Hy //. (tffimicr. I>arKU 
ISnio., 230 pp. Stulttrart. 18!K 

iletxler. M. 3. 

Stutifn unt' Mi-bitaticncn aito 35 

"\alirfit. 8i>;flin., 4ii;? i.p. By 

Ludwiii llambrrger. Herlln, 18H8. 

KosonlMiiiu & IlarU il.i, 

PHILOSOPHY 

Igrnorance. A Studvnf the C'nnses 

and KllVcIs of I' i ■•■ I' .i,i, 

with Home Kdu. 

bv Mttrrun Ii. I \ , 

M.H. K'antab) '.I, . -. ... i.i.. 

lAilxlon. IS'.IH. Ive^an I'aill. If., ii. 
La Phllosophle de Nietzsche. 
Hv//«iin I •   ! - , ,,r 

adjoint 1. a 

ICnlvers 
187 pp. I'.in-. i-'.i-. .\;..in. 1- r. i.:*', 

POETRY. 
By Severn Sea, and other I'oum , 
Ity r. II. Warren, M.A. 81 X Till. 
7'J pp. London, 18a8. 

Murray. "«. 6d. r. 

POLITICAL. 

Die Rechtsphllosophle des 

Jean Jacques Rojsseau. 

Kin H.'ilra(f itnr IJesrIilchte der 
Slaatstheorien. \^y I'riv. Doc./h, 
M. I.iijimann. Ijir«e8v.i., 141 i» . 
Herlin, 18!li (iiittciitatf. .M.3.iO 

SOCIOLOGY. 
Die Arbeltertra^e, t\r\< und 
jetzt. Kin akad •iniwho;- V.irtrag 
V( " *' .... 



Maxwell. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 
The Two Duchc-ssos. r.niiily 
('orresiMiiideii' .  to 

(icorxlana, |)'i ro, 

Klizal...|li. I),, ..ire, 

aii.i by I't-rr 

don. . . I, 1898. 

Itl.ukie. lOs. 

The Culture of Vegetablea 

and Floweps fn.in ,-^eeils and 

l(oolJ>. Sutton d- Son. 71 h K<1. 

8(-t-Ali>>- <^ pp. I/indi.n. l.^i;. 

.'slmpkln. Marshall. 5". 
Index to the PpePOfratlve 
Wills oflrelnnd. ivvt i<, iHin. 
1.>1. by Sir Ai- . K.S.A., 

Ulster Kintt . l')l«61in., 

Ix.-t .'iti pp. 1 1 

I'. nliy. SOh. 

The EnKllsh Cataloirue of 

Books f^tji- 1R07. I'l  litiii., 2Hipp. 

lyf.ndoi. 'in Iajvv. !m. n. 

Dod's r itary Com- 

panlor. I.siiidun. lABi 

WbltUkor. ia.(fcL 



.'on lir. Stt u m Id 
.'illii...V>pn l'«7. Ia\ 
London : WUliaiiis & N 



ri. 



Die Ktirperstrafen bol alien 
Vttlkern von den ttlteaten 
Zelten bis auf die Oegren- 
wart. Hy />;-. Ulrhnrd Itrrdr. 
iKtiltiiixeM'hicbUicheStudlen.) In 
1.'. parts. I'art 1. LnrKe 8vo,. pp 
1-18. With ninny IlliislnilionH. 
DnMdon, 18118. Uohni. M. l.M. 

THEOLOGY. 

St. Paul's Epistle to the 

Bpheslans. .\ rracllcal K\po 

Bltioli by fhilrlf.-: I.orr. ,M.A., U.K. 

7|xSiii., X. 1 2:j< p|i. I.iiiid.in, 181IS. 

.Murray. 3k. 6d 

Rellg'lon and Consolenoe In 
Anolent Etrypt. Lid ires di - 
livered in I nivcrsiiy f "olleK< , 
I.oiidon. By U'. At. F {niter» 
Prtrir. D.C.L., LL.I). Il/Mn., 
17U pp. l.ionil(in.l81M. .Methiii n.'i<.nd. 

Petpos. HciiiK .N'otoM on tlio Life 

Chamcler, and Works of the 

AiMislh^ IVter. Ity Rrr. Z. H. 

l^u-iH. 7Jx51n., 317pp. fardlir. 1S!». 

Low Is. .',H. I . 

The Gospel of Common Sense. 

Ity S'l phrn flay.-, 71 .'l;!,].. Imj pp. 

l.i.t .hall. Is. 

«'.M1- Ml'Jllf. 

H> ; .   •• ''iiu 
Va\. U I 
Large K\ 

Bei...... ......... ;.. -KC- 

wiilacbafl. M. •l.»l. 



;itcritturc 



Edited by $. $. (imU. 



Publlsh«d by Z)U ZitOtf. 



No. 16. SATURDAY, FKBRUARY B. 1898, 



CONTENTS. 



PAOK 

lieading Article Mmli-ni Hhcioric 120 

" Among my Books," l>y th<- llmi. Lionel Tolleiiiachv 144 
Reviews — 

Tlir Story «if (iliulslone's Lifo 131 

('Vraiui il(> Rci'frcrm' 132 

Tho Noii-R<'li(<i()n of the Future 133 

Exwiy.s of SchiiiH-iihiiuRr US 

Tin- l.ovc AirilrH of .Sumo l-'iiiiumK Mon-Ars Roctl Vivendi 1.11 

Socioiofry - 

Hiiilwiiy Niitioiinlization I'M 

The .Scliolivr iind the Stnte 135 

Tlip ('ivili/.iition of Our Day 130 

Oiitlhu's iif Kli'moiitary KcoiioiiilcH— Tlio KiicyflopiiHllii of Soclnl 

Ui'forni Childrmi I'li.liT tlio Poor Liiw-IUpiira l;jO, i;i7, 138 

Shakespeaplana - 
Williiiiii siiiikoxi)cArc''-i Ijohrjuhre— The fJonoHU of Slmkonpoarc> 
Art - VoiKTo o A(!onp -Ttio I'eoplo for Whom Sh(iWo-*poiir« Wrote 
—A French .Mael>nlli -l*ro-Sh»ko»perinn Urnum— The Llfcht of 

.sh.ikcHpu.in' i:«, !:«), 140 

Reprints 140,141,142 

Law- 

Uticoiiscionablc Biivgnins 142 

Divorci' ill India 14.'{ 

UroMiiu mill I'owlrrt' \mw of Dlvoreo— Finher'n Jmw of MoHkhko 
-Maxtor mill Horvnnt— KobluKon on Qavolkind— Wurkiuan'H 

('oiiiporwation Act. 1897 143 

Fiction— 

Th.' War of th.^ World.s 145 

The WrolhiiiiiHof Wrotliani Court— Duot o' Glnraonr— In Suinmur 
Nlcx-Tho Kjcpre-<s Miwsentcor -Doilic Jonk-llln Knult or Hcrsf 
Kor thu Ijlfi! of Othorrt- By the Kir4e of tho Ili\-er — Unknown 
to IIcrxelf-Tho Vanished Yacht— A Mutrinioni.il Knyik - 
Tho Si'creUvr— A Doctor of the Old School— The Doctor'H 

llikmui 14a, 147, 143, 149 

Celtic Fiction 149 

Atnerlcan Letter 150 

Foreign Letters — Germany 150 

At the Bookstall 152 

Obituary Tlic Rev. Dr. Nowth— .M. Einile RithebouiK 1.'>:1 
Copeespondenoa— Primitive UoliKioiis Idoit^ (Mr. Ilorbert 
SpuiiciT) -Myronnm Civlllitntion (Mr. W. J. Stlllman)— " Ix)rd 

l)iilll>.>roii8h"(Tho Hon. Slunrt Kn<kino) 154 

Notes 154, 155, 156, 157, l.J8. 150 

List of New Books and Reprints 100 



I 



MODERN RHETOBIO. 
 

Among the well-de.'served tributes of praise jMiid by 
Sir Kobert Peel to Cobden on the Kepeal of the Corn 
Laws was a compliniontary reference to the eloquence 
of that great chani|)ion of free trade. It was an eloquence, 
he said, "the more to be admired because it wa.« unaffected 
and unadorned." It was remarkable that this absence of 
ornament should be singled out at that great Parliament- 
ary epoch for si>ecial commendation, since it wa.s to some 
extent a revolt again.st the traditions of ]X)litical sjieech 
making. IJurke's profuse embellishments and sonorous 
rhetoric, .Sheridan's nightly laliours in producing epigrams 
he was to throw oft' the next dtjy as if they were sudden 
inspirations, Pitt's " State pai>er " style, Canning's magni- 
VoL. II. No. 5. 



ticelit, dometimeM hoilibriotic, d: rn 

favoured the cultivation of an eliK, . .. . ..mi 

unadorned." Kven C'aMtler«*«gh, with iiiii "conslitutioDal 
[)riiiciple wound up in tlie l)owel.4 of the ir :il 

principle," exemplitieti the j»n*vHiling faxhion _. ....'U- 
turing it. But the firxt really great orator who habitiuiily 
calle<l a Hjjftde a .Mjnide wa.n not ('olxli-n, but Bright. Thiit, 
among other iK-culiiirities of liright'ji oratory, iH well 
brought out in Mr. C A. VineeV iitudy of Bright — the 
last jiublishe*! volume of the ^' ' Kra Seri' !i 

we recently reviewtxi. That in's "\y< • ii- 

ian reversion to natural simplicity" wan a prot4^, 
unconscious, no doubt, against the da " • r. It 

wan a return, to use a ]>arallel Bri;; would 

hardly have appreciated, from IsocrateM to Demosthenes. 
Without committing oneself to any alwolute gem-ral- 
ization, it may be said that on the whole the 
public siieaking we have heard in recent yean, and that 
which will mark the Session of Parliament to be opened 
next week, follows the inetlxxl of Bright, or at any rate 
responds to the same influences that made the Radicals of 
a generation ago renounce the stilted jwrifxls of an older 
school and tread the solid ground of sim))le and .-traii.'ht- 
forward i)hra8eology. 

The change to some extent corresjionds with a similar 
modification in the practice of writers of j)ro8e. Burke's 
speeches read very much like his ]>amphletii, and Gibbon, 
if he had ever been incautious enough to break his 
silence as memb^T for LiskeanI, would have glided 
naturally, we can hardly doubt, into antitheses and 
dej)endent clauses. The eloquence of th-- kI 

that of the writer have more or less taken a ; -n 

during the century that has elaped sinct their time. We 
could hardly nowadays read or listen to Ix>rd I' -i. 

It is true that the most famous orator of the i- 

century reminds us of an earlier .school in the elaboration 
and the facility of phrase which mark til' ' <>th of 

his tongue and of his })en. But .Mr. (■ ni his 

Parliamentary career under the older traditions. His 
sometimes excessive exuberance of language is not the 
secret of his magic. It is rather in spite of it than 
in consequence of it that he takes his place among the 
masters of elo<iuence. Nowadays, as a rule, the orator 
goes more straight to the foint, and the prose 
writer cultivates the short sentence, the simple statement, 
.sometimes with a weari.<ome insistence which ' ' ".> 
regret De tiuincey. There is, of course, a close i: :i 

lietween the spoken and the written word. A simpler ami 
more direct u.se of the one follows a more j»edestrian 
tendency in the other, and if a public man — the late Ix)rd 
I/cighton for example — relapses into the ornate, his .style 
is the same, whether he is writing for publication or 
siM'aking at the Mansion lIou.«e after dinner. Oratory, in 
fact, must be claimed as a branch of literature. Such a 



ISO 



LITERATURE. 



[February 5, 1898. 



statement voold indeed have astonished IMato. For the 
Greeks beauty of expression, play of fancy, power of 
thoupht, all alike liml tlieir jnoper vehicle in speeeli, not 
in writing, and it was lonjj N-fore tliey got the l>etter of 
an innate distruf>t of books. A collet-tion of written 
om!; - uld have been for a (ire<>k of theajje of IVrii-les 
jmj >. Tlie s|ieeches i>oul(l no longer go straight 

to the reafon of the audience to whom they were ad- 
dressed : they could not answer ((Ucstions : they no 
longer lived U|)on the lip of tl>e sj>eaker, but had become 
dead and sterile. Now the ]>o8ition is reversed ; the arts 
of writing and jtrinting have sulxwlinatcii the sjxjken to 
the rtfonleil thought, and, with all the iniimrtance given 
to oratory by modem representative government and by 
the development of the reporter, it n*mains subject to 
literary influences, and is, indeetl, in no snuill degree a 
literary jiroduct. 

How completely this is true in the case of the few 
orators of the highest rank will strike a reader of Mr. 
Vince's essay very forcibly. Of course, there are other 
{actors — and very important ones — in rhetorical succej<8. 
Many jieople will read a sermon who will not listen to 
•ne. The vast, unfathomable ocean of homiletic liteniture 
is, indeed, fed by but few rivers which carry down, 
Uirough fair and smiling valleys, any iwwerful navies 
or valuable merchandise. But there is some justice in 
the claim of the preacher to obtain for his deliverances 
a chance of life — such as it is — ujwn the library 
shelf, because, unlike political utterances, sermons deal 
with subjects of high import and of perennial interest 
quite apart from the audience of the moment. Indeed, 
80 long as there continues — among the clergy of the 
Anglican ("hurch, at any rate — the present melancholy 
neglect of the art of deliver}', sermons should, i)erhaps. be 
regarded — when they deser\e it — as literature pure and 
simple. There have been rare instances of public 
sjjeakers who have triumphed in spite of their delivery. 
Generally sjteaking, we may place careful elocution, a 
sympathetic voice, and natural gestures among the essen- 
tials of oratory. A " magnetic jx-rsonality," also, is by no 
means to lie despised, though we may hesitate, generally, 
to recommend "the flashing eye and curling lip" which 
reporters nse<l to attribute to Bright. But these deside- 
rata, though a part, are only a small j«rt of the necessary 
outfit of a great orator. He must have exactly the same 
discriminative taste in the use of worrls and phrases, the 
tame elasticity of thought that we look for in a i)rose writer. 
In the one kind of composition as in the other there is one 
indefinable quality — the same practically in Ivith cases — 
which is the stamp of greatness. Bright was not by 
education a " man of letters," but he had by nature 
the literary gift. Two characteristics of his oratory may 
be singh-"! ont, in which no public. sjK-aker of modem 
times has been his e<]ual — a natural, unstudied sense of 
rhythm, and the capacity of raising his subject in a 
moment, by one sentence, one isolated j>hra«e, or even 
a single word, into the higher regions of emotion. En- 
dowed! with a gift so rare, he would surely, ha<i his tastes 
and training been guided into other jnths, have been a 



great essayist, or a great poet. Yet his sj^eeches have not 
taken their place in English literature. The orators of 
the ancients are acconled a prominent ])lace in the classical 
library. Among tiie nuxlerns, none haveobtaineii a similar 
distinction, except Burke. The absence of any monuments 
of English el(K]uence was a-scribed by Hume in the last 
century to tiie inferiority of modern oratory, but 
such an opinion must even in his day have been 
founded rather on an exaggerated admiration of the 
classics than on an impartial and discriminating apprecia- 
tion of the modems. A goo<l illustration of the interest 
which may attach to recorded elo<|uence is affonled bv the 
collection of discoui-ses by Bishop I'otter of New- York, 
which is noticed in another column. But for one reason 
or another the orators of the nineteenth century do not seem 
likely to gain tiiat place in the lil)rary whidi ^ome of them 
undoubtedly deserve, as offering a highly valuable field 
for historical and literary study. 

This is |>artly accounted for by the fact that, 
at the present day, oratory as a literary product is 
likely to be more and more affected by the Press ; 
and that in two w.iys. If we have not with us the great 
speakers of a jMist generation, we need not assume that 
the jMwer is gone from among us. But such as it is, it is 
no longer encouraged by the newspajxTs. It is becoming 
more and more the practice of the journalist to tell the 
public about a speech rather than to give a faithful record 
of it. The Lobby corres[>ondent is ousting the re|)orter. 
Instead of knowing what a statesman actually said, we have 
often a jMU-tial summary of his utterances, with the addition 
of a few descriptive touches as to his voice and manner. 
There is another way less direct in whicli oratory is afl'ected 
by journalism. The abundance and facility of journalistic 
speech, and its immediate hold on the public attention, 
tends to merge the platform and the Press. A public 
audience, as Mr. Vince says, is eager for generalities ; it 
likes jHjIitical errors to be referred to moral delin<|uency 
rather than to mere infirmity of judgment. It *' never 
enjoys itself more thoroughly than when it is crying 
'shame.' " This task of rhetorical advocacy — of advocacy on 
the lines of the j)ublic s]H'aker — -is now almost absorbed by 
the daily newspajiers. The leader writer learns to imagine 
an enthusiastic audience hanging on his words, and frames 
his style accordingly. We are familiar with, sometimes 
perhaps weary of, the smart and telling i)hrase, the fre(juent 
etlitorial " we," the " one wonl more," reminiscent of the ex- 
temjK)re preacher's last jKiragraph. " It n-iiuires no sjiecial 
insight," said ?]merson, writing about the American dema- 
gogue, "to ("dit one of our country news|Kii>ers. Yet who- 
ever can say off currently, sentence by sent»'nce, matter 
neither l)etter nor worse than what is there jmnted will 
be very impressiv(» to our easily-pleased jmjiulation." 
One m (1st indeed accept the conversational newspaper style 
as rendered almost inevitable by the jiresent conditions 
of journalism. It can show, and it often dnea show, high 
literary merit, and where its literary quality is duly 
preserved it m<iy tend to jtrevent the divorce between the 
language of literature and of conversation which has Ix'en 
the danjrer of times when culture was not widi'lv diffused. 



February 5, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



131 



PerhapH our method w better than that of the (ireek*. 
The art of jjopulnr )HTKUa«ion can b<' tunie*! to letis 

•dangf-roiiH uses wIkmi its iiHMliiuii is the i«rint<'<l |>iif,'e. An 
Amcriimi Ktatcsiiinn said, "Tlic I'lirse of this country in 
•elo(iuent nu-n." We ho|>e the time may never come when 
thin iiinv Ix' snid of tlic clo'iuent joiuimlist. At any rate, 
we are not cursi-d by cltKiucut public nicii. We are only 
concerned that they tihouUl not allow them«elvcH to be 
«wamp<'d by jourimlisiii, tlint Miey should have a fair and 
full hearin-,' tlirou^jh the daily I'rcss, and that they should 
preserve the high literary standard set by the masters in 
both the earlier and the later schools of onitorv. 



IRcvicws. 



The Story of Gladstone's Life. Hv Justin McCarthy. 
«ix5.Uii., :flK) |i|i. LoikIiih, IMW. Black. 7/6 

Mr. McCaitliy's puri)ose in writing this biography is 
to ])rpsent " the t'tory of a great life moving through and 
guiding jwlitics, not merely a history of the jwlitics 
through which the great life moved." He has not had 
Tecoursi> to corres])ondpnce, or other documentary matter, 
inaccessible to ordinary students, and, for the most part, 
he confines tlie '• Story " to his own im})ressions and to 
his j)ersonal knowledge of his hero. His prolonged 
Parliamentary ex])erience, his frequent opportunities of 
observing Mr. (Jladstone's character and principles Indiind 
the scenes of the arena of Irish iK>litics, his invariable 
fair-mindedness as a disputant, and his brilliant literary 
gifts render him specially competent to ])roduce a sketch 
of the veteran statesman at once accumte in matters of 
fact and ]K)pular in style. Although it woidd be cpiite 
impossible for him, with his intense admiration of the 
mnan and his work, to write a Irook on Mr. (iladstone free 
froiri ])olitiical partisnnslii|), yet he strenuously endeavours 
in this biography to avoid jiersonal bias on vexed 
questions, and with a large measure of success. He 
brings out into bold relief the jMvrt played by Mr. 
Gladstone in the events of sixty years, tracing the 
influences that guided him. and skilfully summarizing 
the history of the events themselves. He explains the 
apparent inconsistencies an<l accounts for the errors in 
the great statesman's career, and never tires of ejnphasi/.- 
ing the leading ]>rinciples which have controlled Mr. (ilad- 
stone from first to last. Perhaps the most striking jMiges of 
the volume are those contjiining comparisons and contnists 
between Mr. (fladstone and bis ))olitical friends and f<M»s — - 
Peel, J^ird Aberdeen. I'almerston, Hulwer lA"tton, Hright, 
Ix>we, Mr. Cliamlierl lin, and especially Disraeli, for whom 
Mr. ^IcCarthy has scarcely a good word to sjiy. Personal 
reminiscences, anecdotes, and humorous conunent abound, 
and nearly fifty jmrtraits and other illustrations are 
iucludeil in the volume. In spite of sevenil swee]>iiig 
statements, to which exception will be taken by Conserv- 
atives, and possibly by some liiberals, the lx)ok has d.-e]) 
interest for readers of all shades of political opinion, and 
is distinctly the m )st attractive monograph yet written on 
■"the greatest English statesman who hiis appeared during 
the reij,m of t^ueeu Victoria." 

"The ]irettiest little boy that ever went to Eton" 
exhitiited talents and traits of character which came out 
more clearly at Oxford, and which s(M)n drew public atteii- 
tion after the young man's first entrance into Parliament 
at the age of twenty-two. Had his early prtxlilections for 
the Church been fulfilled, he would probably have become, 



inMr. McCai! .Igroent, one of the prmtc 

men England ban ever n<»en ; or if hi* •• 

Bar, which la»le<i from 1«33 to IH-IO I 

into efl'ect, "one can eauily imagine what a - 
would have made." Hut Sir Holx-rt IVel, ijuick ■> 

luuhling Uhiit, t<x)k the young man by ttie t 

him into otbee to text his aiiilitiex, an! 
tendency of liiH genius was towardu i m 

Vice-President of the Hoard of Trwle. 'I'lien il wait that, by 
turning the dry Iwnes of finance into living ihingi', he Ije^an 
to Ix' H|ioken of as a " jH)ny Peel," until, in courw of yttin, 
the pu])il snrjMissrd the master, lint il ' -t 

that the clever financier iiad other i\Mn. >• 

requir*^! for throwing a glamour of romance ovt-r lri><j|»« <if 
figures, and making tariffs and duties simulate the nub- 
jects of volumes of fiction. As a fa«'inafing orator, with 
clearly define<l ])rinciple8, he gradually won a jiosition in 
the llouse and in the eyes of the country. His H|ie4-ch on 
Mr. KiM'buck's resolution of confidence in the fon-i^^n 
]H>licv of Ivord Palmerston — soon after the Don Pacifico 
affaii- — ma<le, in .Mr. .McCarthy's opinion, the fir»t full 
revelation of his diameter as a statesman. 

It 8howt>(l that, abnve all thiiipa. h« was th« apoatie of prin- 
ciple in |H>litical a* well as in i • • •• ''to 
liiiii that a policy iniKht tw <1a/./.l  '\ 
to spread ahroud the inllucneci  : «e 
(oroign natiiiiiH envinus, &n>l 1/ If- 

(jloriticatioii. What Mr. Glads: — a ~ ^ - -■■■ , -icy 

should bo just, that it should l)c a policy of morality and oj 
Christianity. 

The sjieech was " not merely a great efl'ort of reason 
and of ehxpience. It marked an era; it reveale*! a man; 
it foreshadowed a life's jKilicy." And this jiolicy — of 
justice and religion — Mr. McCarthy contends formeil the 
moving and guiding impulse of Mr. ti ladston«''« Tarlia- 
mentary labours. 

Mr. McCarthy rebuts the charge made a;;iiiii>i Mr. 
(Gladstone by ]>olitical opjKinents that his clian^es of 
opinion were sudden, and were, in the  sense, 

op|)ortune. As far back as 184.5 Mr. d . in a 

letter to the late Hishop WiU)erforce, ind)cate<i that 
he had serious doubts a.s to the value and the claima 
of the Irish State Church, and a little later he gave 
further significant hints which jwinteil to a change 
of crmviction with regard to the relationship between 
Church and State. .\s to the question of H<>nie Kule. it 
is <'vi(lent that he was inclined to consider it .so lon^ ajjo 
as 1879, and th.at his conversion was not suddenly bnmght 
alx)Ut at the moment wh»"n the Irish Nationalist memliers 
were numerically strong enough to hold the balance of 
jx>wer l>etween the Lilvrals and Con.servatives. The transi- 
tion of Mr. (iladstone from lieing the " hoj»e of the stem 
and unbending Tories" to liecoming the ho|>e ot the 
Kiuiical jiarty began with his retirement from Newark in 
1840 owing to his free-trade leanings clashing with the 
stanch Toryism of the Duke of Newcastle, who  — * illy 
controlled the lH>rough. It wius ndvance<l <  'ly 

when Mr. (iladstone denounce*! the House of I.<iiii.> in 
18fiO for resi>ting the re|M'al of the ]KH>er duty, and it was 
comi)lefed when, in 18G8, he ]iroi»is»tl the resolutions for 
the dise.>.tablishment of the Irish Chun-h and was shortly 
afterwanls returneti to Parliament as LiLieral member for 
(ireenwich. 

Mr. McCarthy gives many interesting |i«jre« to -Mr. 
Gladstone's work as an author, to his • -he 

|lur]>o^e and province of literature, his i: . > 'U'r 

for intelle<tual occupation, his love of the (ireek classics, 
and his jauision for tlu-ology. In alluding to Mr. (tiadstone's 
personal character he lavs jiarticular stress upon his 

9— » 



182 



LITERATURE. 



[February 5, 1898. 



undeviiitin^ nnd unoxtoutatious piety, and his strict 
consoirutiousness. Of his maf^naniinity and generosity to 
o|)|Miiifiit.s Mr. Mol'artliy cil«*K some tcllinj; ilhistnitions, 
and .■>tat«*!' timt lie has " never heard n hint of any serious 
de.fet't in his nature and his i-liaracter. or of any unworthy 
motive inHuenoinjj his jmhlic- or private care«'r." Mr. 
McCarthy thus conchules a jjrnphio and feeling account 
of ids last interview with Mr. (tlndstone, in 1894, at 
Downing Stre«>t : — 

In •rord.') which, tliouch ivklly c<>nversatiiin«t. wen* na im- 
praasivo t<> me a.-« human e|i><|UfiiCf cuiihl mnko thvm. lie IhkIu me 
tcU my ciillea^UKS that his lieiirt wus vvvr wiUi the Huccvsti of our 
ONIM and that he prayetl for that eiicooss nnd gavv it liis blcs«- 
ihg. I have not oft«-n be«n ao much morei) us by thoso wonls. 
I took leav« «f Mr. (iladstone us if I had Iwen leaving some 
b^-inL' who ln.loiu'i'jl to a higher order of the worM than tlie 
lonoe of every day. I jiasy'd out into St. 
iiig as tliough even the sunshine and the grass 
aitd the tnwa and tlie lake were commonplace things after such 
m farewell. 

Cyrano de Bergerac. liy Edmond Rostand. Commie 
H^ruique eu ('iii>| AcUfS eu Vers. 2;^'> ]>p. I'aris. 1SS)S. 

Fasquelle. Str. 50o. 
M. Rostand is quite a young man ; twelve years 
■go he was vtill in the claeee tU rhetorique at the 
College Stanislas. To have risen in so short a iK'riod to 
the position of one of the foremost men of letters of his 
time is a great achievement, though it is no surprise for 
those who knew .M. Hostand at Stanisla.s and have 
noted his rapid strides in literary celebrity since. His 
old school comi>anions remember him, not as a 
brilliant scholar, but a.s an amusing, [Mpular, rather 
refractory j)upil. the writer of witty verses and droll 
stories which {tassed in manuscript from hand to hand 
among the boys. After his hrusfjue departure from the 
school there were some disorderly scenes in which his 
comjwnions marked their disapproval of a too austere 
authority by tearing uji hisrft/«//<^ or skull caji and defiimtly 
wearing the bits as decorations in their button-holes. 

It is about this young man's new work that so 
impartial a critic as M. Kaguet describes his sen.sations as 
an " enivrement poetique,' while the unemotional and 
judicious M. .Sarcey, lost in adminition, exclaims: — 

Quel lionhmir ! quel iMinhcur I Nous allons done dtre en6n 
dtiliarra.'tses ct dua brouillards scandinavus ct dua etudes psycho- 
iogiqueH trop miuutibURos, et dea brutalit«?8 vouluoa d'l urame 
tvali»t«. Voilii le joyeux itoleil de la rieillo Canlu qui, wprJ-B 
une lon;;uo nuit, remonte ii I'horizon. C'ela fait pluibir ; cela 
rafraichit le sang. 

Some Paris critics go even the length of calling it the 
of the century." This is very high praise and 
• ienti}' extravagant to provoke a counter- 
feeling of distrust, esj>ecially as these judgments were 
given after hearing the play — with the greatest actor 
of the age to infuse into it the life of his transcendent 
histrioni' -and before its publication in IxKik fonn. 

It was, ; . with a mingled feeling of expectation 

and doubt that we o|)en<Hl (Ji/rnuo (U Heri/erdc. The 
first act i* no doubt full of life u|ion the stage, but it is 
too interjectional and abrupt to afford a vivid picture 
when read, and it is only «is the action develo])s that we 
IMTceive tlie reiil merit of the work. The rea<ler is soon 
hre«'ze of romance and gallantry, and 
i: I'-c has not ceased to thrill and that 

he can still Hnd pleasure in the extravagance and liappy- 
go-lucky joy of lile of Cyrano's time. 

i'yrano wasacontem|¥»rary of ,Moli«^re, an indefatigable 

'• a jioet, and a dramatist. His Phlnit joitf, 

 I one of the liest scenes in Lfs Fiiurlirrifn 

df tSrnjfiii, and his own life at least jwirtly inspired 

Gauti»'r'»» ( ^itltitfi iiifi yvtirtikSf, Ifiw lini\*T\' :if flio sieoe 



of Arras, which is described in the fourth act of the i)lay, 
gained for him the sdiriquH of (Union de la bravoiire. 
M. Hostand seems to have set himself the task of 
l)elying the old impi-ession of the (iascon. Cyrano and 
his fellow (iascons are ready at any moment to carry their 
ga.sconnades into execution, (iascons are only firiii>, 

Paro^nue. los (iaat^ona, . . ila doivi^nt t'tre fous. 

liien do plus dangeruux qu'un Uaacun raisonnablo. 
And when Cyrano shouts, 

ToumlMt d(>«aua ! Ra<'raNas Ions ! 
the reader feels with what an im|>ctuons charge the young 
hercH's are rushing to certain death. The plot turns uj)on 
a circumstance belonging rather to vaudeville than to the 
heroic drama. Cyrano's ugliness is .so great that a cadet 
warns a new arrival : — 

. . . apprenez quelq\ie ohoso. 

C'est <|u'il est un objet t'hoz nous dont on .le cause 

,Pa« plus quo do cordon ilans I'liotel d un iiondu ! 

This oh/ft is Cyrano's nose. The ugly Cyrano loves his 
beautiful and gifted con>i\n lioxam^, nin- jrrAdexae. She 
loves one of the handsomest men of his time. Christian de 
Neuvillette, acaiUt in his regiment, lioxane meets Cyrano 
and confides to him her love for Christian, and begs him 
to jirotectand befriend the yoimg man in the wars. He 
had expectetl a totally dit^erent issue to his rendezvous* 
Struggling with his disappointment, he consents. She 
speaks of a fray of the jjrevious evening: — 

RoXANE : Cent hommes contre V0U8 } Allons, adieu. Noua 
somroes 

Do grands amis. 
Cyrano: Oui, oui. 

Koxane: <,1u'il m'ocrive ! Centhommes! 

Vous mo dii-cz plus tard. Maintenant, jo no puis, 

Cent hommea 1 Quol courage ! 
Cybako: <>h, j'ai fait mieux depuis. 

The iH'auty of these last words in the mouth of Cajuelin 

brings down the house. 

Our hero is not only a jH)et and a lover. He has also 

that feeling of the true artist who finds gratificaticm even 

in the dexterous weaving of his own adverse destiny. He 

strikes a bargain with Christian : — 

Dis, vctux-tu qu'Ji nous doux nous la sAluisiona? 
Veux-tu sentir iMissrr, cUi nion pourpoint de butflu 
Dans ton pourpoint brode, riimu quo jo t'iusutllu? 

He will write the letters in Christian's name, and supply 
to the tongue-titnl young man the words of ]mssionate 
yearning for Hoxane springing from his own breast : — 

Cola m'amusorait ! 

C'est unn expt!rience ii tenter lui pot'to. 

Veux-tu me uompli5ter «t que jo to complMo ? 

Tu marvhonia, j'lnii dans I'ombro a ton coto : 

Jo aurai ton eiprit. tu aeras ma b(>But<<. 

('bristian dies in the war, and Koxane, broken-hearted, 
takes refuge in a nunnery. Fourteen years later, we see 
Cyrano coming for a weekly visit to Hoxane. She asks 
him to read aloud to her the last letter from Christian. 
lie knows it by heart, and his secret is out. Hut it is too 
late. Mortally injured in an accident, he dies receiving 
her first and last kiss. 

This is a mere outline of the plot, but the piece is 
full of movement and jtoefry. Witness the picture 
Cyrano dmws of him.self : — 

Uilvor, riro, passur, tHre aoiil, «Hre libre. 
Avoir riinl qui regardu bien, la voix qui vilire, 
Biettre, quand il vous plait, aon foutre do travera, 
I'our un oui, jMiiir un tion, so battro oti faire un vers I 
Tnivailler aans anuci do gloiro ou do fortune, 
A tel voyage, a\iqiiel on ]>en8o. dans la lune ! 
N°t$crire jauiais rion qui do aoi no sortit, 
Kt mixliaU-, d'aillouia. ao dire : mon f>otit, 
Sois antiiifnit clea lloura, de» fruits, mi^mo dos fouiilea. 
Si c'est dans ton jardin h toi que tu Ics cnoilles '. 



February o, 1898.] 



LITERATURE. 



i;w 



Un(]U«^tion(il)ly the ]>l«H;e in of a liiRh onlfr. When 
fln aiit.li<»r liiis siiccffdcd in writinjj a |K)w<'rfiil ]K><-tic-al 
^iriimii witlu)ut n-Hortinj; to tlic device of triHiiij; witli evil 
jwiHHions or Hugfjestive HiiiM^uitiPH, there in a clitince thnt 
it will live, for of such stuff iniwteriiiecen are iiiiide. 

The Non-Rellglon of the Future. A Si.(i.ii<,^;ii-,ii stiuly. 
'l'^url^4alc(l fioiii iTic KiitK li of Jean Marie Ouyau. Hvo., 
\i. t'543pp. Ivoniliiii, 1HI)7. Heinemann. 17i- 

Thii vohiiiio iH Olio of a KcricK which includes trunsintions 
irnin Mar Noi->Ihii. If M. (iiiynii Iiuh not much t*> nay t)iat ii 
new, lit lunHt he hus thu hiuidity of thoii^dit and exproniiioii 
wlilc)i IH a speciality <>f his nation; and hia |>uj;08, thoiign tlivro 
jiro far too many of thorn, are onhvenod l)y many wull-tcid 
jint<c<lotcM. 'I'liuru arc Hno |>asRa>;«a, but thuro is froquont 
rititoration. and the book mi(;ht well have boon condenHod into 
half the sizo. M. Ciuyiiii is wull up in the neolof^y of England 
nnd (lermany, as well as of his own country, but his tone is too 
often Hippant and arrogant— o fault (leculiarly unbecoming in 
one writing on topics so momentous and in a book which from 
«nd to end is a pi'otost against dogma. 

M. (tuyau is outspoken. He puts aside oil compromise with 
religion in any guise, the Comtiun substitution of Humanity 
for (lod, Itcnan's sentimental ism, the nebulosities of Hegel, 
all attempts to oviscorato religion of whatever is trans- 
xoendont, the idea that religion is a useful illusion for the many. 
Christianity, " the highest form of religion " must go. 
This conclusion he arrives at in three wnys : from the " (ienesis 
of Religions " (Pt. 1.), the " Dissolution of Religions in exist- 
ing societies " (I*t. II.), the " Non-Religion of the Future " 
(I*t. III.). liecause the origin of religions is, as he maintains, 
from Ketichisni, and In'cause Christianity and Knddhism become 
more philosophical, ho predicts very confidently " the total 
.absence of religion " in time to come. Obviously, from 
an opposite standpoint, those premisses may indicate a very 
•<lifferent conclusion. St. Paul, for instance, s|>cak.s of the pre- 
'C'hristiiin worhl as " groping in the dark to find Go<l," and tho 
Aptitude of a creed to address itself to the progressive inteUi- 
)»onoe of mankind may bo taken as a sign of vitality rather than 
of decay. That other creeds have had their day no more provea 
that Christianity will pass away than parhelia prove the non- 
■existonco of the sun. 

M. Ouyau complains, not unreasonably, of tho mind 
" being focussed on one plot cf ground, so that tho rest of the 
world does not exist " for tlie thinker. Hut he con\mita 
this fault him.solf in his nusconceiition of the religion which 
he inveighs against. To speak of the Got! of Christians 
as " terrible and ferocious," as an " evil " Being ; of 
resignation as " more indolence " ; of faith in Christ 
AB " mere greediness," and as unreasonable because it 
nocepts what it cannot explain on what it h<dds to be 
Adequate reasons : of devotion to tJod a.-s antagonistic to the 
love of man ; of the Promulgator of tho New Comnumdmrnt, 
which transformed the world, as only saying " what others had 
said before Him," and as " never conceiving an idea of the 
Redemption or of the Trinity " ; to say that " R»"velation 
precludes all discovery," and that toleration means the 
•<lecadence of faith ; thot the duty of " private judgment " 
is tantamount to rejecting all external guidance ; that the 
warnings of tho (iospel are vindictive - these are grave 
misrepresentations. That his analysis is wanting in apy reference 
to man's consciousness of his need of forgiveness and of his 
inability to rectify himself argues an inappreciation of the 
gratitude and self-devotion which are the essence of true religion. 
AVhen M. Ouyau says of Pity, that it is " the highest and 
most definitive moral barrier that can exist between two 
heings," he betrays incompetency to appreciate the rela- 
tion of man to his fellows and to Go<l. It has been said 
more truly that " pity melts tho soul to love." 

The idei which runs through the book is old as Aristotle — 
Ihat man is by nature social ; and this is, no doubt, one aspect 



of religion. KalflnhnMa, M. Utijrau . dy. i« tit* rnnt nf 

all tliat is wton;- and yet, in hu 

without (iimI, he ' H that " w«t (hall 

more that Ho wilt Im>, so to spoak, tho wiitk o( our own tiands." 
M. Ouyau i« no nierM materialist; he ■««•• that freetlom 
and ihiterminirm sdmit practically of reconciliation. Hr aeknow- 
lutlgos with Homu imirrU tttat " Kin is hard to rwitncile with 
det«rmiiiism." *' Tant pia," it maybe adde<l, " potir l« 
Detorminismn." M. Ouyau, in one place, rtinredea tiiat 
"one is aometimes obligird (it is Hutler'a argnment] for 
practical purpones to rely rm doubtful premisavs, a* if they were 
curtain" ; ami a''aiii, that ontological qiioations " will 
never receive a sulNoiunt reply." So long as man cannot con- 
ceive eitlier of finity or infinity, they must wait f<ir their soltt- 
tioii. This is a world, as Johnson said, in which " there i« 
much to 1)0 done and little to )ni known." 

Instead of sotting up Humanity, or the Anima Muntli, or 
any other abstraction in (iod's place, M. Ouyau leaves a void, 
except so far as " Monism " and " Bolipsism " can fill it